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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Medial Longitudinal Arch Mechanics Before And After A Prolonged Run, Elizabeth Rose Hageman Jan 2010

Medial Longitudinal Arch Mechanics Before And After A Prolonged Run, Elizabeth Rose Hageman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Collapse and reformation of the medial longitudinal arch during gait is controlled passively and actively. If either tissue group fatigues over the duration of a run, the change in arch mechanics may increase risk of running injuries. However, a 3-dimensional kinematic analysis of the medial longitudinal arch after a prolonged run has not been performed. Additionally, rarely has arch collapse been quantified for walking and running in the same study. PURPOSE: To compare arch mechanics before and after a 45 minute run and to compare walking and running arch deformation. METHODS: Thirty runners performed barefoot walking and running trials before ...


The Correlates Of Physical Activity In Rural And Urban Older Adults, Arjun Hariharan Jan 2010

The Correlates Of Physical Activity In Rural And Urban Older Adults, Arjun Hariharan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to be beneficial. A lower percentage of rural compared to urban/metropolitan older adults participate in PA. Maintaining desired amounts of PA among elderly individuals with limited access to community and health care facilities and other psychological and environmental barriers is critical to public health . Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the individual, psychological and perceived environmental barriers and their correlation with PA in rural and urban older adults.

Methodology: After approval from the Institutional Review Board at Iowa State University, 150 survey questionnaires were distributed to older adults ...


Functional Movement Assessment For Individuals With Knee Osteoarthritis, Catherine A. Stevermer Jan 2010

Functional Movement Assessment For Individuals With Knee Osteoarthritis, Catherine A. Stevermer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The relationships between dynamic stability, lower extremity strength, and functional performance are not well-understood for individuals with knee pain due to osteoarthritis. The series of studies presented in this dissertation incorporate the assessment of functional movements for healthy older adults, individuals with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis, and individuals following total knee arthroplasty. The functional activities investigated in these populations included stair descent and sit-to-stand. This research was completed through a combination of kinematic techniques of motion analysis and kinetic assessment using multiple force platforms to evaluate joint moments, center of pressure parameters and weight-bearing asymmetry. The findings can be summarized ...


Effect Of Epicor Supplementation On Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness And Inflammation After Unaccustomed, Eccentric Resistance Exercise, Justin Robert Scherff Jan 2010

Effect Of Epicor Supplementation On Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness And Inflammation After Unaccustomed, Eccentric Resistance Exercise, Justin Robert Scherff

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Unaccustomed eccentric exercise has been well documented to elicit muscle damage and an inflammatory response to help fix and restore the impaired muscle fibers. Supplements, including anti-inflammatories and antioxidants have been used to help alleviate the damage and decrease the inflammation but positive results are slim. It is proposed that EpiCor, a yeast metabolite with suggested anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics, would decrease the amount of muscle soreness and inflammation that results from unaccustomed eccentric exercise.

Thirty-two male subjects (ages 18-35) ingested a once daily 500mg dose of either EpiCor or placebo 4 weeks prior to the eccentric exercise bout. This ...


Parenting Styles, Child Bmi, And Ratings Of Obesigenic Environments In Families Of Children Age 5-11, Rachel Rae Johnson Jan 2010

Parenting Styles, Child Bmi, And Ratings Of Obesigenic Environments In Families Of Children Age 5-11, Rachel Rae Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: The epidemic of childhood obesity is a multi-factorial problem but the child's home environment and parenting practices clearly play a role. This study evaluates the utility of a behaviorally based screening tool for evaluating practices and home environments. This study also seeks to determine if parenting styles influence parent and child environmental ratings and child Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods: 313 elementary students and 75 of their parents completed separate versions of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) instrument. Parents also completed the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ), a 58 item survey that categorizes parenting practices ...


Physical Activity Levels And Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among U.S. Adults: Comparison Between Self-Reported And Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Jared Tucker Jan 2010

Physical Activity Levels And Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among U.S. Adults: Comparison Between Self-Reported And Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Jared Tucker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: In 2008, the US Department of Health and Human Services released the first set of official US physical activity guidelines (Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans - PAGA). These guidelines are based on numerous studies that have linked self-reported PA to substantial health benefits. However, levels of PA among US adults remain relatively low, and differ substantially depending upon whether measured subjectively or objectively. Therefore, a better understanding between these measures is needed. Additional evidence linking objective PA to health outcomes is also needed. Furthermore, no study has examined the proportion of Americans achieving the PAGA using an objective measure. Purpose ...


