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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Characterizing The Central Hemodynamic Response To Orthostasis: Influence Of Sex, Fitness And Body Composition, Benjamin Schreck May 2019

Characterizing The Central Hemodynamic Response To Orthostasis: Influence Of Sex, Fitness And Body Composition, Benjamin Schreck

Honors Theses

Inter-individual responses to orthostasis (i.e., ability to maintain consciousness in the upright posture) exist. However, few studies provide insight into the potential mechanisms for this variation. The purpose of this thesis project was to explore individual differences (i.e., sex, fitness, and body composition) on the central hemodynamic response to a modified head-up tilt table test (HUT). Fourteen volunteers with an average age of 22±1 years and an average body mass index (BMI) of 8±1 kg/m2 underwent assessments of pulse wave analysis, heart rate variability, and perfusion determination via near-infrared spectroscopy over the gastrocnemius muscle ...


The Acute Effects Of Artificially-Sweetened Beverages On Cardiovascular Health, Adria Mulligan May 2019

The Acute Effects Of Artificially-Sweetened Beverages On Cardiovascular Health, Adria Mulligan

Honors Theses

Consuming artificially-sweetened beverages instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is becoming increasingly popular among those who want to lose weight, have medical conditions that prohibit intake of sugar, or want to improve overall health. However, little research has been conducted on the repercussions of the intake of these diet drinks, specifically on how they affect the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of artificially-sweetened beverages on cardiovascular health. Eight participants with no pre-existing heart conditions underwent two separate appointments, one where they consumed a 12 oz. water and one where they consumed a 12 oz ...


The Correlation Between Physical Activity And Grade Point Average, Asia Mccoy May 2019

The Correlation Between Physical Activity And Grade Point Average, Asia Mccoy

Honors Theses

The correlation between grade point average (GPA) and physical activity has typically been researched in adolescents, but not a lot of research has focused on traditional college students. Previous research in adolescents has shown mixed outcomes, but there is still evidence that a positive correlation exists between physical activity and GPA. It is also believed that adolescents who are physically active tend to have better academic outcomes than their non-active counterparts as they mature. The primary purpose of our study was to examine the correlation between GPA and physical activity in students attending the College of Education and Human Sciences ...


Potential Relationships Between Lower Extremity Structural Alignment And Toe Angle During Static And Dynamic Activities, Mark Britt May 2019

Potential Relationships Between Lower Extremity Structural Alignment And Toe Angle During Static And Dynamic Activities, Mark Britt

Honors Theses

Background: The influence of lower extremity structural alignment on foot progression angle (FPA) and toe-out angle (TOA) has been measured, however foot structure has not been included in this analysis. No studies to our knowledge have assessed the influence of lower quarter structure on standing toe-out angle or during dynamic tasks such as squatting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential influence of longitudinal arch angle (LAA) and weight-bearing dorsiflexion in addition to passive hip internal rotation (HIR) and thigh foot angle (TFA) on the following activities: standing TOA, FPA (walking TOA), forward arm squat TOA ...


Nutritional Content Of Mississippi Child Care Centers Participating In The Child And Adult Care Food Program: 1995 To 2019, Katelyn Marie Inserra Jan 2019

Nutritional Content Of Mississippi Child Care Centers Participating In The Child And Adult Care Food Program: 1995 To 2019, Katelyn Marie Inserra

Honors Theses

Childhood obesity rates are increasing in the United States and the condition is more prevalent in the Southeast than in other areas of the country. Children who are obese or overweight during childhood have a much higher chance of remaining overweight throughout their lives, and the best way to combat child obesity is through influencing young children’s nutrition patterns. Many children spend a significant amount of time in childcare outside of their home, which may be responsible for providing adequate nutrition for at least two meals per day. This study evaluated the menus of Mississippi childcare centers participating in ...


