Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Impact Of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields On Human Postural Control, Alicia N. Allen Nov 2016

Impact Of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields On Human Postural Control, Alicia N. Allen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The general public and workers can be exposed to high-levels of power-line frequency magnetic fields (MFs - up to 10 mT). Although such time-varying MFs have the potential to modulate human postural control, no existing studies have explored MF exposure levels that possibly trigger acute sway responses. This work evaluates time-varying MF exposure (up to 100 mT) in the extremely low frequency range (ELF – up to 300 Hz) and its effects on human postural control. Twenty-two healthy participants were each exposed to randomized, 5-second MF and electric stimulations (0, 50 and 100 mT and 1.5 mA respectively) given at different ...


The Use Of P3b As An Indicator Of Neurophysiologic Change From Subconcussive Impacts In Football Players, Jeffrey S. Brooks Nov 2016

The Use Of P3b As An Indicator Of Neurophysiologic Change From Subconcussive Impacts In Football Players, Jeffrey S. Brooks

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is a growing appreciation in research that subconcussive impacts may affect cognitive functioning. Canadian University football players (n=45) were separated into three groups based on their position/skill (small skilled, big skilled and big unskilled). An impact measuring device (GForceTracker) was used to record the number of impacts that each player experienced in a season. Player groups were separated into two levels of impact exposure: low and high. Players completed baseline, midseason, postseason, and follow-up neurophysiological tests (four months later) to measure P3b amplitude in response to a visual oddball paradigm, and high versus low impact subgroups for ...


The Effects Of Ice Hockey Goaltender Leg Pads On Safety And Performance, Ryan J. Frayne Oct 2016

The Effects Of Ice Hockey Goaltender Leg Pads On Safety And Performance, Ryan J. Frayne

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ice hockey goaltenders have the highest percentage of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The exact cause of these injuries in goaltenders remains unknown; however, it has been suggested that common goaltender movements and a goaltender’s underlying hip pathology may be contributing factors. The butterfly save technique, commonly used by goaltenders, has been linked to FAI. Simply stopping these movements would likely be detrimental to goaltender performance. Therefore, changing other aspects of goaltending, such as altering the goaltender equipment, should be considered. The overall objective of this thesis was to understand how ice hockey goaltender leg pads influence both the safety ...


Effect Of Terminal Haptic Feedback On The Sensorimotor Control Of Visually And Tactile-Guided Grasping, Shirin Davarpanah Jazi Sep 2016

Effect Of Terminal Haptic Feedback On The Sensorimotor Control Of Visually And Tactile-Guided Grasping, Shirin Davarpanah Jazi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

When grasping a physical object, the sensorimotor system is able to specify grip aperture via absolute sensory information. In contrast, grasping to a location previously occupied by (no-target pantomime-grasp) or adjacent to (spatially dissociated pantomime-grasp) an object results in the specification of grip aperture via relative sensory information. It is important to recognize that grasping a physical object and pantomime-grasping differ not only in terms of their spatial properties but also with respect to the availability of haptic feedback. Thus, the objective of this dissertation was to investigate how terminal haptic feedback influences the underlying mechanisms that support goal-directed grasping ...


The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton Aug 2016

The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dysregulation of autonomic control often develops with advancing age, favoring a chronic state of heightened sympathetic outflow with parasympathetic withdrawal. However, the mechanisms of this age-related autonomic impairment are not known and may relate to alterations in brain structure (e.g. cortical atrophy) and/or altered neural function, particularly in regions related to the cortical autonomic network, namely, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), insula cortex (IC), and hippocampus (HC). Exercise exerts beneficial effects on brain structure and, in the case of cognition, neurologic function; however, how exercise affects regions of the brain related to autonomic function are not known. This ...


Indicator Amino Acid Derived Estimates Of Dietary Protein Requirement In Exercise-Trained Individuals, Arash Bandegan Aug 2016

Indicator Amino Acid Derived Estimates Of Dietary Protein Requirement In Exercise-Trained Individuals, Arash Bandegan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Despite a number of nitrogen balance (NB) studies indicating increased dietary protein needs in Endurance (ET) and strength (ST) trained athletes, the Institute of Medicine (2005) has concluded, based largely on methodological concerns, that “no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise”. Indicator amino acid oxidation method (IAAO) has been recently used for determination of protein requirement in humans. This method is based on the concept that when one indispensable amino acid (AA) is deficient for protein synthesis, then all other AA, including the indicator, will be considered excess and oxidized. With increasing intakes ...


Using An Aerial Drone To Examine Lateral Movement In Sweep Rowers, Joseph S. Munn Aug 2016

Using An Aerial Drone To Examine Lateral Movement In Sweep Rowers, Joseph S. Munn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Rowing is a sport that is performed on the water, because of this there are many challenges associated with studying rowing. The primary challenges are an inability to control the environment and limitations with the equipment that can be used to collect data on the water. In order to try and overcome some of these challenges an aerial drone fitted with a high resolution camera was used to examine an understudied element of the rowing stroke, lateral movement in sweep rowers. Oar and shoulder angles and lateral movement of the shoulders and hands were calculated and compared between five different ...


