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Promoting Older Adult Wellness Through An Intergenerational Physical Activity Exergaming Program, Kara Anne Strand Jan 2012

Promoting Older Adult Wellness Through An Intergenerational Physical Activity Exergaming Program, Kara Anne Strand

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background. The older adult population has been on the rise since the 1900s and is projected to increase to 72.1 million people by 2030 (Administration on Aging, 2011). Today's older adults suffer from chronic diseases that are preventable with regular physical activity. Although physical activity has been shown to prevent or improve chronic diseases as well as improve physical fitness, balance, strength, flexibility, and overall quality of life, fewer than five percent of older adults are meeting the current recommendation for physical activity. Additionally, rural-residing older adults are half as likely to participate in physical activity as urban-residing ...


Efficacy Of &Beta--Hydroxy-&Beta--Methylbutyrate (Hmb) In Free Acid Gel On Indirect Markers Of Skeletal Muscle Damage, Jin Xing Jan 2012

Efficacy Of &Beta--Hydroxy-&Beta--Methylbutyrate (Hmb) In Free Acid Gel On Indirect Markers Of Skeletal Muscle Damage, Jin Xing

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

HMB has recently become a popular dietary supplement used to promote exercise performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy by many exercise enthusiasts. A lot of previous studies have found that HMB supplement is beneficial to reduce muscle damage and decrease protein catabolism, which leads to increased gains in muscle size and strength when associated with resistance exercise. However, it is very important to note that these studies have focused primarily on the effect of calcium-HMB (the conventional form of the supplement). A recent study have indicated that HMB consumed in free acid gel form produced earlier and greater peaks in plasma ...


Firefighters' Stress Response To A Virtual Reality Occupationally Relevant Stressor And A Virtual Reality Laboratory Stressor, Christina Joy Sauder Jan 2012

Firefighters' Stress Response To A Virtual Reality Occupationally Relevant Stressor And A Virtual Reality Laboratory Stressor, Christina Joy Sauder

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the stress responses of an occupationally-relevant stress (ORS) in a virtual reality environment to a well-established laboratory stressor (LS).

Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that the ORS would be as effective at eliciting a stress response as a well-established LS.

Methods: Firefighters (n=14) from Iowa underwent two different stressor scenarios: LS and ORS. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), pre—ejection period (PEP), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were continuously assessed throughout the two scenarios. Subjective measures of affect (“arousal” and “pleasure”) and workload ...


Biomechanical And Neuromuscular Changes In Jump Landings Due To Short Or Long Term Ankle Bracing And Fatigue, Elizabeth Decatur Stafford Jan 2012

Biomechanical And Neuromuscular Changes In Jump Landings Due To Short Or Long Term Ankle Bracing And Fatigue, Elizabeth Decatur Stafford

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In order to prevent ankle sprain, prophylactic ankle bracing is common practice for many sports. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate changes in loading and neuromuscular activation at the knee and at the hip when the ankle is braced. Additionally, fatigue is a known risk factor for both ankle sprain and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear at the knee. The first two studies examined whether or not there was an interaction between the ankle brace and fatigue. Unwanted adaptation to long term bracing is also a concern. Thus, the third study addressed the question, does long term prophylactic ...


Biomechanical Testing On Cadaveric Spines For Different Treatments That Affect Lumbar Stability, Sabrina Alejandra Gonzalez Blohm Jan 2012

Biomechanical Testing On Cadaveric Spines For Different Treatments That Affect Lumbar Stability, Sabrina Alejandra Gonzalez Blohm

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stenosis is one of the most common causes for spinal surgery. Laminectomy decompression and fusion are surgical procedures prescribed for this condition. The intention of this work was to investigate the effects of a laminectomy decompression, followed by fusion, on a lumbar functional spinal unit (FSU) through in vitro dynamic (±8Nm at 0.125Hz) and quasi-static (±7.5Nm at 0.1Hz) biomechanical tests, for flexion, extension, bending and rotation motions.

Six FSUs where disarticulated from four human cadaveric lumbar spines (63 ± 12 years) and were tested under the following sequence: (1) intact, (2) laminectomy decompression, and (3) Pedicle Screw System ...


