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Rearfoot, Mid/Forefoot, And Barefoot Running: Biomechanical Differences Related To Injury, Elizabeth Rose Boyer Jan 2015

Rearfoot, Mid/Forefoot, And Barefoot Running: Biomechanical Differences Related To Injury, Elizabeth Rose Boyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Running is an accessible, inexpensive form of exercise. However, running injuries are common and burdensome. Many runners are curious about switching to barefoot (BF) running or minimalist shoes to avoid injuries, which is commonly associated with rearfoot strikers (runners who land on the posterior third of their foot) landing on the middle or front third (mid- or forefoot strike; FFS). My purposes were to determine if undocumented aspects of FFS and BF running are beneficial or harmful compared to rearfoot striking (RFS), and if any potential benefits of FFS or BF running can be achieved by shortening one’s stride ...


Associations Between The Family Nutrition And Physical Activity Screening Tool And The Youth Activity Profile, Kimberly Ann Klimesh Jan 2015

Associations Between The Family Nutrition And Physical Activity Screening Tool And The Youth Activity Profile, Kimberly Ann Klimesh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Childhood obesity affects one third of children and adolescents and is expected to increase in coming years. Obesity has been linked to both genetic and environmental factors with more recent research focusing on the role parents play in childhood obesity. The Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) Screening tool was developed to provide practical ways to evaluate home obesogenic environments. However, no study to date has examined associations between FNPA scores and child behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between FNPA scores from parents and child reported lifestyle behaviors as assessed by an established self-report ...


Does Health-Related Fitness Influence Health Status?, Hannah Marie Gibbs Jan 2015

Does Health-Related Fitness Influence Health Status?, Hannah Marie Gibbs

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background

The health-related fitness model (HRFM) was created to integrate five components of physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition) known to support positive health. Research has evaluated individual health-related fitness markers relative to various biometric and perception measures; however, the HRFM has not been used to establish an overall fitness score. The purpose of this research was to create and examine an overall fitness score relative to individual health-related fitness markers, self-reported quality of life (QOL), biometric markers, and disease risk factors.

Methods

Health risk appraisals (HRA) were performed at three midwest manufacturing and ...


Age-Associated Adaptations In Lower Limb Motor Patterns During Walking And Cycling, Harsh Harish Buddhadev Jan 2015

Age-Associated Adaptations In Lower Limb Motor Patterns During Walking And Cycling, Harsh Harish Buddhadev

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Muscular strength and power generating ability decline with advancing age. Older adults adapt their lower limb motor patterns to cope with these declines in muscle function. When mechanical demands approach limits of lower limb muscular capacity, motor patterns must be adapted to produce a desired movement. The term “motor pattern” is used to broadly represent the kinematic and kinetic profile of a person accomplishing a given task. Generally, these adaptations involve higher reliance on stronger proximal muscles to compensate for limitations or weakness of distal muscles. Three studies were conducted to examine factors affecting differences between older and young adults ...


The Effects Of Medial And Lateral Wedges On Iliotibial Band Strain During Overground Running, Evan M. Day Jan 2015

The Effects Of Medial And Lateral Wedges On Iliotibial Band Strain During Overground Running, Evan M. Day

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is the leading cause of lateral knee pain in runners. Previous research has theorized that higher ITB strain rate leads to ITBS development. Orthotics are commonly used to correct gait mechanics and may reduce ITB strain and strain rate. The purpose of this research was to investigate how wedge inserts and gender affect kinematics, kinetics, and ITB strain and strain rate during running. Methods: Thirty (15 male, 15 female) participants ran with lateral 7°, lateral 3°, no wedge, medial 3°, and medial 7° wedges. A motion capture system and force platform were used to collect ...


Motivational Interviewing And Social Support To Promote Behavior Change, Kathryn Ann Bus Jan 2015

Motivational Interviewing And Social Support To Promote Behavior Change, Kathryn Ann Bus

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lifestyle changes are generally accepted as the most effective way to lose weight and keep it off. However, the mediating and moderating variables that play a role in behavior change need to be explored to determine how people change and what factors influence successful outcomes. Motivational interviewing and social support have been shown to aid in weight loss and healthy behaviors. Most behavior interventions consider success as weight loss or increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, those interventions are not specifically measuring the behavior associated with that target outcome. This study examines both the behavior and the outcome. The ...


Sedentary Lifestyle And Obesity In Adults, Youngwon Kim Jan 2015

Sedentary Lifestyle And Obesity In Adults, Youngwon Kim

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Excessive time spent on sedentary behavior (SB) can increase the risks of obesity, regardless of engagement in physical activity (PA). Subjective and objective measures are both available to assess SB but little is known about the relative utility of these measures for epidemiological research. The purposes of this dissertation were to 1) evaluate the accuracy of 24-hour Physical Activity Recall (24PAR) relative to SenseWear Armband (SWA) for assessing SB, 2) characterize the context of SB by demographic indicators, and 3) determine the independent/joint associations of SB and PA with obesity by the 24PAR versus SWA.

