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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Avery Brundage, Pan-American Games, And Entrenchment Of The Olympic Movement In Latin America, Doiara Silva Dos Santos Dec 2015

Avery Brundage, Pan-American Games, And Entrenchment Of The Olympic Movement In Latin America, Doiara Silva Dos Santos

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

To become firmly established, the Pan-American Games depended on the efforts of particular individuals. With Avery Brundage's attention to the Pan-American Games as the center of this analysis, this study documented the main events leading up to the inauguration of the Pan-American Games as well as their development and significance to Latin American countries in the mid-twentieth century. The research material was mainly drawn from primary sources, most importantly, those found in the Avery Brundage Collection at Western University. The study demonstrated that Brundage saw in the Pan-American Games not only a challenge, but an opportunity to promote the ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Softball Gloves: Catcher's Glove Yields Highest Peak Hand Pressure, Brittany M. Hicks Nov 2015

A Comparative Analysis Of Softball Gloves: Catcher's Glove Yields Highest Peak Hand Pressure, Brittany M. Hicks

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Catchers commonly develop abnormal blood flow in the ulnar artery, digital ischemia in the index finger, and index finger hypertrophy as a result of continual trauma to the hand. The hand sustains peak pressures that are much greater than the recommended thresholds for repetitive tasks. The objective of this study was to measure the peak pressure on the hand when catching a softball and to determine which glove type (catcher’s glove, first baseman’s glove or fielder’s glove) is most effective at reducing the peak pressure on the hand. Pressure data was collected using Tekscan pressure sensors. Results ...


The Effect Of A Combined Multiple-Modality Exercise Intervention On Sensorimotor Function In Community Dwelling Older Adults, With A Subjective Cognitive Complaint: The M4 Study (Multi-Modal; Mind Motor), Sam Titheridge Oct 2015

The Effect Of A Combined Multiple-Modality Exercise Intervention On Sensorimotor Function In Community Dwelling Older Adults, With A Subjective Cognitive Complaint: The M4 Study (Multi-Modal; Mind Motor), Sam Titheridge

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Aging is associated with the increased onset of diseases such as cognitive impairment, and ultimately dementia. Participants, 55+ years, with a self-reported cognitive complaint completed a 6-month exercise intervention. They were randomized to either a multiple modality exercise program (M2), consisting of aerobic, stretching and balancing exercises or a multiple modality plus mind motor program (M4), whereby a square stepping exercise was incorporated. Participants were assessed for reaction time (RT), movement time (MT) and % errors at baseline and at 6-months using an eye tracking 1000 system. Participants performed prosaccades and antisaccades (AS). AS RT was significantly quicker from baseline – 6-months ...


The Effects Of Fatigue On The Reactive Agility Test: Looking At The Difference Between Normal Game Play And The Hurry-Up Offense In Football Game Simulations, Kristine E. Walker Oct 2015

The Effects Of Fatigue On The Reactive Agility Test: Looking At The Difference Between Normal Game Play And The Hurry-Up Offense In Football Game Simulations, Kristine E. Walker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of fatigue on performance of the Reactive Agility Test (RAT) by University Football players. This test assesses the athlete’s ability to change direction in response to a visual stimulus, somewhat like responding to the actions of an opponent in a game. Two fatiguing conditions were compared, simulations of normal game play and hurry-up offense in football. Methods: Following a warm-up and baseline RAT testing the athletes performed 10 high intensity, sprints on a specialized treadmill, with a 1:5 work to rest ratio to simulate regular game pace ...


