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Narratives Of Canadian Identity At The Ultimate Fighting Championship, Jared V. Walters Dec 2019

Narratives Of Canadian Identity At The Ultimate Fighting Championship, Jared V. Walters

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the use of representations and symbols of Canadian identity within the event coverage produced by the Ultimate Fighting Championship Corporation, in the context of its two key events, Ultimate Fighting Championship, and Fight Night, produced in Canada. To establish the historical context in which the sport developed in Canada, a narrative historiography of the political and legal struggles that led to the legalization and increasing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts, and the UFCC’s version of the sport, in particular. This first major part of the dissertation is contained in Study 1 ...


Executive Dysfunction Following A Sport-Related Concussion Is Independent Of Task-Based Symptom Burden, Naila Ayala Angumba Nov 2019

Executive Dysfunction Following A Sport-Related Concussion Is Independent Of Task-Based Symptom Burden, Naila Ayala Angumba

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present work examined whether oculomotor deficits associated with a sport-related concussion (SRC) reflect an impairment to executive-based planning mechanisms or a task-based increase in concussion symptomology (e.g., headache, vertigo). Therefore, I employed a standardized measure of SRC symptom severity (SCAT-5), antisaccade performance and pupillometry metrics in persons with a SRC during early (i.e., initial assessment: ≤12 days post-SRC) and later (i.e., follow-up assessment: 14-30 days post-SRC) stages of recovery. In the initial assessment, the SRC group yielded longer reaction times (RT) (p=0.001), increased directional errors (p=0.002) and larger task-evoked pupil dilations (TEPD ...


The Grand Experiment: Jerome Dwight Davis And The Young Men’S Christian Association’S War Prisoner Aid Sports Programing For German Pows In Canadian Camps During World War Two, Courtney Hope Van Waas Nov 2019

The Grand Experiment: Jerome Dwight Davis And The Young Men’S Christian Association’S War Prisoner Aid Sports Programing For German Pows In Canadian Camps During World War Two, Courtney Hope Van Waas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Jerome Davis, head of the Young Men’s Christian Association War Prisoner Aid program, was a devout Congregationalist dedicated to providing for the basic sport and recreation endeavours of German Prisoners of War interned in Canadian POW camps during the Second World War. Having worked with German Prisoners of War in Russia during the First World War, Davis firmly believed that WWII Allies the world over needed to change their generally antagonistic point of view towards German POWs, indeed, a point of view that required “moral revisionism.” Davis believed that the vilification and demeaning status of German POWs was not ...


Strains In Regions Of The Brain Modelled From Female Youth Soccer Players Performing Purposeful Headers In Season, Wayne Allison Oct 2019

Strains In Regions Of The Brain Modelled From Female Youth Soccer Players Performing Purposeful Headers In Season, Wayne Allison

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Soccer is the world's most popular sport, and intentional heading of the ball is exclusive to it. Head impacts in youth players are riskier than adults as their brains are developing. Finite element models can quantify parameters, like strains within regions of the brain, that are otherwise difficult to assess. The purpose of this stay was to examine the relationship between head kinematics collected by wireless head impact sensors and brain strains in regions of interest related to concussion. As well, we assessed head impact strains in regions of interest related to concussion for headers from various game scenarios ...


The Effects Of Exercise Training Versus Intensive Insulin Treatment On Skeletal Muscle Fibre Content In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Rodents, David P. Mcbey Sep 2019

The Effects Of Exercise Training Versus Intensive Insulin Treatment On Skeletal Muscle Fibre Content In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Rodents, David P. Mcbey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In patients with Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) undergoing intensive insulin therapy, the development of insulin resistance (IR) is linked to the improper storage of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) species. While both IR and IMCL are improved with combined aerobic and resistance training, it is unclear how these adaptations relate to individual fibre-type transitions and metabolic function. This study aimed to compare the effects of combined exercise training versus conventional and intensive insulin therapy on skeletal muscle fibres in T1DM rodents. Seventeen Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups: Control-Sedentary (CS; n=4), conventionally-treated T1DM sedentary (DCT; n=4), intensively-treated T1DM sedentary ...