Constraining Kinematics During Single-Leg Squats And Step-Ups Can Reduce Quadratus Lumborum Activation And Facilitate Gluteal Activation, Shaylyn Kowalchuk Aug 2016

Constraining Kinematics During Single-Leg Squats And Step-Ups Can Reduce Quadratus Lumborum Activation And Facilitate Gluteal Activation, Shaylyn Kowalchuk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Increased quadratus lumborum activation and decreased gluteal activation may lead to lateral pelvic drop and increased hip adduction and internal rotation during single-leg exercises. These activation patterns and motions are associated with low back pain or lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if mechanically restricting hip adduction and internal rotation of the femur affected muscle activation. Twenty female track and field athletes performed single-leg squats and step-ups, and the quadratus lumborum, gluteus medius and maximus muscles activations were measured with surface electromyography. This study tested the hypothesis that mechanically restricted exercises would decrease quadratus lumborum ...


Relationships Among Self-Efficacy, Implicit Associations, Motives And Exercise Behaviour, Alison Divine Jul 2016

Relationships Among Self-Efficacy, Implicit Associations, Motives And Exercise Behaviour, Alison Divine

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The general purpose of this dissertation was to examine how self-efficacy, explicit exercise motives and implicit automatic associations with exercise influence exercise behaviour of sedentary adults. This dissertation is divided into three manuscripts. The first manuscript examined how self-selection influences the decision to enrol in an exercise program as well as in self-efficacy, explicit motives and implicit associations. Additionally, manuscript one sought to understand the role of self-selection bias in the adoption and maintenance of exercise over six months. A total of 290 inactive adults aged 35-65 completed the Multidimensional Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (MSES; Rodgers, Wilson, Hall, Fraser, & Murray, 2008), two Go/No Go Association Tasks (GNATs; Nosek ...


Inpatient Versus Outpatient Total Hip Arthroplasty, Michael Pollock Jul 2016

Inpatient Versus Outpatient Total Hip Arthroplasty, Michael Pollock

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate patients undergoing a total hip arthroplasty (THA) who were discharged from the hospital either on the day of surgery (outpatient) or were admitted overnight following surgery (inpatient). Our primary outcome was the rate of serious adverse events during the first three months postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures included cost, patient satisfaction, functional outcomes, quality of life and pain. We found no statistically significant difference between the two groups in serious adverse events. We found that outpatient THA was less expensive from the perspectives of the hospital and ministry of health; but the difference ...


Risk Taking By Children And Seniors: Selected Sandwich Generation Caregiver’S Perceptions, Trevor J. Hines Duncliffe Jun 2016

Risk Taking By Children And Seniors: Selected Sandwich Generation Caregiver’S Perceptions, Trevor J. Hines Duncliffe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Grounded theory was used to investigate the perception of risk held by 20 women in the sandwich generation and their process to evaluate risk as caregivers for both their child and senior. The impact of their risk perception was considered as it related to their actions, the child’s and senior’s ability to engage in risk taking, their independence and quality of life. Findings suggest the same risk assessment process was used to determine if the child or senior is capable of managing the risk. The independence gained by both through risk taking is supported unless safety is a ...


Effects Of An In-Bed Resistance Exercise Program For Hospitalized High Risk Pregnant Women On Postpartum Functional Ability And Psychosocial Health, Charity Mccarthy May 2016

Effects Of An In-Bed Resistance Exercise Program For Hospitalized High Risk Pregnant Women On Postpartum Functional Ability And Psychosocial Health, Charity Mccarthy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hospitalised high-risk pregnant women (HHRPW) report physiological deconditioning similar to non-pregnant bed-rested patients. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an in-bed resistance exercise program to reduce the side-effects of activity-restriction in HHRPW. It was hypothesized that HHRPW who exercised while in hospital would have better functional ability and a higher quality of life at two months postpartum compared to HHRPW with no exercise program. HHRPW were activity-restricted (1940 ±1405 steps/day) in hospital and reported high rates of anxiety and depression. Nine women were randomized to either a supervised in-bed exercise (n=5) or ...


Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon Apr 2016

Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this collection of studies was to further develop the knowledge of shoulder motion in order to better understand joint function through direct measurement of 3D scapulohumeral joint kinematics using a technique of high accuracy. Markerless, bi-planar fluoroscopic radiostereometric analysis using a generic shoulder model was developed in this thesis, reducing the amount of radiation exposure to subjects. The studies compared kinematic data of the scapulohumeral joint in six degrees of freedom with a precise, in-vivo measuring technique. Data were collected on young and older healthy individuals, individuals with a torn supraspinatus and post-surgical intervention.

Although this generic ...