Evaluation Of Suspension Seats Under Multi-Axis Vibration Excitations - A Neural Net Model Approach To Seat Selection, Xiaoxu Ji Aug 2015

Evaluation Of Suspension Seats Under Multi-Axis Vibration Excitations - A Neural Net Model Approach To Seat Selection, Xiaoxu Ji

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Whole-body vibration describes vibrations that are transferred from a supporting surface to the human body. Low back injury is a major health issue amongst heavy machine operators and seat selection is important for reducing vibration exposure. Modeling the vibration attenuation properties of seats is one approach for predicting the performance of seats in different vibration environments. An efficient neural network (NN) algorithm identified the vibration attenuation properties of five suspension seats that are commonly used in the Northern Ontario mining sector. Each of the NN seat models strongly predicted vertical seatpan r.m.s. accelerations from the chassis accelerations and ...


Factors Affecting Block Performance From The Omega Osb11 Starting Platform, Andrew Dragunas Aug 2015

Factors Affecting Block Performance From The Omega Osb11 Starting Platform, Andrew Dragunas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In 2009, the international governing body of swimming approved the use of the Omega OSB11 platform. It features a back foot kick plate that can be shifted into five positions. The purpose of this thesis is to identify set stance characteristics of the track start that may produce a faster start from the OSB11. The first project evaluated: optimal kick plate location, its relationship to segment lengths, and rear foot position as high and low on the kick plate. The swimmers demonstrated significantly greater horizontal take-off velocity and decreased time to 2 m with the rear foot in the high ...


Distractor Processing In Identity Negative Priming Tasks, Ahmed Shuriye Aug 2015

Distractor Processing In Identity Negative Priming Tasks, Ahmed Shuriye

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With identity negative priming (INP) designs, subjects respond on the basis of a target stimulus’ identity and trials are presented in pairs; first the ‘prime’ and then the ‘probe’; with the target and/or to-be-ignored distractor objects appearing on either trial. The latency-based INP phenomenon reflects the fact that probe trial target reactions are significantly slower when this target has just served as the prime distractor object, relative to when it was new. One explanation for the INP phenomenon is that the prime distractor event is inhibited and representations of this are stored so that they are retrieved when the ...


Reducing Sedentary Behaviour In University Students Using A Text Message-Based Intervention, Emma Cotten Aug 2015

Reducing Sedentary Behaviour In University Students Using A Text Message-Based Intervention, Emma Cotten

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sedentary behaviour (SB) has been linked to many health problems (e.g., type 2 diabetes, heart disease). Interventions aimed at office workers, overweight and obese individuals have proven successful in reducing SB; however, no studies have examined university students. Text message-based interventions have succeeded to aid in smoking cessation and increase both physical activity and healthy eating, but have not been shown to reduce SB. Eighty-two university students were randomized into intervention (SB related text messages) or control (text messages unrelated to SB) groups. Participants received daily text messages and reported various SBs (i.e., breaks from sitting, standing, light ...


The Effects Of A Multiple-Modality Mind-Motor Program On Vascular Outcomes In Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Subjective Cognitive Complaints, Amanda M. Deosaran Jul 2015

The Effects Of A Multiple-Modality Mind-Motor Program On Vascular Outcomes In Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Subjective Cognitive Complaints, Amanda M. Deosaran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Studies have found a link between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and Alzheimer’s disease however; the mechanism by which CVRFs increase the risk of cognitive decline is not fully understood. The current study attempts to improve CVRFs in order to enhance cognition in older adults. Primary outcomes include ambulatory and clinical resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP; DBP). In total, 89 community-dwelling older adults with subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to either a multiple-modality mind-motor (M4) exercise or a multiple-modality (M2) exercise only. Significance was found in nighttime peak SBP (6.55 mmHg, p=.04) between groups, with a ...


An Examination Of Children's Active Play Imagery, Danielle C. Tobin Jul 2015

An Examination Of Children's Active Play Imagery, Danielle C. Tobin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The general purpose of this dissertation was to examine children’s active play imagery using Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002) as a theoretical basis. The research was comprised of three studies. Study 1examined how the three types of active play imagery (i.e., fun, capability, and social) were associated with the three basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness). A total of 253 children aged 7-14 years old completed both the Children’s Active Play Imagery Questionnaire (Cooke et al., 2014) and the Basic Need Satisfaction in Physical Activity (Gray et al., 2009). Capability imagery was found to be positively associated with competence, social imagery was positively associated with relatedness, and fun imagery was positively associated with competence. These findings provided valuable information for Study 2.