The first study demonstrated ...


Reimagining Fitness Practice In Schools: An Experimental Study On Self-Perceptions And Motivational Outcomes In Youth, Amanda Beth Mischo Jan 2015

Reimagining Fitness Practice In Schools: An Experimental Study On Self-Perceptions And Motivational Outcomes In Youth, Amanda Beth Mischo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

BACKGROUND: Physical fitness testing in physical education (PE) is mandatory in several US states, based on the promise that testing will "assist students in establishing lifelong habits of regular physical activity." However, in actuality, the influence of fitness practice for testing, as commonly implemented in schools, on motivational outcomes remains largely unknown. Modifying the experience of fitness practice testing by translating psychological theory into practice may represent untapped potential in the effort to promote physical activity in childhood. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of different structures of fitness practice (traditional versus needs supporting ...


Duration Of Improved Insulin Sensitivity After High Intensity Exercise In Young Overweight Men, Kelsey Quinn Jan 2015

Duration Of Improved Insulin Sensitivity After High Intensity Exercise In Young Overweight Men, Kelsey Quinn

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Insulin resistance, an impaired ability of the tissues to respond to insulin, is a prevalent health concern in the U.S., with 8.3% of the population diagnosed with diabetes. Numerous studies have found exercise programs increase insulin sensitivity, but research on the effects of high intensity interval training on insulin sensitivity is limited. Of those studies, few have observed the length of the effect of a single bout of high intensity interval training (HIT) on insulin sensitivity to determine the minimal exercise time and frequency that stimulates improved insulin sensitivity. Purpose: This study investigated the length of the effect ...


Evaluating The Effect Of Switch Pe On Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior In And Out Of Physical Education Classes, Yoon Ho Nam Jan 2015

Evaluating The Effect Of Switch Pe On Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior In And Out Of Physical Education Classes, Yoon Ho Nam

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Physical education (PE) is a key channel to influencing youth physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) but it has proven difficult to improve the quality of PE lessons. SWITCH PE is a concept-based PE curriculum that helps shape healthy behaviors in relation to the energy-balanced lifestyle. The purposes of this study are to evaluate (a) whether a SWITCH PE can provide recommended amounts of PA in PE and (b) whether SWITCH PE can impact children’ s daily PA and SB levels. Data were collected from fourth and fifth grade students at four elementary schools in Iowa (with two schools ...


Intergenerational Physical Activity Programming For Rural-Residing Older Adults, Ashleigh Jeanette Sowle Jan 2015

Intergenerational Physical Activity Programming For Rural-Residing Older Adults, Ashleigh Jeanette Sowle

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Living (well through) Intergenerational Fitness and Exercise (LIFE) Program is a group-based exergaming program designed for community-delivery through Extension. Extension serves every Iowa county and has the potential to reach a larger population of older adults (OA). This study evaluated the LIFE Program's impact on OA physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy as well as to test the efficacy of it as an Extension-delivered program.

The LIFE Program was implemented in 31 rural Iowa counties with 265 OA. The LIFE Program includes an onsite program (8-weeks) and newsletter phase (16-weeks). Questionnaires were completed at weeks 1 (PRE, in person ...


Independent And Combined Effects Of Aerobic And Resistance Training On Blood Pressure (Art-B), Elizabeth C. Schroeder Jan 2015

Independent And Combined Effects Of Aerobic And Resistance Training On Blood Pressure (Art-B), Elizabeth C. Schroeder

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The health benefits of aerobic exercise have been well established, with less data existing on the benefits of resistance exercise. Furthermore, most early studies on physical activity and hypertension investigated either aerobic or resistance training alone, and have primarily been done on healthy individuals. Therefore, data on individuals who are hypertensive, overweight or obese, sedentary, and at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease are scarce. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic training only, resistance training only, and a combination of both on blood pressure and other cardiovascular disease risk factors compared with a ...


How Does Rescuer Fitness Affect The Quality Of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation?, Gabe David Lancaster Jan 2015

How Does Rescuer Fitness Affect The Quality Of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation?, Gabe David Lancaster

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: High quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is crucial for patients experiencing cardiac arrest. CPR quality declines within the first few minutes of a CPR bout. Limited research has examined the extent to which a rescuer's physical fitness predicts high quality CPR performance. It is also unknown how CPR quality is affected during both a realistic duration protocol and when rescuers switch compressors every two minutes, as recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). The purpose of the present study is to determine the extent to which different measures of physical fitness predict high quality CPR performance when rescuers follow ...