The Effects Of Acute Exercise Intensity On Episodic Memory And False Memory, Emma Kate Dilley Jan 2019

The Effects Of Acute Exercise Intensity On Episodic Memory And False Memory, Emma Kate Dilley

Honors Theses

Previous experimental work demonstrates that acute exercise may enhance episodic memory performance. However, limited research has examined the extent to which acute exercise influences false memory production, and no studies, to date, have examined whether there is an intensity-specific effect of acute exercise and true and false memories. Thus, the present experiment evaluated the effects of acute exercise on episodic memory and false memory. A three-arm, parallel, between-group randomized controlled trial was employed, with participants (Mage = 20.8 years) randomized into a moderate-intensity exercise group (15-minute bout of treadmill exercise at 50% Heart Rate Reserve; N = 20), a high-intensity exercise ...


Contralateral Repeated Bout Effect Of The Elbow Flexors Not Observed In Young Women, Bailey Brown Jan 2019

Contralateral Repeated Bout Effect Of The Elbow Flexors Not Observed In Young Women, Bailey Brown

Honors Theses

The contralateral repeated bout effect (CL-RBE) is known as a protective effect in which an initial bout of eccentric exercise reduces muscle damage in the contralateral limb after a similar bout of eccentric exercise. To our knowledge, previous studies on CL-RBE only recruited males or a mixture of both sexes. PURPOSE: To investigate the presence of the CL-RBE of the elbow flexors in women. METHODS: Twelve healthy women (20.9 ± 2.5 years) performed two bouts of 45 maximal eccentric contractions (ECC) of the elbow flexors using the opposite arm separated by 14 days. The isokinetic muscle strength (60°/sec ...


Psychological Effects And Treatment Of An Injury On An Athlete: Suggested Treatment Plan For Athletic Trainers And Physical Therapist, Odell Miller Dec 2018

Psychological Effects And Treatment Of An Injury On An Athlete: Suggested Treatment Plan For Athletic Trainers And Physical Therapist, Odell Miller

Honors Theses

Injuries that force athletes to lose participation in their sport and or training have a tremendous impact on their mental health. Mental health issues can be detrimental, but often times go unnoticed. For example in 2010, Kenny McKinley, a wide receiver for the Denver Broncos, was found dead after killing himself with a gun. After suffering a knee injury, he had become progressively depressed. Investigators reported that there are statements saying that McKinley didn’t know what he would do without football. According to NCAA’s Sports Science Institute (2017), the psychological response to injury can trigger mental health issues ...


Mirror Therapy, A Pain Management Therapy, Gabriella Andrews Dec 2018

Mirror Therapy, A Pain Management Therapy, Gabriella Andrews

Honors Theses

This project was undertaken to explore the use of mirror therapy (MT) as a palliative for stroke patients and amputees experiencing phantom limb pain. MT is a relatively new treatment and while it has limited research, it is starting to be used more within the rehabilitation setting. Research suggests MT has beneficial effects occur with phantom limb pain as well as post-stroke patients. This study will explain the history, uses, and research behind MT not only as a form of therapy but also a non-medicinal pain reliever.

Included are interviews from physical therapists (PT) and occupational therapists (OT) along with ...


Effect Of American Football Helmet Chin Strap Placement On Measures Of Blunt Impact, Terrie Lane Jackson May 2018

Effect Of American Football Helmet Chin Strap Placement On Measures Of Blunt Impact, Terrie Lane Jackson

Honors Theses

Approximately 1.8 to 3.6 million concussions occur annually across all sports.3 Although concussion is prevalent and is a growing concern, the mechanism behind this brain injury is still vaguely understood. The purpose of this research was to determine if chinstrap attachment location effects standard measures of helmet performance associated with concussion. To test this, three Schutt F7 American Football Helmets were impacted at the front, side, and rear locations under two conditions (high and low chinstrap attachment). Each helmet was fitted to an anthropometric test device outfitted with a 3-2-2-2 accelerometer and impacted by a steel impactor ...