Investigating The Simulated Diving Reflex In Professional Divers, Sydney O. Smith Sep 2019

Investigating The Simulated Diving Reflex In Professional Divers, Sydney O. Smith

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background: Submergence underwater activates the diving response (DR) in both diving mammals and humans in order to preserve oxygen. Some evidence suggests that the DR can be trained in humans to provide a larger magnitude of bradycardia during submergence.

Hypothesis: Individuals with breath holding experience will have a greater magnitude of bradycardia during the DR than untrained, age-matched controls.

Methods: Participants performed three different protocols: 1) an apnea to volitional end point, or until 30 seconds of involuntary breathing movements were observed (APNEA), 2) one minute of cold pack to the forehead (COLD), and 3) one minute of cold pack ...


The Relations Between Newcomer Integration Processes And Youth Athletes’ Perceptions Of The Group Environment In Competitive Ice Hockey, Jeffrey J. Chamberlain Aug 2019

The Relations Between Newcomer Integration Processes And Youth Athletes’ Perceptions Of The Group Environment In Competitive Ice Hockey, Jeffrey J. Chamberlain

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

The ways in which new members are integrated into a particular group environment—also known as organizational socialization processes—have been shown to be a powerful predictor of newcomer adjustment in the workplace. Yet, there is a scarcity of research on how sport teams manage the integration of new team members, and the consequences of different tactics. The current research uses the recently developed Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ) to evaluate how socialization processes are systematically related to youth athletes’ perceptions of their group environment. Across two time points, 202 competitive adolescent ice hockey players (Mage = 14 ...


Quantitative Analysis Of The Kinematics Of The Foot During Gait With Respect To Barefoot Running Shoes Using A Multi-Segment Foot Model, Lisa Y. Oikawa Jul 2019

Quantitative Analysis Of The Kinematics Of The Foot During Gait With Respect To Barefoot Running Shoes Using A Multi-Segment Foot Model, Lisa Y. Oikawa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Kinematics of the foot during static and dynamic tasks are technically challenging to accurately measure, making it difficult to evaluate their contribution to running-related injuries. Motion capture can detect changes in running mechanics, such as with differing footwear. Habitual barefoot runners and/habitual minimalist shoe runners underwent a biomechanical evaluation of their foot movement during running using reflective markers and optical motion capture. A five-segment foot model was used to compare motions between the different parts of the foot while running barefoot and wearing Vibram Five Fingers™ (VFF) barefoot mimicking shoes. Supination/pronation in the forefoot was larger but not ...


Head Impact Exposures In Youth Canadian Football Players Aged 12-14 Do Not Significantly Impair Antisaccade Performance, William J. Smith Dec 2018

Head Impact Exposures In Youth Canadian Football Players Aged 12-14 Do Not Significantly Impair Antisaccade Performance, William J. Smith

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is a growing body of research evaluating head impacts in sport, but studies have not evaluated youth football in Canada. It is important to evaluate football in Canada as the rules and field size are different than American football, and this may influence the impact exposures. The purpose of this study was to quantify the head impact exposures in youth Canadian football and determine if a season’s worth of impacts could cause impairments in executive function. Players (n=50) had their head impacts recorded using an impact measuring device (GForceTracker) throughout all contact practices and games. A subset ...


True North Strong Canada 150: Canadian Identity And Its Contribution To Doping Free Sport, Helena A. Hlas Dec 2018

True North Strong Canada 150: Canadian Identity And Its Contribution To Doping Free Sport, Helena A. Hlas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis, a reflective piece inspired by “Canada 150” events, explores the psychosocial and sociocultural factors surrounding the ongoing evolution of the clean sport movement in Canada. A literature review recounts the critical events in the history of doping, viz. the Ben Johnson scandal, which resulted in a call to overhaul sport culture and realign it with fair play values. Theories in sports philosophy and psychology provide a further understanding of the meaning of sport, and psychosocial factors that are inextricably linked to doping behavior, respectively. The autoethnographic method provides insight into current Canadian values to compare with those in ...


