Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Physical Activity Assessment Under Free-Living Conditions Using Pattern-Recognition Monitors, Miguel Andres Calabro Jan 2011

Physical Activity Assessment Under Free-Living Conditions Using Pattern-Recognition Monitors, Miguel Andres Calabro

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Extensive literature has documented the health benefits of physical activity. Valid, reliable and feasible physical activity assessment tools are necessary to assess the complexity and multidimensionality of physical activity behavior. Pattern-recognition activity monitors that integrate information from multiple sensors appear to be the most promising approach for assessing physical activity under free-living conditions. Previous studies have provided support to the validity of pattern-recognition monitors for assessing the energy cost of activity under-free living conditions in young adults. However, children and older adults present unique measurement challenges for the assessment of physical activity under free-living conditions. The series of studies in ...


The Influence Of Soccer-Specific Fatigue On Hip Range Of Motion And Peak Isokinetic Hip Flexor Torque In Male Soccer Players, Timothy William Robinson Jan 2011

The Influence Of Soccer-Specific Fatigue On Hip Range Of Motion And Peak Isokinetic Hip Flexor Torque In Male Soccer Players, Timothy William Robinson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Limited range of motion (ROM), muscular strength deficits and fatigue have been found to be epidemiological risk factors for muscular injuries to the hip. The purpose of this study was to observe the changes in hip isokinetic peak torque and ROM during a soccer-specific fatigue test.

METHODS: Fourteen male high school soccer players (mean age, 17.4 <±>y 1.2years; body mass, 77.8<±>y 8.8 kg; height, 181.9<±> y 8.0 cm) completed an intermittent treadmill protocol designed to replicate the fatigue experienced during a soccer match. At five intervals (before exercise and at 20 minute ...


Assessment Of Contributors To The Metabolic Syndrome Among Law Enforcement Officers, Hyelim Yoo Jan 2011

Assessment Of Contributors To The Metabolic Syndrome Among Law Enforcement Officers, Hyelim Yoo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The metabolic syndrome has received increased attention in the past few years. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors including central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose intolerance. Due to higher prevalence of obesity, lack of physical activity, and high stress levels, law enforcement officers (LEOs) may be at high risk for the metabolic syndrome. However, the risk factors for the metabolic syndrome in this specific occupation have not been fully examined. The purpose of this dissertation was to assess the contributors to the metabolic syndrome among LEOs. This dissertation consists of a series of manuscripts which focus ...


Regulation Of Cell Adhesion Strength By Spatial Organization Of Focal Adhesions, Kranthi Kumar Elineni Jan 2011

Regulation Of Cell Adhesion Strength By Spatial Organization Of Focal Adhesions, Kranthi Kumar Elineni

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical to various cellular processes like cell spreading, migration, growth and apoptosis. At the tissue level, cell adhesion is important in the pathological and physiological processes that regulate the tissue morphogenesis. Cell adhesion to the ECM is primarily mediated by the integrin family of receptors. The receptors that are recruited to the surface are reinforced by structural and signaling proteins at the adhesive sites forming focal adhesions that connect the cytoskeleton to further stabilize the adhesions. The functional roles of these focal adhesions extend beyond stabilizing adhesions and transduce mechanical signals at the ...


Joint Contact Loading In Forefoot And Rearfoot Strike Patterns During Running, Brandon David Rooney Jan 2011

Joint Contact Loading In Forefoot And Rearfoot Strike Patterns During Running, Brandon David Rooney

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Research concerning forefoot strike pattern (FFS) versus rearfoot strike pattern (RFS) during running has focused on the ground reaction force. The main purpose of this study was to determine the internal loading of the joints for each strike pattern. A secondary purpose was to determine if a converted runner can adequately represent the habitual population for both FFS and RFS. Using inverse dynamics to calculate the net joint moments and reaction forces, and optimization techniques to estimate muscle forces we determined the axial compressive load and rate of loading at the ankle, knee, and hip. Effect sizes (ES) were used ...


Effects Of 4 Weeks Of Low Intensity Hand Grip Isometric Training With Vascular Occlusion In Older Adults, Neha Pilania Jan 2011

Effects Of 4 Weeks Of Low Intensity Hand Grip Isometric Training With Vascular Occlusion In Older Adults, Neha Pilania

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: By the middle of this century, the number of people of age 65 and over will more than double to 80 million (US census bureau, 1993). As more and more older people are getting added to the population, it becomes vital to understand the mechanisms and processes which can play a crucial role in their overall well being. The goal of the present study was to study the benefits of a novel method of training which can be an alternative to high intensity training and also be equally beneficial without the risks of heavy training in older adults. It ...


The Effect Of Shoe Forefoot Stiffness On The Windlass Mechanism In Running, Eric Gerard Sterner Jan 2011

The Effect Of Shoe Forefoot Stiffness On The Windlass Mechanism In Running, Eric Gerard Sterner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Research evaluating the effects of running footwear on gait has deduced foot motion from upper and sole movement of footwear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a technique that allows for direct assessment of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) in running. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the effect of increased bending stiffness of footwear on the MLA during running. Using a unique marker set, a multi-segment foot model was created to analyze dorsiflexion of the first metatarsal, navicular displacement, rearfoot motion, and tibial rotation. Virtual markers were created based on the movement of these foot segments ...


