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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Skeletal Muscle Contraction Simulation: A Comparison In Modeling, Jonathan M. Ford Nov 2013

Skeletal Muscle Contraction Simulation: A Comparison In Modeling, Jonathan M. Ford

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Computer generated three-dimensional (3-D) models are being used at increasing rates in the fields of entertainment, education, research, and engineering. One of the aspects of interest includes the behavior and function of the musculoskeletal system. One such tool used by engineers is the finite element method (FEM) to simulate the physics behind muscle mechanics. There are several ways to represent 3-D muscle geometry, namely a bulk, a central line of action and a spline model. The purpose of this study is to exmine how these three representations affect the overall outcome of muscle movement. This is examined in a series ...


Measuring Femoral Neck Loads In Older Adults During Stair Ascent And Descent, Chen Deng Jan 2013

Measuring Femoral Neck Loads In Older Adults During Stair Ascent And Descent, Chen Deng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Fractures at the femoral neck play an important role in morbidity and mortality among older adults. Understanding the loading environment is a crucial factor for reducing the incidence of fracture at this site. In this study, the stresses on the femoral neck during stair ascent and descent were estimated. These femoral neck stresses were also compared to the peak loading from internal hip moments. Five male and five female adult subjects performed 5 successful trials of stair ascent and the same number trials of descent with a 3-step staircase. Motion and force data were collected. Inverse dynamics was used ...


Validation And Calibration Of Self-Report Methods: The Youth Activity Profile, Pedro Frederico De Saint-Maurice Maduro Jan 2013

Validation And Calibration Of Self-Report Methods: The Youth Activity Profile, Pedro Frederico De Saint-Maurice Maduro

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The development of more accurate and precise methods of assessing physical activity behavior is an important public health research priority. Objective monitoring devices have advantages but the high cost and burden of data processing make them impractical for large scale applications. Subjective (survey-based) tools are inexpensive and easy to use but these suffer from questionable validity. Objective measures are often used to validate less accurate measures such as subjective instruments but this does not directly improve the accuracy or precision of the self-report instrument. The proposed line of research developed and tested a calibration equation approach that enabled data from ...


Validity Of Consumer-Based Physical Activity Monitors And Calibration Of Smartphone For Prediction Of Physical Activity Energy Expenditure, Jung-Min Lee Jan 2013

Validity Of Consumer-Based Physical Activity Monitors And Calibration Of Smartphone For Prediction Of Physical Activity Energy Expenditure, Jung-Min Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Accelerometry-based activity monitors have become the standard objective method for assessing physical activity (PA) in field-based research [1]. They are small, non-invasive, easy-to use, and provide an objective indicator of physical activity over extended periods of time. The main advantage from a research perspective is they provide an objective indicator of physical activity behavior, thereby avoiding common sources of error in subjective measurement (e.g., self-report). Because of their storage data capacity, it is possible to monitor behavior over extended periods of time and easy to download the information to a computer for processing. Numerous studies have been published on ...


Exercise-Mediated Changes In Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Production Of Ifnα And The Effects Of Moderate Intensity Exercise On Immune Response To Influenza Infection And Influenza Vaccine, Justus Hallam Jan 2013

Exercise-Mediated Changes In Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Production Of Ifnα And The Effects Of Moderate Intensity Exercise On Immune Response To Influenza Infection And Influenza Vaccine, Justus Hallam

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate exercise is associated with improved resistance to infection; it has also been shown that acute exhaustive exercise is associated with increased susceptibility to infection, particularly upper respiratory tract infections. Seasonal influenza virus is a contagious upper respiratory tract infection that can lead to widespread morbidity and mortality each year, despite the availability of a vaccine for influenza. Type I interferons (IFNs) are one of the body's first lines of defense against viral infection. Influenza vaccines containing interferon-alpha (IFNa) have been shown to increase antigen-specific antibody titer. The purpose of the experiments carried out in ...


Early Prevention Of Childhood Obesity: Impact Of Maternal Physical Activity On Pregnancy And Child Outcomes, Kai Ling Kong Jan 2013

Early Prevention Of Childhood Obesity: Impact Of Maternal Physical Activity On Pregnancy And Child Outcomes, Kai Ling Kong

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain cause a perpetuating "vicious cycle" of obesity, where obese women or women who gain excess gestational weight have a higher risk of giving birth to large for gestational age infants, who then, years later, can become obese adults entering into their own pregnancies. Many observational studies have supported the role of physical activity (PA) in helping pregnant women to minimize, if not prevent, excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). Since maternal PA has potential to prevent excessive GWG and decrease the risk for delivering large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants, identifying strategies to help pregnant women increase ...