Environmental Support And Physical Education Teacher Self-Efficacy: A Test Of Social Cognitive Theory, Matthew Buns Jan 2010

Environmental Support And Physical Education Teacher Self-Efficacy: A Test Of Social Cognitive Theory, Matthew Buns

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There is a need for sound self-efficacy measures in education that are based on Social Cognitive Theory. Physical education benefits public health by addressing physical inactivity and obesity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a standards-based training program and virtual blog on self-efficacy. Participants were 60 physical education teachers recruited from 16 school districts. Three self-efficacy scales were administered at the beginning of a workshop and after a six-week collaborative blog. The major finding is that the intervention enhanced self-efficacy to a much greater extent than the control group. The average experimental group effect size for ...


Methods Of Physical Activity Assessment For Older Adults, Patrick Mcintyre Jan 2010

Methods Of Physical Activity Assessment For Older Adults, Patrick Mcintyre

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: The goal of this study was to evaluate the convergent validity of physical activity (PA) assessment methods widely used with older adults with an accelerometer-based pattern recognition monitor, the Sensewear Pro 3 Armband (SP3). The ActiGraph (ACT) accelerometer and the Seven Day Physical Activity Recall (7DAY) physical activity questionnaires (PAQ) are two of the most popular methods of PA assessment; however the understanding of their use with an older adult population is limited. PAQs designed specifically for older adults such as the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS), Physical Activity Survey for ...


Biomechanical And Neuromuscular Adaptations In Those With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction During Functional Movements, Michelle Hall Jan 2010

Biomechanical And Neuromuscular Adaptations In Those With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction During Functional Movements, Michelle Hall

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Individuals with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are at increased risk to develop knee osteoarthritis (OA). Gait analysis including kinetics and electromyography of walking and stair use can provide insight to everyday knee joint dynamic loading. Previously, those with ACL rupture have shown altered gait patterns up to one year post-surgery.

PURPOSE: To compare lower extremity gait patterns of those with ACL reconstruction (>1yr) to a control group. We hypothesized that the ACL group would have 1) reduced knee extensor strength, 2) reduced knee flexion angles, 3) reduced knee extensor moments, 4) increased hip extensor moments, 5) increased external knee ...


Mediolateral Stability During Gait In People With Parkinson's Disease, Sudeshna Aloke Chatterjee Jan 2010

Mediolateral Stability During Gait In People With Parkinson's Disease, Sudeshna Aloke Chatterjee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Gait control is a clinical problem in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Gait variability leading to instability is commonly measured using spatio-temporal variables like step length, step time, step width and cadence. Another measurement that provides information about directional instability is harmonic ratios (HRs). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between step width and mediolateral stability using HRs in people with Parkinson's disease (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). The participants walked at their preferred pace and then with a wider step width and narrower step width. The results showed that the ...


The Blunted Insulin Release After Exercise And The Relationship With Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide And Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, Alison Rae Glidden Jan 2010

The Blunted Insulin Release After Exercise And The Relationship With Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide And Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, Alison Rae Glidden

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: During exercise training, an increase in insulin sensitivity is accompanied by a decrease in plasma insulin concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role incretin hormones play in the blunted insulin release after exercise. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are incretin hormones that cause insulin release after glucose ingestion. We hypothesized that insulin, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations during an OGTT would be lower after exercise compared to after 7 days of inactivity. Methods: Nine healthy men (n = 5) and women (n = 4) currently engaged in endurance ...


The Effect Of Heel Height On Frontal Plane Joint Moments, Impact Accelertion, And Shock Attenuation During Walking, Danielle Barkema Jan 2010

The Effect Of Heel Height On Frontal Plane Joint Moments, Impact Accelertion, And Shock Attenuation During Walking, Danielle Barkema

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Wearing high heels alters walking kinematics and kinetics and can create potentially adverse effects on the body. Our purpose was to determine how heel height affects frontal plane joint moments at the hip, knee, and ankle, with a specific focus on the external knee moment due to its importance in medial loading and knee osteoarthritis. In addition, this study examined the effect of heel height on impact acceleration of tibia and head and shock attenuation of the body. Fifteen women completed overground walking trials in three different heel height conditions (1, 5, and 9 cm) for a fixed walking speed ...


Age- And Speed-Related Differences In Walking Smoothness, Kristin Ann Lowry Jan 2010

Age- And Speed-Related Differences In Walking Smoothness, Kristin Ann Lowry

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Extensive literature documents age-related differences in spatiotemporal variables during gait. Recent efforts have focused on upper body control and balance during gait. Harmonic ratios, derived from trunk acceleration signals, measure smoothness of motion, and are an indication of dynamic balance during gait. Limited and conflicting information exists regarding the effect of walking speed on harmonic ratios, as well as age-related differences. This research extends previous literature by: 1) examining harmonic ratios across a range of self-selected speeds in young adults; 2) comparing harmonic ratios at preferred speed in young adults, healthy 60-year-olds, and healthy 80-year-olds; and 3) comparing harmonic ratios ...