The Biomechanics Of Tongue Projection In The Frog _Rana Pipiens_: Dynamics And Temperature Effects, Paula Sandusky Jan 2012

The Biomechanics Of Tongue Projection In The Frog _Rana Pipiens_: Dynamics And Temperature Effects, Paula Sandusky

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ectotherms such as frogs must either function within environments with temperatures amenable to their physiological needs, or find means to reduce the impact of temperature on their activities. Recent studies on reptile and amphibian feeding have shown convergent use of elastic recoil to drive feeding movements, thereby decoupling temperature's effects on muscle from movement and allowing the animals to feed over broader temperature ranges. Rana pipiens specimens (n=5) were exposed to three ambient temperatures (10°, 15°, and 25° C) at which feeding behavior was imaged at 6000 Hz. The image sequences yielded detailed kinematic and dynamic information for ...


Measurement Agreement Of Fitnessgram Aerobic Capacity And Body Composition Standards, Katelin Margaret Blasingame Jan 2012

Measurement Agreement Of Fitnessgram Aerobic Capacity And Body Composition Standards, Katelin Margaret Blasingame

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: FITNESSGRAM is a fitness testing program developed by The Cooper Institute. The FITNESSGRAM program provides two different tests for assessing aerobic capacity (VO2 max), the PACER and the one-mile run. The FITNESSGRAM program also provides two major options for assessing body composition, body fat using skinfold measurements or bioelectrical impedance analyzers (BIA) and body mass index (BMI). Criterion-referenced standards are used in FITNESSGRAM to determine the child's level of fitness compared to the level of fitness needed for good health. New standards were recently developed that classify student's fitness level into 3 zones based on potential risk ...


Measuring General Activity Levels In Children And Adolescents Using Self-Report: Youth Activity Profile, Yang Bai Jan 2012

Measuring General Activity Levels In Children And Adolescents Using Self-Report: Youth Activity Profile, Yang Bai

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Youth Activity Profile (YAP) is an online physical activity (PA) assessment tool to assess children's PA at school (PAS), PA at home (PAH) as well as sedentary behavior (SED). To date, no primary study has evaluated the utility of the YAP for use in school physical education programs. Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate grade and gender-related patterns of YAP scores in a large sample of 5th to 8th grade school children. A secondary goal was to examine relationships between PA levels and sedentary behavior and field measures of physical fitness (PF). Methods: Data ...


Evaluation Of Transfer Technologies To Preserve Shoulder Function In Sci, Karen Michelle Mann Jan 2012

Evaluation Of Transfer Technologies To Preserve Shoulder Function In Sci, Karen Michelle Mann

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated a series of independent unassisted and device-assisted transfers from a wheelchair to vehicle mock-up and vice versa while simultaneously capturing kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic (EMG) data of impaired volunteers. The study provides a venue for observation and evaluation of upper extremity (UE) joint stresses, muscular force and functional demands associated with transfers in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) to ultimately prevent UE injury, minimize excessive stress, preserve functionality and limit pain. If people with SCI lose function of their UEs, due to pain and/or degeneration, they must then rely on others for everyday tasks.

Five ...


Stability Of Exercise Identity And Healthy-Eater Identity Over Six Months Among Rural Hospital Employees, Heather Dillman Jan 2012

Stability Of Exercise Identity And Healthy-Eater Identity Over Six Months Among Rural Hospital Employees, Heather Dillman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to the health crises in the United States, there is a need to better understand health behavior patterns and how they are developed and maintained. Therefore, there is a need to better understand exercise patterns and healthy eating behaviors and how they are developed and maintained. Many scholars have suggested that an individual's concept of self is composed of numerous identities. As role identities motivate behavior consistent with the identity, role-identity salience may predict future exercise or healthy eating behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine exercise identity, healthy-eater identity and frequency of exercise and ...


The Relationship Between Intensity, Frequency, Duration, And Location Of Physical Activity And Motivation: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective, Andrea Kay Banks Jan 2012

The Relationship Between Intensity, Frequency, Duration, And Location Of Physical Activity And Motivation: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective, Andrea Kay Banks

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: As the prevalence of physical inactivity and the health risks involved with it continues to increase, effective intervention approaches have become a necessity. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), adherence to physical activity could be improved by designing programs or interventions that target the more autonomous reasons for exercise. In previous research, the exercise variable is often only defined in terms of frequency, duration, and intensity, and differentiation between locations of exercise has been neglected. Environments with natural features have been shown to heighten physical and mental health benefits, which could have important implications for public and environmental health. Given ...


