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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Human Body Motions Optimization For Able-Bodied Individuals And Prosthesis Users During Activities Of Daily Living Using A Personalized Robot-Human Model, Dimitrios Menychtas Nov 2018

Human Body Motions Optimization For Able-Bodied Individuals And Prosthesis Users During Activities Of Daily Living Using A Personalized Robot-Human Model, Dimitrios Menychtas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Current clinical practice regarding upper body prosthesis prescription and training is lacking a standarized, quantitative method to evaluate the impact of the prosthetic device. The amputee care team typically uses prior experiences to provide prescription and training customized for each individual. As a result, it is quite challenging to determine the right type and fit of a prosthesis and provide appropriate training to properly utilize it early in the process. It is also very difficult to anticipate expected and undesired compensatory motions due to reduced degrees of freedom of a prosthesis user. In an effort to address this, a tool ...


Design And Testing Of A Passive Prosthetic Ankle Foot Optimized To Mimic An Able-Bodied Gait, Millicent Schlafly Jun 2018

Design And Testing Of A Passive Prosthetic Ankle Foot Optimized To Mimic An Able-Bodied Gait, Millicent Schlafly

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Currently there are nearly 2 million people living with limb loss in the United States [1]. Many of these individuals are either transtibial (below knee) or transfemoral (above knee) amputees and require an ankle-foot prosthesis for basic mobility. While there are an abundance of options available for individuals who require an ankle-foot prosthesis, these options fail to mimic an intact ankle when it comes to key evaluation criteria such as range of motion, push-off force, and roll over shape. The roll over shape is created by plotting the center of pressure during a step in a shank-based coordinate system. To ...


Comparison Of Thermal Glove Wrist-Hand Orthoses In Their Effectiveness On Rheumatoid Arthritis, Brittany E. Mott Mar 2018

Comparison Of Thermal Glove Wrist-Hand Orthoses In Their Effectiveness On Rheumatoid Arthritis, Brittany E. Mott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease affecting nearly 1% of the world’s population with symptoms such as inflammation, pain, and reduced strength [1]. Physicians and scientists work to develop pharmaceuticals and medical devices aimed at decreasing the symptoms associated with RA to better the lives of those affected. One of the most recent developments is the addition of thermal therapy gloves to the array of upper limb orthoses available to patients with RA. It was hypothesized that this study will show that orthoses in the form of thermal therapy gloves are beneficial to the patients by reducing symptoms ...


Developing Motion Platform Dynamics For Studying Biomechanical Responses During Exercise For Human Spaceflight Applications, Kaitlin Lostroscio Mar 2018

Developing Motion Platform Dynamics For Studying Biomechanical Responses During Exercise For Human Spaceflight Applications, Kaitlin Lostroscio

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In future human spaceflight missions, with prolonged exposure to microgravity, resistive and aerobic exercises will be countermeasures for bone loss, muscle loss, and decreased aerobic capacity. Two of the exercises of interest are squats and rowing. The cyclic forces produced during these exercises are at relatively low frequencies which are likely to excite structural resonances of space vehicles. Vibration Isolation Systems (VIS) are being designed to be paired with future exploration exercise devices in order to prevent these cyclic exercise forces from impacting the space vehicle. The VIS may be configured such that a platform supports the human and exercise ...


Femur/Femoral Neck Load Estimation During Stair Navigation, Chen Deng Jan 2018

Femur/Femoral Neck Load Estimation During Stair Navigation, Chen Deng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Project 1:

Femoral neck is of particular concern in the hip fractures and aging. A better understanding of the hip loading environment is helpful for the hip fracture prevention, rehabilitation, and the design of osteogenic exercises. This study was to compare the femoral neck stresses between young and older adults during stair ascent and descent, and to identify the contribution of muscle and reaction forces to the stress. Motion analysis and inverse dynamics method, musculoskeletal and elliptical femoral neck cross-section models were used to estimate stress on the femoral neck. During stair ascent, a significantly increased tension at the superior ...


The Effects Of Running Speed, Form, And Fatigue On Intervertebral Disc Pressures At L5/S1: A Developmental Musculoskeletal And Finite Element Modeling Approach, Jeffrey Ray Mcclellan Jan 2018

The Effects Of Running Speed, Form, And Fatigue On Intervertebral Disc Pressures At L5/S1: A Developmental Musculoskeletal And Finite Element Modeling Approach, Jeffrey Ray Mcclellan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The occurrence of low back pain in society is a widespread and costly problem, while running is an accessible and common form of physical exercise. The intervertebral disc is a commonly studied location of interest within the low back, however limited research has been performed attempting to assess the risks or benefits associated with running on the health of the intervertebral disc, with zero research which estimates in-vivo loading on the intervertebral disc during running. Meanwhile, the available literature is not in agreement on whether running poses more of a risk or a benefit to intervertebral disc health, with some ...


Physical Activity And Sarcopenia In Older Adults, Nathan Frederick Meier Jan 2018

Physical Activity And Sarcopenia In Older Adults, Nathan Frederick Meier

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The aging process is typically associated with loss of muscle mass, strength, and function. At a certain threshold, low levels of muscle mass, strength, and function are considered a disease called sarcopenia, which is associated with increased risk of falls, loss of independence, mobility issues, and mortality. Evidence suggests some of the risk factors for sarcopenia, such as sedentary lifestyle, low physical activity, bedrest, chronic disease, certain drug treatments, malnutrition, anabolic resistance, intermuscular adipose tissue infiltration, and decreased neuromuscular activation, are modifiable. Also, both the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia call for prescription of physical activity. Therefore, the overall interest ...