Study 2 investigated whether a 6-week imagery intervention could increase active play levels in children 9-11 years old. The study revealed the participants in the imagery group were able to maintain their active play levels (measured by pedometers) throughout the intervention, while the control group significantly decreased their active play levels from baseline to post-intervention. These findings provided support for continuing to pursue this avenue of research and informed Study 3.

Study 3 expanded upon Study 2’s intervention by lengthening the intervention to 18 weeks, having individualized imagery scripts for the participants, and using accelerometers to measure active play. A case study was conducted with two 11 year olds. The results revealed that participant 2 was able to increase her active play levels from baseline to intervention, and maintained those levels in post-intervention. Challenges were seen in regards to wear time for participant 3; however, her subjective measure of active play followed the same pattern as participant 2. The overall findings from this dissertation established that imagery can be a promising avenue for increasing children’s active play levels.


The Effects Of Short Work Versus Longer Work Periods Within Intermittent Exercise On Vo2 Kinetics, Muscle Deoxygenation And Energy System Contribution, Michael C. Mccrudden Jul 2015

The Effects Of Short Work Versus Longer Work Periods Within Intermittent Exercise On Vo2 Kinetics, Muscle Deoxygenation And Energy System Contribution, Michael C. Mccrudden

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetic response of oxygen uptake (V̇O2)and muscle deoxygenation (HHb) in males (24 yr±3, n = 10) to identical heavy intensity continuous (CONT), and intermittent work; 25 s (25 s work: 3 s recovery (20W)), and 10 s (10 s work: 3 s recovery (20W)), were compared. The τV̇O2 were similar in all conditions (CONT: 44.2 s±9; 25 s: 38.9 s±10; 10 s: 39.4 s±8, p > 0.05), whereas the HHb/ V̇O2 overshoot decreased across conditions (p < 0.05). The increased frequency of recovery periods slowed V̇O2p kinetics ...


Test-Retest Reliability Of Mune And Mup Analysis From Decomposition-Based Quantitative Electromyography For The Flexor Carpi Radialis Muscle, Saskia R. Knol Jun 2015

Test-Retest Reliability Of Mune And Mup Analysis From Decomposition-Based Quantitative Electromyography For The Flexor Carpi Radialis Muscle, Saskia R. Knol

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to establish a set of representative data from healthy subjects and determine the intra-rater reliability of decomposition-enhanced spike triggered averaging (DE-STA) motor unit number estimation (MUNE) and quantitative motor unit potential (MUP) analysis from D-QEMG for the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle. Twenty subjects aged 21-51 were studied (9 females, 11 males). Trials A and B assessed test-retest reliability for FCR when the wrist was flexed only. The effects of finger flexion during wrist flexion were assessed in trial C. Results found high reliability for maximum CMAP (ICC = 0.92), moderate reliability for mean ...


Muscular Christian Edmonton: The Story Of The Edmonton Young Men's Christian Association 1898-1920, Courtney Hope Van Waas May 2015

Muscular Christian Edmonton: The Story Of The Edmonton Young Men's Christian Association 1898-1920, Courtney Hope Van Waas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

From its initial conception as the EYMI in 1898 to its emergence as the Edmonton YMCA through 1920, the institution always had a distinct purpose. The absence of a Muscular Christian agenda in the EYMI, coupled with a purposive refocusing of programming within the YMCA towards what was directed towards the public interest, religion within this institution waned following World War I. Newspapers and executive minute notes demonstrate the EYMI focus on producing the next generation of respectable businessmen. The Edmonton YMCA attempted to fulfill the task of ‘saving’ young men by distracting them from social vices. As a result ...