Mouth Rinsing With Branched-Chain Amino Acids And Carbohydrates On Steady-State Metabolism, Exercise Performance, And The Endocrine Responses To Exercise, Zebblin Matthew Sullivan Jan 2011

Mouth Rinsing With Branched-Chain Amino Acids And Carbohydrates On Steady-State Metabolism, Exercise Performance, And The Endocrine Responses To Exercise, Zebblin Matthew Sullivan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research suggests that mouth rinsing carbohydrates (CHO) improves exercise performance. The mechanisms for the improvement are not yet known, but may involve maintenance of insulin concentrations during exercise or attenuation of centrally-mediated fatigue from putative, caloric-responsive receptors in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mouth rinsing branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) or CHO on cycle time trial performance, blood markers of central fatigue (prolactin), plasma insulin, glucose, and lactate concentrations, substrate oxidation during steady-state exercise, and the subjective exercise experience. Ten healthy, endurance-trained adult males (23.5 y 3.8 y, 74 ...


Online Control Of Handwriting In Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder, Helga Filipa De Oliveira Miguel Jan 2011

Online Control Of Handwriting In Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder, Helga Filipa De Oliveira Miguel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background : Previous research indicates that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) present difficulties in forward modeling and online control. Most of these studies emphasize speeded discrete movements, but controlling movements online is imperative for movement sequences of longer duration such as control necessary in handwriting.

Aim: To examine online planning in children with DCD during a handwriting task. It was hypothesized that children with DCD would present more difficulty adjusting to a change in an ongoing handwriting task, as evidenced by decreased fluency, longer duration of strokes, and greater percentage of time before peak velocity in the stroke immediately after ...


Relationship Of Eye And Hand Movements During Perturbed Reaching Tasks, Sumit Ranjan Jan 2011

Relationship Of Eye And Hand Movements During Perturbed Reaching Tasks, Sumit Ranjan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

It has been suggested that to make a goal-directed reach to grasp movement, precise visual information of target and hand is important. In spite of various studies relating to visual feedback in reach to grasp, few researchers have investigated the parameters of this behavior in relation to saccadic eye movement. Specifically, research in this area lacks insight about the contribution of visual feedback before and after the occurrence of saccadic eye movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of eye movement on the characteristics of the hand movement during a reach to grasp task. In this ...


The Influence Of Three Short-Term Weight Loss Interventions On Self-Efficacy, Decisional Balance, And Processes Of Change In Obese Adults, Katherine A. Paulson Jan 2011

The Influence Of Three Short-Term Weight Loss Interventions On Self-Efficacy, Decisional Balance, And Processes Of Change In Obese Adults, Katherine A. Paulson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Motivational and psychosocial outcomes have not been reported in behavioral weight loss programs utilizing the SenseWear Pro armband (SWA) and motivational interviewing; making it difficult to identify motivational components that may be related to weight loss. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) is one model used to help explain motivation and behavior change through the constructs of decisional balance (DB), diet and physical activity self-efficacy (SE), and cognitive and behavioral processes of change (C-POC, B-POC). The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in TTM constructs of DB, SE, and both C-POC and B-POC in a randomized trial evaluating three ...


Using A Social-Ecological Model To Examine Obesity Interventions, Susan Lee Brown Jan 2011

Using A Social-Ecological Model To Examine Obesity Interventions, Susan Lee Brown

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Nutrition and Physical Activity Program to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention employs a five-level Social-Ecological Model (SEM) to address and understand the issues of overweight and obesity (Hamre et al., 2006). The model suggests that there are multiple levels of influence, and that effective prevention and reduction programs should address each of these levels. This research evaluated the effectiveness of programs and institutions with an emphasis on reducing childhood overweight and obesity. The first study evaluated the effectiveness of the Trim Kids program (Sothern, von Almen & Schumacher, 2001), a program ...


Efficacy Of Three Eight-Week Lifestyle Interventions On Weight Loss And Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors In Obese Adults, Sarah Ann Walsh Jan 2011

Efficacy Of Three Eight-Week Lifestyle Interventions On Weight Loss And Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors In Obese Adults, Sarah Ann Walsh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There is little consensus on the most effective approach to promote weight loss and weight maintenance. Guided weight loss programs utilizing motivational interviewing (MI) have shown positive results for weight loss but they can be time consuming and expensive. New self-monitoring devices such as the SenseWear Pro mini-fly Armband (SWA) may provide alternative approaches for facilitated weight loss. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of a guided weight loss program (Bon), the SWA monitor with associated weight management system (SWA), or a combination of both strategies (Bon + SWA) on weight loss and clinical risk ...


Effect Of Pre-Exercise Ingestion Of Modified Amylomaize Starch On Endurance Performance, Rachel Bell Jan 2011

Effect Of Pre-Exercise Ingestion Of Modified Amylomaize Starch On Endurance Performance, Rachel Bell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

If exercise is initiated when insulin remains elevated from a pre-exercise meal, some individuals may experience a brief period of hypoglycemia 15-30 min into exercise. Rebound hypoglycemia is a consequence of increased glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and suppressed hepatic glucose production. The impact of pre-exercise carbohydrate ingestion on endurance exercise performance remains unclear. Amylomaize-7, a type of high amylose corn starch, evokes a smaller insulin response than dextrose and therefore could be a better pre-exercise carbohydrate. The purposes of this study were to 1) use a strategically timed high intensity cycling trial to detect possible performance impairment caused by ...