Head Impact Biomechanics Of Collegiate Football Players, Samantha Eshleman May 2018

Head Impact Biomechanics Of Collegiate Football Players, Samantha Eshleman

Honors Theses

This research study focused on the descriptive head impact biomechanics of collegiate American football players. The purpose of this study was to determine if there were statistical differences in the frequency, peak linear acceleration, and peak rotational acceleration between player position and impact location on the helmet during practice sessions. There were 31 players from the University of Southern Mississippi’s Division I football team that participated in the study. Participants were divided into four groups based on position: defensive skill, defensive line, offensive skill, and offensive line. The Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System was incorporated with the Sideline Response ...


An Evaluation Of Physical Activity Methods Of College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Justin Vagnozzi Apr 2018

An Evaluation Of Physical Activity Methods Of College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Justin Vagnozzi

Honors Theses

Physical activity has been proven to improve autistic conditions in areas such as motor skills and social skills (Sowa and Muelenbroek, 2011). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the different ways that physical activity affects autistic individuals. To do this, 16 individuals at the WMU Autism Services Center will be surveyed through Qualtrics. The survey will be based off of the study of Stanish and colleagues (2015). Questions will be taken from this survey and a few additional questions that do not appear in any study will be designed by the student investigator. Results will be analyzed both ...


Comparative Analysis Of Impact Of Ballistic Stretching And Dynamic Stretching On Power Output In Female Collegiate Dancers, Elisabeth Ohrnberger Apr 2018

Comparative Analysis Of Impact Of Ballistic Stretching And Dynamic Stretching On Power Output In Female Collegiate Dancers, Elisabeth Ohrnberger

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine two different stretching techniques, ballistic and dynamic, and observe their effects on power output, measured via vertical jump height and vertical ground reaction force (vGRF). In the past, there has been insufficient and conflicting research regarding the type of stretching on power output. Stretching has been used in athletics to increase flexibility, prevent injury, and increase overall athletic performance. However, there is little research specifically demonstrating whether stretching has the ability to prevent injury or improve performance. Dance skills require significantly more flexibility than other sports while still requiring power to complete ...


The Effect Of High Intensity Interval Training Vs Resistance-Based Circuit Training, Matthew Monaco Apr 2018

The Effect Of High Intensity Interval Training Vs Resistance-Based Circuit Training, Matthew Monaco

Honors Theses

High intensity interval training and resistance-based circuit training are both effective forms of exercise that promote muscular growth and can provide improvements in body composition. These different exercise methods were compared side-by-side in this study. The time commitment and intensity of each method were made uniform to yield the most accurate comparisons. Upon completion of the exercise regimen, each participant concluded by performing post-testing requirements that would be compared with their pre-testing results.


The Effects Of Footwear On Stride Length In Adolescent Baseball Pitchers, Alexandra Adderholt Jan 2018

The Effects Of Footwear On Stride Length In Adolescent Baseball Pitchers, Alexandra Adderholt

Honors Theses

The baseball pitch is considered one of the most dynamic athletic motions. Due to its complexity, multiple variables are taken into consideration for risk of injury. Previous studies have investigated variables that influence factors of a baseball pitch such as fatigue and stride length; however, footwear has not been considered. This study's objective was to examine whether or not baseball footwear on different surface inclinations altered stride length. Eleven adolescent pitchers (Age: 13.18 ± 1.72 yrs.; Height: 179.01 ± 15.72 cm.; Mass: 61.00 ± 14.66 kg) participated in this study throwing in four ...


The Effects Of Acute Exercise And Learning Strategy Implementation On Episodic Memory Performance, Faith A. Harris Jan 2018

The Effects Of Acute Exercise And Learning Strategy Implementation On Episodic Memory Performance, Faith A. Harris

Honors Theses

Over the years, a growing body of research has shown that exercise has beneficial impacts on various types of memory function. However, most of these studies have focused on children or older adults, with less research conducted among young adults, despite research demonstrating that memory function may start to decline in early adulthood. This thesis provides background information regarding the effects of exercise on memory function, as well as different learning-based strategies to help facilitate learning and memory retention. Furthermore, the research I completed for this thesis specifically evaluated the experimental effects of acute exercise, a specific learning strategy (3-R ...