Integrated Classroom Physical Activity: Examining Perceived Need Satisfaction And Academic Performance In Children, Miriam Ann Blom Skrade Jan 2013

Integrated Classroom Physical Activity: Examining Perceived Need Satisfaction And Academic Performance In Children, Miriam Ann Blom Skrade

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Physical activity is related to better academic performance and prevention of childhood obesity. Classroom-based physical activities, based on recent research studies, seem to target both areas successfully. Move for Thought (M4T) is a recently developed kit that integrates physical activities into academic lessons in the classroom. This thesis is the first to examine the kit's impact on children's motivation and math performance. The study aimed to see (a) if eight weeks of M4T integrated with math, compared to traditional lessons (control), would elicit a gain in math performance and (b) if the basic psychological needs in math (autonomy ...


Understanding The Journey: A Phenomenological Study Of College Students' Lived Experiences During The Weight-Loss Process, Michael W. Davis Jan 2013

Understanding The Journey: A Phenomenological Study Of College Students' Lived Experiences During The Weight-Loss Process, Michael W. Davis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although numerous studies have focused on understanding various aspects of the science of weight loss and weight gain in college students, understanding how the weight-loss process affects college students psychologically and behaviorally may help administrators and student affairs professionals to better work with students on their campuses. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the experiences of college students in the weight-loss process. Three models--Transtheoretical, Stages of Change, and Health Belief--were used as guiding frameworks and foundations to understand where the students are in the weight-loss process. The data from this study yielded four significant themes: (a) separating ...


Blossom Project 2: Longitudinal Assessment Of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Diet Quality, And Weight Gain During Pregnancy, Diana Rose Di Fabio Jan 2013

Blossom Project 2: Longitudinal Assessment Of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Diet Quality, And Weight Gain During Pregnancy, Diana Rose Di Fabio

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The benefits of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy have been well documented, but little is known about the contribution of activity sub-components including sleep, sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity on gestational weight gain (GWG). Additionally, the relationship between diet quality and GWG has yet to be determined. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted during 2nd and 3rd trimester to objectively quantify and identify modifiable aspects of total PA including sleep, sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity, and dietary intake. Participants (n=46) wore a SenseWear Armband and an activPALTM activity monitor for seven consecutive days during which a ...


Loading Of The Lower Extremity And Low Back When Using Wedge Orthotics During Walking And Stair Negotiation, Tami Janssen Jan 2013

Loading Of The Lower Extremity And Low Back When Using Wedge Orthotics During Walking And Stair Negotiation, Tami Janssen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Wedge orthotics are commonly prescribed for patients with hyperpronation and/or low back pain to improve lower limb alignment and to reduce pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinetic effects of medial and lateral wedge orthotics during walking and stair negotiation. Twenty-two healthy young adults participated in the study. Each participant wore no wedge (W0) as a baseline and lateral and medial wedge orthotics at 3 degrees and 7 degrees bilaterally (L3, L7, M3, M7) during walking, stair ascent, and stair descent. Ankle, knee, and hip joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamics during the ...


Electrostatic Actuation Based Modulation Of Polar Molecules And Associated Force Interaction Studies, Xiao Ma Jan 2013

Electrostatic Actuation Based Modulation Of Polar Molecules And Associated Force Interaction Studies, Xiao Ma

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Seamless integration of artificial components with biological systems to form an elegant biotic-abiotic interface or smart surface has promising application potential in biomedical engineering. The specific aim of this study is to implement the actuation and modulation of binding behavior between biomolecules under electrostatic stimuli, and investigate the corresponding force interaction between the complementary pairs. The nanofabrication technology was utilized to establish the patterned binding pair of thrombin and DNA aptamer on gold substrate, and different electrical fields were applied on the system to evaluate electrostatic influence. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface imaging was then used to explicate the ...


Biomechanical Comparison Of Titanium And Cobalt Chromium Pedicle Screw Rods In An Unstable Cadaveric Lumbar Spine, James Doulgeris Jan 2013

Biomechanical Comparison Of Titanium And Cobalt Chromium Pedicle Screw Rods In An Unstable Cadaveric Lumbar Spine, James Doulgeris

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Pedicle screw-rod instrumentation is considered a standard treatment for spinal instability, and titanium is the most common material for this application. Cobalt-chromium has several advantages over titanium and is generating interest in orthopedic practice. The aim of this study was to compare titanium versus cobalt-chromium rods in posterior fusion, with and without transverse connectors, through in vitro biomechanical testing and determine the optimal configuration.