Magnetic Field Frequency-Response For Human Magnetophosphene Perception And Associated Eeg Modulations, Cadence M. Baker Nov 2018

Magnetic Field Frequency-Response For Human Magnetophosphene Perception And Associated Eeg Modulations, Cadence M. Baker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background: Magnetophosphenes are among the most reliably reported effects resulting from magnetic induction. The frequency dependence of the perception threshold is crucial, as guideline agencies use this information to set exposure limits whose purpose is to protect public and workers.

Objective:Establish the magnetophosphene perception thresholds throughout the extremely low frequency range (0-300 Hz) and evaluate the use of EEG as a biomarker.

Hypothesis:Perception thresholds will be lowest at ~30 Hz. EEG occipital alpha power will decrease upon perception.

Methods:60 participants were exposed to homogenous magnetic fields up to 300 Hz, and 70 mT. EEG alpha power was ...


Cardiodynamic Associations With Resilience In Undergraduate Students And The Effect Of A Mentorship Intervention, Rachel J. Knetsch Oct 2018

Cardiodynamic Associations With Resilience In Undergraduate Students And The Effect Of A Mentorship Intervention, Rachel J. Knetsch

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The National College Health Assessment (NCHA) indicates that a majority of Canadian university students report feeling overwhelmed, stressed, and anxious during their undergraduate studies. Resilience refers to positive adaptation, or the ability to maintain or regain mental health, despite experiencing adversity (Herrman et al., 2011). While autonomic indices have been used to describe chronic physiological stress, the role of heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of resilience remains unclear. This research tested the hypotheses that (1) there is a relationship between HRV and resilience scoresand (2) a mentorship intervention will improve HRV and resilience outcomes. Fifty-seven first year students ...


Operant Conditioning Of Human Upper-Limb Stretch Reflexes, Ehsan Abolhasani Sep 2018

Operant Conditioning Of Human Upper-Limb Stretch Reflexes, Ehsan Abolhasani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Operant conditioning of short-latency reflex (SLR) and H-reflex have been investigated in animals and humans. We modified previously established protocols for conditioning lower limb H-reflexes to up-condition the SLR in brachioradialis muscle and to investigate the effect of such conditioning on the long-latency response (LLR) of synergistic muscles. Our study included 12 healthy participants. Each participant took part in 3 baseline and 27 conditioning sessions in 6 weeks, followed by two additional sessions one month and two months after the last conditioning session. We found an increase in SLR magnitude in 50% of participants (by 15%±2.50). However, there ...


Performance Impact Of Different Lower-Limb Setup Positions In The Backstroke Swimming Start, Gordon E. Barkwell Aug 2018

Performance Impact Of Different Lower-Limb Setup Positions In The Backstroke Swimming Start, Gordon E. Barkwell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The performance impact of different knee extension angles in the setup position for a backstroke start was evaluated using an instrumented starting surface. Ten backstroke swimmers completed maximum-effort starts in each of two setup positions: one with the knees flexed, and one with the knees extended. The start handles and touchpad were instrumented with tri-axial force plates. Activity of major hip and knee extensors was measured using surface electromyography. Body position was recorded throughout the start using two high-speed cameras. There was no difference in time to 10 m between the two conditions, indicating there is likely no advantage in ...


Motor Variability In Rowing, Maude Potvin-Gilbert Aug 2018

Motor Variability In Rowing, Maude Potvin-Gilbert

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of environment, intensity and distance rowed on temporal variability of strokes and on knee angle variability. 11 participants rowed 2,000 m at high and low intensities on an ergometer and at high intensity in a single on-water. Data were collected at the beginning and at the end of each exercise. All the factors influenced significantly the temporal variability (respectively beta=-0.013 and p .007=; beta= 0.007 and p=.021; beta=0.06 and p=.028). The difference of visual information and the need of the rower to ...