Role Of Β-Hydroxy-Β-Methylbutyrate (Hmb) On Inflammation After Eccentric Exercise, Paul Raymond Vulcan Jan 2012

Role Of Β-Hydroxy-Β-Methylbutyrate (Hmb) On Inflammation After Eccentric Exercise, Paul Raymond Vulcan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

When exposed to resistance exercise, untrained muscle can develop micro-tears and disruptions in the sarcomeres. This is followed by swelling, pain and decreased muscle performance, which can be attenuated by taking β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB). The acute phase response is the inflammatory change that occurs to repair damaged tissue, and is mediated by cytokines. It is the purpose of this study to determine if HMB can influence the acute phase response. 32 untrained subjects (16 men, 16 women) completed three sets of 50 eccentric leg extensions on each leg. The subjects were group matched and randomly assigned to one of three treatment ...


Methods Of Physical Activity Assessment In Older Adults, Colleen Marie Campbell Jan 2012

Methods Of Physical Activity Assessment In Older Adults, Colleen Marie Campbell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: This study examined the validity of several methods of physical activity assessment in older adults. The physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) used included two designed for use with older adults known as the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS) and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and one designed for use in the general population, the 7 Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR). These PAQs along with one accelerometer, the ActiGraph GT1M (GT1M), were examined in comparison to the criterion method, the SenseWear Pro 3 Armband (SP3).

Methods: Participants (n = 36; age = 69.7 ± 5.9 years) wore the SP3 ...


Validity Of Non-Invasive Methods For Body Composition Measurements In Older Adults, Yulong Li Jan 2012

Validity Of Non-Invasive Methods For Body Composition Measurements In Older Adults, Yulong Li

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) in relation to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (i.e. the reference standard). Methods: Sixty-three older adults aged 60-96 years (40 men, 23 women). Body percent fat (%BF) was estimated by BIA, ADP and DXA. Single frequency (50Hz) BIA that measures whole body impedance was used and Kyle's equation was applied to estimate fat-free mass. Paired sample t-test, absolute percent errors and Cohen's d were used to evaluate differences among the 3 different methods. Methods agreement was ...


The Neural Correlates Of Emotion Regulation, Brandy Nicole Tiernan Jan 2012

The Neural Correlates Of Emotion Regulation, Brandy Nicole Tiernan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Antecedent-focused strategies of emotion regulation involve modifying thoughts shortly after an emotional stimulus is encountered. Cognitive reappraisal and distraction represent two forms of antecedent-focused emotion regulation. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine whether

regulation interacts with the content of emotional information (Experiment 1), the neural correlates of these two forms of emotion regulation and their effectiveness in decreasing negative emotion (Experiment 2 and 3), the pattern of neural recruitment during regulation (Experiment 1, 2, and 3), and role of working memory and

metacognition in regulation (Experiment 3). In each experiment, individuals were asked to first view ...


Prefrontal Oxygenation During Executive Tasks In Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder, Jennifer Kaye Parker Jan 2012

Prefrontal Oxygenation During Executive Tasks In Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder, Jennifer Kaye Parker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We examined activation of the prefrontal cortex in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) (ages 8 to 12 years) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Seven children with DCD and 7 typically developing children were tested for blood oxygenation levels in the prefrontal cortex during completion of the Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sort Tasks and Go/Nogo tasks. The hypothesis that the groups would perform with similar accuracy, but show differential brain activation was supported in the Stroop and Wisconsin Card Sort, but not the Go/No Go task. The typically developing children showed trends toward increased right hemisphere activation during the Stroop ...


Systematic Review Of Core Muscle Electromyographic Activity During Physical Fitness Exercises, Jason Martuscello Jan 2012

Systematic Review Of Core Muscle Electromyographic Activity During Physical Fitness Exercises, Jason Martuscello

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Activating the core muscles through exercise training programs is believed to be important for athletic performance. Considerable attention has been credited to the lumbar multifidus, transverse abdominis, and quadratus lumborum in designing exercise training programs. Numerous core exercise claims and recommendations abound in the fitness and physical therapy communities touting a superior core challenge for these muscles. The plethora of core activation literature with conflicting outcomes has convoluted the process of choosing exercises for an optimal core training approach. Although an abundance of research studies have quantified the muscle activity, collectively, a consensus on the type of exercise that elicits ...