Six cadaveric lumbar spines (L1-S1) were used. Posterior and middle column injuries were simulated at L3-L5 and different pedicle screw constructs were implanted. Specimens were subjected to flexibility tests and range of motion, intradiscal pressure and ...


The Effectiveness Of Self-Monitoring Tools And Texting Prompts To Increase Physical Activity In The Workplace, Molly Webb Jan 2013

The Effectiveness Of Self-Monitoring Tools And Texting Prompts To Increase Physical Activity In The Workplace, Molly Webb

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lack of physical activity is one contributing factor to the obesity epidemic currently affecting the United States. Increasingly sedentary jobs have added to this societal lack of activity, so worksites are a promising location for interventions to increase physical activity. Such interventions have shown mixed results and can be costly. New technologies including self-monitoring devices, text messaging reminders, and online health coaching are promising tools to improve such interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness on increasing physical activity of employees in a worksite setting of the combined use of a self-monitoring device (SWA) along with ...


Biomechanical Impact Of Lower-Body Ppe On The Football Athlete: An Evaluation And Redesign Of The Knee Pad, Brandon F. Moeller Jan 2013

Biomechanical Impact Of Lower-Body Ppe On The Football Athlete: An Evaluation And Redesign Of The Knee Pad, Brandon F. Moeller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although football personal protective equipment (PPE) has developed considerably since the game's conception, knee pad design has lagged behind. Players at all levels of competition are dissatisfied with the device, claiming it impedes performance more than it protects from injury. To date, no published research has studied the football knee pad's effect on athletic performance, and no ergonomic evaluation of the design has been completed.

This research first created a new knee pad design based on survey feedback from 138 collegiate and high school football athletes. This new design, called the Vastus And Patella Protection with Range of ...


The Effects Of Acute Self-Paced Exercise And Respiration Biofeedback On Anxiety And Affect In High-Stress University Students, Nathan Meier Jan 2013

The Effects Of Acute Self-Paced Exercise And Respiration Biofeedback On Anxiety And Affect In High-Stress University Students, Nathan Meier

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

High rates of stress-related problems in college students and low utilization of treatment options show a need for simple, effective interventions for stress management. Both exercise and breathing biofeedback have proven effective in reducing state anxiety in the past, but have never been compared. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of brief exercise and breathing biofeedback interventions on altering state anxiety and affect in high-stress, college students. Thirty-two participants (mean age=21.5±3.2 years; 21 female) experienced the following 10-minute interventions on separate days: self-paced walk (EX), breathing biofeedback (BF) and a placebo condition ...


Environmental Effects On The Biomechanics And Motor Physiology Of Elastically Powered Movements In Chameleons, Christopher Van Anderson Jan 2013

Environmental Effects On The Biomechanics And Motor Physiology Of Elastically Powered Movements In Chameleons, Christopher Van Anderson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Environmental temperature exhibits profound effects on the activity and ecology of ectotherms through its impact on muscle contractile physiology. While the performance of locomotor behaviors powered by muscle contraction directly decreases by at least 33% over a 10°C drop in body temperature, chameleons are known to feed, presumably with high performance, at body temperatures where sympatric lizard species remain inactive. I propose that ballistic movements that are powered by the recoil of preloaded elastic and collagenous tissues are less thermally dependent than movements that rely on direct muscular power. Despite the reduced thermal sensitivity of the elastic-recoil powered movement ...


Comparisons Of Acute Neuromuscular Fatigue And Recovery After Maximal Effort Strength Training Using Powerlifts, Nicholas Todd Theilen Jan 2013

Comparisons Of Acute Neuromuscular Fatigue And Recovery After Maximal Effort Strength Training Using Powerlifts, Nicholas Todd Theilen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

COMPARISONS OF ACUTE NEUROMUSCULAR FATIGUE IN MAXIMAL EFFORT STRENGTH TRAINING USING POWERLIFTS.

N. T. Theilen, B. I. Campbell, M. C. Zourdos2, J. M. Oliver3, J. O'Halloran1, N. Asher1, J. M. Wilson4

1University of South Florida, Exercise and Performance Nutrition Laboratory, Tampa, FL

2Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL

3Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX

4University of Tampa, Tampa, FL

Neuromuscular fatigue is associated with a decrease in velocity. Following powerlift training, the extent to which fatigue affects the performance velocity of each lift after a specified recovery interval has not yet been investigated.

Purpose

To assess the level of ...