Impact Of Acute Heat Treatment On Autophagy And Insulin Signaling In C2c12 Myotubes, Corey Michael Summers Jan 2018

Impact Of Acute Heat Treatment On Autophagy And Insulin Signaling In C2c12 Myotubes, Corey Michael Summers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes is reduced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. It is known that exercise and caloric restriction can improve skeletal muscle insulin resistance, but the mechanism by which this occurs is not completely elucidated. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is thought to be a major contributor to the metabolic benefits observed after exercise training and caloric restriction. Activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle can have a wide range of effects, one of which is the initiation of macroautophagy (herein referred to as autophagy). Autophagy is the bulk degradation system of the cell ...


The Effect Of Dehydration And Rehydration With A High Potassium Beverage On Muscular Strength In Collegiate Males, Mitchell Zaplatosch Jan 2018

The Effect Of Dehydration And Rehydration With A High Potassium Beverage On Muscular Strength In Collegiate Males, Mitchell Zaplatosch

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Dehydration has been shown to impact both health and aerobic exercise performance, with less research examining the impact of dehydration on muscular strength. Rapid weight loss via dehydration is a common practice in several weight class sports dealing with muscular strength and power. Exercisers may also unintentionally begin a resistance training session in a dehydrated state as a result of hot environmental conditions or failure to restore fluid balance following previous activity, possibly inhibiting performance. Most rehydration strategies have focused on the inclusion of sodium in a beverage to restore plasma volume, while less have considered the role of ...


Utility Of The Handgrip And Vertical Jump Assessments As Fitness Indicators In Physical Education, Jessica Ann Velthoff Jan 2018

Utility Of The Handgrip And Vertical Jump Assessments As Fitness Indicators In Physical Education, Jessica Ann Velthoff

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As research continues to provide evidence supporting musculoskeletal fitness as a strong indicator of an individual’s overall health, proposals for further evidence substantiating select indicator’s powerful link with youth health outcomes have been made. The vertical jump, a measure of lower body power, and handgrip strength, a measure of upper body musculoskeletal strength, have both been acknowledged as being strong measures of one’s health, and recommended for potential use in school fitness testing. FitnessGram®, the default fitness testing battery in United States (US) schools, is currently working to include these two measures to provide a more ...


Biomechanical Analysis Of Bovine Lamina, Ray Jeffrey Lee Jan 2018

Biomechanical Analysis Of Bovine Lamina, Ray Jeffrey Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine lameness is an economic drain on producers and is a welfare issue. There are many causes of lameness; however, most causes involve the hoof. One of the supporting structures of the hoof is the interface between the hard epidermal layer and the sensitive dermal layer and is referred to as the lamina. Lamina consist of leaflets of tissue that interdigitate with one another to allow for constant renewal and remodeling of these hoof attachments. Systemic or traumatic insults can compromise the integrity of the lamina and may result in reduced ambulatory capabilities of the animal, pain, and a myriad ...


Online Communities Of Practice As A Strategy For Staff Involvement In Switch, Rebecca Harken Jan 2018

Online Communities Of Practice As A Strategy For Staff Involvement In Switch, Rebecca Harken

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAP) target physical activity behaviors through the recommended “whole-of-school” approach which recommends staff from all areas of school should be involved in health promotion. The component of Staff Involvement is highly effective at improving student health behaviors; however, descriptive research in this area is limited. One program that focuses on supporting school staff to lead school wellness programing is SWITCH. It is recommended that school staff should be given opportunities for professional development that are ongoing and collaborative, and online communities of practice (CoP) have been shown to support staff in this way. Therefore, the ...


Estimation Of Physical Activity Using Accelerometry In Adult Populations: Using The Sensewear Armband And The Act24 As Comparison Tools For The Estimation Of Energy Expenditure And Physical Activity Intensity By The Sojourn Method, Matthew Stewart Jan 2018

Estimation Of Physical Activity Using Accelerometry In Adult Populations: Using The Sensewear Armband And The Act24 As Comparison Tools For The Estimation Of Energy Expenditure And Physical Activity Intensity By The Sojourn Method, Matthew Stewart

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Accurate assessments of physical activity are essential for advancing many lines of physical activity research. Numerous physical activity assessment techniques have been developed, but continual refinement and evaluation of these techniques is important to further improve accuracy and precision. A machine-learning technique known as the Sojourn method has demonstrated promise for improving the accuracy of accelerometer-based physical activity monitors, such as the widely used Actigraph. However, fewer studies have validated this method under free-living conditions. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of the Sojourn method for estimating energy expenditure and time spent at various intensities ...


The Effects Of Predisposition And Direction On Ankle Sprain Risk Predictive Factors During Jump Landing, Caleb R. Radley Jan 2018

The Effects Of Predisposition And Direction On Ankle Sprain Risk Predictive Factors During Jump Landing, Caleb R. Radley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ankle sprains are regarded as one of the most common lower extremity injury in sports. Previous research studying ankle sprain risk factors has examined the role of anticipation on dynamic movements such as cutting and jump landing. However, no previous research has examined the role of predisposition on ankle sprain risk during jump landing. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of jump direction and predisposition on ankle sprain risk predictive factors during jump landing. Seventeen participants participated in a jump-land-jump task in which the direction of the second jump was indicated before the ...