An Examination Of The Influence Of Social Physique Anxiety On Effort And Exercise Participation In College Students, Trellony M. Irwin Dec 2017

An Examination Of The Influence Of Social Physique Anxiety On Effort And Exercise Participation In College Students, Trellony M. Irwin

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an individual’s perception of others influenced exercise participation and effort in women and men participants involved in exercise classes in a campus recreation facility. The study consists of a survey that utilizes the Social Physique Anxiety Scale, the Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale, and demographic information. Results revealed that participants’ social physique anxiety accounted for roughly 30% of the variance in self-reported physical activity. However, when it came to participant effort during the group exercise classes, there was only roughly 2% variance between social physique anxiety and RPE. Further ...


The Effect Of Normal Helmet Degradation In Division I Football Players Over The Period Of One Half Of A Competitive Season, Matthew Mcmullan Aug 2017

The Effect Of Normal Helmet Degradation In Division I Football Players Over The Period Of One Half Of A Competitive Season, Matthew Mcmullan

Honors Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the effect of normal helmet use by athletes from a Division I football team over the period of the first half of a competitive season upon the impact performance characteristics as measured by peak g values obtained through the application of the NOCSAE drop impact testing protocol. The goal of this research is to determine if one half of a season is enough time exposure to result in a significant decrease in a helmet’s performance quality. This study tracks changes in performance in overall function, as well as the function of ...


Effect Of Physical Activity On Quality Of Life For College Students: A Comparative Gender Study, Sarah J. Boozer May 2017

Effect Of Physical Activity On Quality Of Life For College Students: A Comparative Gender Study, Sarah J. Boozer

Honors Theses

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity levels in college students and health related quality of life scores. Additional analysis was used to determine whether more of a relationship exists between female or male students’ in terms of activity versus quality of life.

Methods

Students for this study were gathered through their involvement in kinesiology based organizations on campus. Two surveys were utilized, the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Health Related Quality of Life survey. Students were also asked to record their gender, which allowed for the second analysis. After scoring the ...


The Effects Of Including Physical Activity In Classrooms With Children With Language Disorders, Shelby E. Auer May 2017

The Effects Of Including Physical Activity In Classrooms With Children With Language Disorders, Shelby E. Auer

Honors Theses

As obesity becomes a rising concern in the United States and the importance of high test scores continues to add stress to students, physical activity opportunities are beginning to become less frequent in schools. The Center for Disease Control reports a total of 12.7 million children were classified as obese from 2011 to 2012 (CDC, 2015). While many researchers have also acknowledged this trend, the majority of studies focus on the correlation of physical activity in the classroom with increases in fitness and cognitive functioning levels among average population students, much like the research done by Webster, Russ, Vazou ...


Systematic Review Of Patellar Luxation In Dogs, Alexandria D. Holt May 2017

Systematic Review Of Patellar Luxation In Dogs, Alexandria D. Holt

Honors Theses

Objective: To systematically review the literature reporting on the development of patella luxation (PL) and to identify areas in need of research. Study Design: Systematic Literature Review Animals: Dogs with PL. Methods: A computer-based search was conducted through July 2016 using the following databases: PubMed, Agricola, and Web of Science. Studies were graded using the Oxford Centre of Evidence chart and categorized into one or more of the following categories: etiology and/or pathophysiology. Studies were excluded if they were not peer- reviewed, were not in the English or French language, dealt with a species other than dogs, were focused ...


