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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Sexual Dimorphism And The Shape Of The Proximal Tibia In A Radiographic Sample, Emily Eiseman Dec 2019

Sexual Dimorphism And The Shape Of The Proximal Tibia In A Radiographic Sample, Emily Eiseman

Theses and Dissertations

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM AND THE SHAPE OF THE PROXIMAL TIBIA IN A RADIOGRAPHIC SAMPLE

This study investigates the use of radiographs to determine sexual dimorphism in the shape of the tibia. The goal of the research was to identify a small set of markers that would allow researchers to efficiently and accurately determine a person’s sex from a radiograph of the proximal tibia.

The sample consisted of radiographs including 75 females and 46 males ranging in age from 21 to 81. Measurements were taken on 27 points around the area of the knee including the tibia, patella, and femur. The ...


Multi-Tap Extended Kalman Filter For A Periodic Waveform With Uncertain Frequency And Waveform Shape, And Data Dropouts, Justin Saboury Aug 2019

Multi-Tap Extended Kalman Filter For A Periodic Waveform With Uncertain Frequency And Waveform Shape, And Data Dropouts, Justin Saboury

Theses and Dissertations

Gait analysis presents the challenge of detecting a periodic waveform in the presence of time varying frequency, amplitude, DC offset, and waveform shape, with acquisition gaps from partial occlusions. The combination of all of these components presents a formidable challenge. The Extended Kalman Filter for this system model has six states, which makes it weakly identifiable within the standard Extended Kalman Filter network. In this work, a novel robust Extended Kalman Filter-based approach is presented and evaluated for clinical use in gait analysis. The novel aspect of the proposed method is that at each sample, the present and several past ...


Quantitative Evaluation Of Geared Manual Wheelchair Mobility In Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury: An Integrative Approach, Omid Jahanian May 2019

Quantitative Evaluation Of Geared Manual Wheelchair Mobility In Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury: An Integrative Approach, Omid Jahanian

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to quantify the effects of using geared wheelchair wheels on upper extremity biomechanics and energy expenditure during functional mobility tasks in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The effects of using geared wheels on hand-rim biomechanics, glenohumeral joint dynamics, and shoulder muscle activity were investigated during manual wheelchair propulsion over tiled and carpeted level-floors and up a ramp in low gear (1.5:1) and standard gear (1:1) conditions. The results for the hand-rim biomechanics indicated that regardless of the terrain, using the geared wheels in the low gear condition significantly decreased the ...


Novel Algorithms For Merging Computational Fluid Dynamics And 4d Flow Mri, Ali Bakhshinejad Aug 2018

Novel Algorithms For Merging Computational Fluid Dynamics And 4d Flow Mri, Ali Bakhshinejad

Theses and Dissertations

Time-resolved three-dimensional spatial encoding combined with three-directional velocity-encoded phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (termed as 4D flow MRI), can provide valuable information for diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of vascular diseases. The accuracy of this technique, however, is limited by errors in flow estimation due to acquisition noise as well as systematic errors. Furthermore, available spatial resolution is limited to 1.5mm - 3mm and temporal resolution is limited to 30-40ms. This is often grossly inadequate to resolve flow details in small arteries, such as those in cerebral circulation. Recently, there have been efforts to address the limitations of the spatial and ...


Does Restricting Anterior Movement Of The Knees During A Barbell Back Squat Alter Lower Extremity Biomechanics?, Lucy Hayward Koshewa Aug 2018

Does Restricting Anterior Movement Of The Knees During A Barbell Back Squat Alter Lower Extremity Biomechanics?, Lucy Hayward Koshewa

Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: The strength implications of the barbell back squat make it ideal for use in training programs, rehabilitation, and competition. Even though the back squat is an integral part of these programs, there are also concerns about injury risk due to improper biomechanics. Restricted squats (knees kept behind the toes) are noted to reduce joint loading at the knees but may not take into account added potential risks for the entire lower extremity. Unrestricted squats are more representative of natural movement patterns but may increase joint loading especially at the knees. Research has explored the biomechanics of back squats in ...


Replacing Sedentary Behavior With A Light Intensity Physical Activity In The Homes Of Older Adults, Nicholas Louis Lerma Aug 2018

Replacing Sedentary Behavior With A Light Intensity Physical Activity In The Homes Of Older Adults, Nicholas Louis Lerma

Theses and Dissertations

Aging is positively correlated with time spent in sedentary behavior (SB), which has been found to be linked to premature mortality, cardiovascular disease risk, and functional limitations. Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) is a potent stimulus for preventing and improving functional limitations in older adults, but less than 17% of the older adult population meets the recommended PA guidelines. While increased time spent in SB is detrimental to health in all, the impact among those that are physically inactive appear to be most pronounced. Recent evidence suggests increasing light-intensity physical activity (LPA) in these populations may provide health benefits and could ...