Pilot Study: Heart Rate Variability Analysis And Mental Health Outcomes In University Female Hockey Players, Kaitlyn Jacobs Aug 2018

Pilot Study: Heart Rate Variability Analysis And Mental Health Outcomes In University Female Hockey Players, Kaitlyn Jacobs

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Exercise improves anxiety and depression, both of which are associated with impaired autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR). In turn, HR variability (HRV) is a reliable physiological indicator of external stressors. The following research tested the hypothesis that HRV is indicative of chronic resilience towards mental stress in female varsity hockey players. Seventeen varsity hockey players (HOCK, age 21 ± 1.5) and fifteen healthy controls (CTRL, age 21 ± 2.2) at Western University participated three times throughout a 7-month season. Participants completed questionnaires (brief resilience scale, BRS; generalized anxiety scale, GAD-7; mental health inventory, MHI; visual analog scale, VAS; short ...


Working Memory And Falls Risk In Older Adults: An Event-Related Potential Study, Yee (Michelle) S. Wong Aug 2018

Working Memory And Falls Risk In Older Adults: An Event-Related Potential Study, Yee (Michelle) S. Wong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

BACKGROUND: The aging population is rapidly increasing, where currently in North America, the population of older adults (ages 60+) outnumbers the population of children. Falls are a major concern for older adults and their quality of life. Cognitive impairment has been shown to be declined in older adults at-risk for falls, but working memory has not been thoroughly investigated within this population. PURPOSE: To examine differences in Non-Fallers, Moderate Risk for Falls, and Fallers in a working memory task using electroencephalography (EEG). METHODS: Older adults (n=44, female=27) aged 60 – 80 years (m=68.8, SD=4.7) completed ...


“And, Needless To Say, I Was Athletic, Too:” Southern Ontario Black Women And Sport (1920s – 1940s), Ornella Nzindukiyimana Jul 2018

“And, Needless To Say, I Was Athletic, Too:” Southern Ontario Black Women And Sport (1920s – 1940s), Ornella Nzindukiyimana

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation presents a two-part study of sporting practices of Southern Ontario Black women, between the 1920s and the 1940s, aimed at developing a socio-cultural history of sport that includes narratives from marginalized groups. Given sport’s traditional position as a masculine domain, as well as Canada’s status as a patriarchal White supremacy, the accounts presented in this work centre Black women’s sport experiences through an intersectional perspective. It is argued that, by virtue of their simultaneously racialized and gendered identities, Black women had distinct sporting experiences from those of White women and men and Black men.

The ...


Participatory Action Research Examining The Role Of Physical Activity In Mentoring For Resilience, Francesca Gable Jun 2018

Participatory Action Research Examining The Role Of Physical Activity In Mentoring For Resilience, Francesca Gable

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study examined the use of physical activity-based mentorship programs to positively influence student mental health and resilience in post-secondary institutions. The process of relationship building was observed through regularly implemented physical activity interactions over time. The purpose was to determine the ability of a physical activity-based mentorship relationship to positively influence student resilience. A participatory action research methodology was used to engage with a population of ninety undergraduate Kinesiology students (30 mentors:60 protégés) over an eight-month period. Sixty interviews and thirteen focus groups were conducted, and fifteen-hundred pages of journal reflections were consulted to further understand the relationship ...


Functional Anatomy Of Palmar Musculature, Colin W. Moore Apr 2018

Functional Anatomy Of Palmar Musculature, Colin W. Moore

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The palmaris longus (PL) and palmaris brevis (PB) are upper limb muscles considered atavistic remnants of those found in animal species. Despite their use in surgical grafting and tendon transfer procedures, the functional role of the PL and PB have not been investigated comprehensively in vivo. Using a multi-modal experimental approach consisting of indwelling fine wire electromyography (EMG), ultrasonography and immunohistochemical muscle staining techniques, the function of the PL and PB in the hand was evaluated both in in vivo and in situ.

The purpose of Study 1 was to determine whether the PL provides synergistic contributions to thenar contractions ...