Influence Of Compression Socks On Unilateral Balance In Females, Alex E. Carlson May 2017

Influence Of Compression Socks On Unilateral Balance In Females, Alex E. Carlson

Honors Theses

The application of compression garments for various purposes has become popular in recent years. Research regarding the effectiveness of these garments has shown an increase in variables such as increased blood flow, decreased post-exercise soreness, and increased joint position awareness. However, little research is available concerning their possible use to increase joint stability. This research examined the efficacy of graduated compression stockings (GCS) to increase proprioceptive feedback from the ankle joint. It was hypothesized that continuous stimulation of sensory receptors in the ankle region by use of GCS would improve an individual’s static unilateral balance. Seventeen females (age: 20 ...


Comparative Effectiveness Of An Exercise And Sedentary Break Intervention On Mood Profile And Dietary Behavior In Young Adults: Pilot Study, Hannah Dau Jan 2017

Comparative Effectiveness Of An Exercise And Sedentary Break Intervention On Mood Profile And Dietary Behavior In Young Adults: Pilot Study, Hannah Dau

Honors Theses

Exercise and sedentary behavior are both important subsets of PA (Physical Activity) to study, with emerging research demonstrating that sedentary behavior may predict mental health outcomes independent of PA. Additionally, a correlation has been observed between diet and PA, but few studies on this topic have employed an intervention design. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in PA and sedentary behavior influence mood profile and dietary behavior. The PA intervention consisted of progressively increasing their vigorous-intensity PA (jogging) over a 4-week period among an inactive population. The sedentary group was asked not to exercise, but ...


Sensitivity Of The Vasoactive Range In Determining Aerobic Fitness, Preston L. Bell May 2016

Sensitivity Of The Vasoactive Range In Determining Aerobic Fitness, Preston L. Bell

Honors Theses

Previous work has demonstrated a direct relationship between aerobic fitness and indices of vasodilatory function (i.e., Flow-mediated Dilation; FMD). Importantly, recent evidence suggests that vasoconstrictor function to reductions in blood flow (i.e., Low-Flow Mediated Constriction; L-FMC), as well as during sympatho-excitation (i.e., Cold Pressor Test), may compliment the FMD measure, thus, providing an overall range of vascular responsiveness. The purpose of this thesis project was to test the hypothesis that vasoactive range indices (peak vasodilation + nadir vasoconstriction) are sensitive to aerobic fitness levels in healthy young men. Fourteen males (age: 22±4 yrs) were recruited, and divided ...


A Comparison Of Warm-Up Modalities On Upper Body Force Production Measures, Mary G. Langford Jan 2016

A Comparison Of Warm-Up Modalities On Upper Body Force Production Measures, Mary G. Langford

Honors Theses

Warm-ups are often initiated before an athletic event in order to prepare the athlete's body for competition by increasing blood flow to the working muscles. When a warm-up also activates nerve-muscle function, producing a level of high-intensity power even after the muscle contraction occurs, it is known as post-activation potentiation (PAP). Most PAP warm-ups include high-load, low-velocity conditioning contractions whereas a low-load, high-velocity conditioning contraction may be a more user-friendly warm-up. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PAP after low-load, high-velocity conditioning contractions on subsequent upper body power exercises. Ten recreationally trained males ...


A Comparison Of Cleated Footwear Conditions And The Effects On Ground Reaction Forces During The Phases Of A Side-Cut Task, Zachary Bridges Jan 2016

A Comparison Of Cleated Footwear Conditions And The Effects On Ground Reaction Forces During The Phases Of A Side-Cut Task, Zachary Bridges

Honors Theses

Within sports and athletics, one area of interest is finding methods to increase the performance of athletes while simultaneously minimizing their risk for injury. In two of today's most popular sports (soccer and American football), cleated footwear is common equipment used to increase performance during sport-specific tasks. The interaction between cleated footwear and sport-specific tasks is one area of interest researchers are beginning to investigate and analyze the concerns of performance and safety. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of American football cleats, soccer cleats, and running shoes have on ground reaction forces (GRF ...


The Effects Of Eating Disorders And Menstrual Irregularity On Bone Mineral Density In Sorority Women: A Cross-Sectional Study, Rachel Robertson Jan 2016

The Effects Of Eating Disorders And Menstrual Irregularity On Bone Mineral Density In Sorority Women: A Cross-Sectional Study, Rachel Robertson

Honors Theses

Past research has reported bone loss among women diagnosed with eating disorders as a direct result of estrogen imbalance (Cobb et al., 2003; Gibson et al., 1999; Kim et al., 2012; Zuckerman-Levin et al., 2014). Menstrual irregularity may result from estrogen imbalance, which is characteristic of an eating disorder and ultimately causes bone loss. Past studies have focused on this three-way relationship between eating disorders, menstrual irregularity, and bone mineral density (BMD) specifically in female athletes (Cobb et al., 2003; Gibson, Mitchell, Reeve, & Harries, 1999) but rarely in recreationally trained or sedentary females. Previous research has also focused on the elderly female population due to the estrogen imbalance and high osteoporotic risk characteristic of menopause (Tella & Gallagher, 2014). Due to the reportedly high risk of eating disorders among college-age women who are sorority members, this population is at high risk for developing bone health issues. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between eating disorders, menstrual irregularity, and BMD in sorority women. Fifty women (ages 18-22 years, weight 138 ± 22.15 lbs., and BMI 23.5 ± 3.32) who are currently members of sororities, volunteered to participate in this study that included two surveys and a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. The first survey investigated body image, eating habits, menstrual status, and dairy intake. The second survey investigated regular physical activity. The DXA scan measured BMD at lumbar spine, femur, and whole body. No participants were classified as having an eating iv disorder according to EDDS survey answer scoring; however, many answers suggest body image distortion and poor eating habits such as skipping meals. Statistical analysis ...


A Comparison Of American Football Cleats And Soccer Cleats On Measures Of Force In A Countermovement Vertical Jump, Jessica Hiskey Jan 2016

A Comparison Of American Football Cleats And Soccer Cleats On Measures Of Force In A Countermovement Vertical Jump, Jessica Hiskey

Honors Theses

The configuration of cleats has been reported to affect force production in several performance-related tasks such as running and cutting, and it may have the ability to alter vertical jump performance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of cleat configuration in American football and soccer cleats on force production resulting from a maximal countermovement vertical jump. Ten recreationally trained male participants (age: 21.6 ± 1.35 years; height: 180.0 ± 4.51 cm; mass: 83.89 ± 6.74 kg) volunteered to participate in one three-hour testing session. A counterbalanced, controlled cross-over design was ...


Influence Of Benagene Supplementation In Conjunction With High Intensity Cycling Exercise, Wilson P. Simmons Dec 2015

Influence Of Benagene Supplementation In Conjunction With High Intensity Cycling Exercise, Wilson P. Simmons

Honors Theses

High intensity aerobic performance is determined by the body’s maximal ability to match lactate production and clearance rates, defined as the lactate threshold (LaTh). Intensities performed above the LaTh result in accumulation of lactate causing fatigue. In a double-blind experiment, using trained cyclists and triathletes, we investigated skeletal muscle adaptations that occurred following 28-days of Benagene supplementation (oxaloacetate). The testing protocol consisted of an initial cycle test (T1) to measure VO2max, LaTh, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), power output (PO) and heart rate (HR). Testing began after a 15-min warm-up at 75W, beginning at 100W, increasing 30W each ...


Outline Plan For A Student-Involved Fitness Assessment Program At Western Michigan University, Joanna Gangwisch Apr 2015

Outline Plan For A Student-Involved Fitness Assessment Program At Western Michigan University, Joanna Gangwisch

Honors Theses

This research was aimed at developing a fitness assessment program that would provide undergraduate exercise science students at Western Michigan University (WMU) with hands on experience that would successfully prepare them for their internships and future careers as well as benefiting the campus community at large. Data for this research was obtained by examining the student recreation center websites and sending out an email/phone questionnaire to WMU’s 10 peer institutions. Direct comparisons were made and evaluated. On the basis of the results of this research, it can be concluded that WMU’s exercise science department and student recreation ...