Power Reserve Following Ramp-Incremental Cycling To Exhaustion: Implications For Muscle Fatigue And Function, Michael D. Hodgson Nov 2017

Power Reserve Following Ramp-Incremental Cycling To Exhaustion: Implications For Muscle Fatigue And Function, Michael D. Hodgson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In ramp-incremental cycling exercise, some individuals are capable of producing power output (PO) in excess of that produced at their limit of tolerance (LoT) while others cannot. This study sought to describe the: 1) prevalence of a “power reserve” within a group of young men (n=21; mean ± SD: age 25±4 years; V̇O2max45±8 ml•kg-1•min-1); and 2) muscle fatigue characteristics of those with and without a power reserve. Power reserve was determined as the difference between peak PO achieved during a ramp-incremental test to exhaustion and maximal, single-leg isokinetic dynamometer power. Pre- ...


The Feasibility Of Square-Stepping Exercise As A Universal Intervention For Older Adults With Chronic Disease To Improve Cognitive And Physical Function, Erin M. Shellington Nov 2017

The Feasibility Of Square-Stepping Exercise As A Universal Intervention For Older Adults With Chronic Disease To Improve Cognitive And Physical Function, Erin M. Shellington

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Square-stepping exercise (SSE) is a cognitive training program with a physical component. An instructor demonstrates a stepping pattern across a gridded mat and participants are required to memorize and repeat the patterns on their own. In community-dwelling older adults, SSE has demonstrated some benefits on global cognitive functioning (GCF), balance, functional fitness, and social interaction.

Aims: to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of SSE in varied populations and settings to improve mobility and cognition. Populations included older adults with: knee osteoarthritis (OA), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and self-reported cognitive complaints (sCC), and those living in long-term care (LTC) and ...


The Influence Of Limb And Target Vision In Target-Directed And Allocentric Pointing Movements, Joseph Manzone Oct 2017

The Influence Of Limb And Target Vision In Target-Directed And Allocentric Pointing Movements, Joseph Manzone

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The top-down nature of allocentric spatial representations (i.e., specifying target locations relative to other objects) is thought to render motor output via an offline mode of control. The present experiment tested this hypothesis by providing detailed trajectory analyses of allocentric and target-directed reaching tasks performed with and without concomitant limb vision. Allocentric tasks required reaches to a location defined by the relationship between a target and reference stimulus, whereas target-directed tasks required reaches directly to a target. Target-directed limb visible trials showed the most effective online trajectory amendments compared to their limb occluded counterparts and allocentric limb visible and ...


A Simulated Walk In Nature: Testing Predictions From The Attention Restoration Theory, Corey Crossan Oct 2017

A Simulated Walk In Nature: Testing Predictions From The Attention Restoration Theory, Corey Crossan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Attention Restoration Theory (ART) predicts that top-down processing during everyday activities can cause attentional fatigue and that bottom-up processing that occurs when people experience nature will be restorative (Kaplan, 1995). The present study examined this prediction by exposing participants to three different conditions using a repeated measures design: a control condition during which participants walked on a typical treadmill, a nature/restorative condition during which participants walked on the same treadmill, experiencing a simulated nature walk, and a perturbation condition that included the same simulated nature scene but also required top-down processing during the walk. The findings supported ART predictions ...


A Pilot Study On The Affective Responses To Watching Consecutive Episodes Of A Television Show During Aerobic Exercise Below The Ventilatory Threshold, Lauren Crutchlow Oct 2017

A Pilot Study On The Affective Responses To Watching Consecutive Episodes Of A Television Show During Aerobic Exercise Below The Ventilatory Threshold, Lauren Crutchlow

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A quasi-experimental pilot study determined whether restricting television-watching to treadmill walking below the ventilatory threshold improved affective valence, perceived activation, enjoyment, attentional focus, and intention to bundle television-watching with exercise. Eleven inactive, young adults (21.18 + 1.47 years) in post-secondary education performed two 40-minute exercise tests, wherein aforementioned outcomes were repeatedly assessed. Participants in the experimental group (n=4) watched the first episode of a television show between exercise tests and the second episode of the same television show during the second exercise test. Analyses revealed large, non-significant multivariate intervention effects on affect and attention outcomes, a large, significant ...


Behaviour Change Intervention Strategies To Prevent Excessive Gestational Weight Gain In Pregnant Women Using A Nutrition And Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (Nelip), Karishma Hosein Oct 2017

Behaviour Change Intervention Strategies To Prevent Excessive Gestational Weight Gain In Pregnant Women Using A Nutrition And Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (Nelip), Karishma Hosein

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. To evaluate the effectiveness of different behaviour change intervention strategies, it was hypothesized that the introduction of a single behaviour change, followed by a second, would be more effective at preventing early and total EGWG in pregnant women compared to the early simultaneous introduction of both behaviour changes. Eighteen pregnant women were block randomized into one of 3 Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP) strategies (full NELIP, Nutrition followed by Exercise N+E, Exercise followed by Nutrition E+N) and were followed at ...


No Evidence That Binocular Vision Enhances Online Corrections For Reaches In The Lower-Visual Field, Jennifer N. Campbell Sep 2017

No Evidence That Binocular Vision Enhances Online Corrections For Reaches In The Lower-Visual Field, Jennifer N. Campbell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Some work has proposed that an increased density of retinal ganglion cells in the superior hemiretina elicits a functional advantage for goal-directed reaches in the lower visual field (i.e., loVF). Furthermore, reaches performed with binocular stereo-cues exhibit optimized feedback-based trajectory corrections (i.e., online control). The present study examined whether the purported loVF advantage is restricted to binocular reaches implemented via a primarily online mode of control. Participants completed binocular and monocular reaches to loVF and upper-visual field (i.e., upVF) targets. Separate groups were provided vision during response planning and control (i.e., closed-loop group: CL), or during ...


Insulin Resistance And T1d: The Effect Of Exercise On Skeletal Muscle Lipid Metabolism, Michelle Dotzert Aug 2017

Insulin Resistance And T1d: The Effect Of Exercise On Skeletal Muscle Lipid Metabolism, Michelle Dotzert

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Insulin resistance is a characteristic of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome, and until recently has not been considered in the context of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). A new classification, Double Diabetes, encompasses the presence of insulin resistance in T1D. Unfortunately, these individuals are at significantly higher risk of cardiovascular complications than those with T1D alone. In T2D, abnormal skeletal muscle lipid metabolism and the accumulation of insulin desensitizing lipid metabolites contribute the development of insulin resistance. There is some evidence to suggest this occurs in the context of T1D as well. Exercise training is an effective means to ...


The Effects Of Moderate Intensity Strength Training Coupled With Blood Flow Restriction: A 12 Week Intervention, Kelly Barrett Jul 2017

The Effects Of Moderate Intensity Strength Training Coupled With Blood Flow Restriction: A 12 Week Intervention, Kelly Barrett

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Blood flow restriction training (BFRT) has been suggested to increase muscle size and strength in trained and untrained individuals when using light load intensities (30 percent 1-RM). However, there is little data to support its use when working with moderate load intensities, specifically, above 50 percent of an individual’s 1-RM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate load intensity BFRT on muscle size and strength of the biceps brachii after a 12 week strength training intervention. Nine, previously strength trained, participants performed an elbow flexion exercise at 70 percent of their individualized 1-RM, twice ...


Participatory Action Research In Rural Community Sport And Recreation Management, Kyle A. Rich Jul 2017

Participatory Action Research In Rural Community Sport And Recreation Management, Kyle A. Rich

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The research conducted for this dissertation involved a participatory action research (PAR) project with the Municipality of Powassan Recreation Committee. Framed with the literature pertaining to sport and recreation development, community development, and rural community studies, the project sought to explore the perceived significance of sport and recreation, to examine the processes of sport and recreation management, as well as to inform changes to current management and policy making practices within the rural community context. Further, this project sought to identify strengths and challenges of PAR as well as to explore the processes through which researchers can work with community ...