Exploring Positive Body Image And Motives For Exercise As Predictors Of Intuitive Exercise And Exercise Behavior Among Women, Natalie Michelle Ramsey Aug 2018

Exploring Positive Body Image And Motives For Exercise As Predictors Of Intuitive Exercise And Exercise Behavior Among Women, Natalie Michelle Ramsey

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: To explore three facets of positive body image and motives for exercise as predictors of women’s intuitive exercise and exercise behavior.

Scientific significance: Positive body image has been associated with health-promoting behaviors such as utilizing sun protection techniques and intuitive eating. Despite these findings and the known benefits of exercise, there are no known published studies exploring if positive body image and exercise motivation predict intuitive exercise and exercise behavior in women. Understanding these relationships could facilitate the design of interventions targeting improvements in both psychological well-being and exercise behavior.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study included 391 women (18-91 ...


The Impact Of Stand-Biased Desks On After-School Physical Activity Behaviors In Children, Nathan Tokarek Aug 2017

The Impact Of Stand-Biased Desks On After-School Physical Activity Behaviors In Children, Nathan Tokarek

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to assess changes in after-school time spent performing sedentary behavior (SB), light intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) among elementary school children in response to the introduction of stand-biased desks in the classroom. Thirty-one 6th grade participants randomly assigned by their teacher to a traditional (CON) or stand-biased (INT) desk provided complete accelerometer data. After-school PA and SB were measured on four consecutive weekdays at baseline and 10-weeks. Wilcoxon Rank Sum Tests were used to detect significant differences (p<0.10) in changes in the proportion of after-school wear time performing SB and PA between groups. Results suggested no significant differences in changes in after-school time performing SB (p=0.770), LPA (p=0.740), or MVPA (p=0.470). Significant differences in the change in moderate PA (INT: -1.4%; CON: -0.2%, p=0.093) were detected. Stand-biased desks were not detrimental to children’s after-school PA and SB.


An Array Of Circular Dielectrophoresis Traps To Separate And Charaterize Individual Microparticles From Population, Hwangjae Lee Aug 2017

An Array Of Circular Dielectrophoresis Traps To Separate And Charaterize Individual Microparticles From Population, Hwangjae Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Dielectrophoretic traps have been broadly studied in light of their many advantages of high controllability, ease of operation, and high efficiency. In the previous studies, however, it was challenging to count captured particles or required work to capture particles. In the thesis, an array of circular dielectrophoresis (DEP) traps was developed and tested to manipulate population of microparticles in single particle level. The circular DEP traps enable more precise control of the force field than conventionally used interdigitated electrodes due to its omnidirectional and symmetric properties. The location of the captured microparticle inside the trap was confirmed by both of ...


Cognitive Contributions To Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk, Thomas Gus Almonroeder May 2017

Cognitive Contributions To Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk, Thomas Gus Almonroeder

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore how cognitive factors contribute to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in young females. We specifically wanted to develop a better understanding of how the movement patterns of females with varying cognitive attributes/abilities are influenced as the cognitive demands associated with a task progress (Chapter 2). We also wanted to explore how task-related cognitive demands influence movement. We altered the cognitive demands associated with a movement task by requiring participants to execute a maneuver while attending to a simulated teammate (Chapter 3) or to a ball overhead (Chapters 4 & 5 ...


Visually-Guided Reaching Under Varying Cognitive And Motor Demand In Young Adult Females With A History Of Concussions, Christopher James Fueger May 2017

Visually-Guided Reaching Under Varying Cognitive And Motor Demand In Young Adult Females With A History Of Concussions, Christopher James Fueger

Theses and Dissertations

Every day, vision guides one’s actions to help one successfully navigate through a complex environment. When our visual and motor systems interact efficiently, we may not fully appreciate how flawless and beneficial this process can be to our daily functioning. Yet, one’s available neural resources needed to successfully perform visually-guided movements do have limits. When an individual suffers a brain injury, such as a concussion, the available resources may be compromised. Examining the extent of this decreased resource pool requires challenging the cognitive abilities enough to observe a behavioral deficit. The purpose of this study was to examine ...


Hashtagging Your Health: Using Psychosocial Variables And Social Media Use To Understand Impression Management And Exercise Behaviors In Women, Caitlyn Hauff Dec 2016

Hashtagging Your Health: Using Psychosocial Variables And Social Media Use To Understand Impression Management And Exercise Behaviors In Women, Caitlyn Hauff

Theses and Dissertations

Our society has become heavily reliant on social media, especially in the health and exercise domain. Social and environmental factors impact females’ body image perceptions and create body image disturbances, yet little research is dedicated to the exploration of how social media, and social comparisons through social media exposure, impact exercise behaviors and body image perceptions in females. Considering Perloff's (2014) theoretical model, the current study explored how the interaction between individual psychosocial variables and social media use predict exercise behaviors and engagement in impression management in women. Using a mixed methodological approach, the specific aims of this study ...


Identifying Gait Deficits In Stroke Patients Using Inertial Sensors, Lauren Benson Aug 2016

Identifying Gait Deficits In Stroke Patients Using Inertial Sensors, Lauren Benson

Theses and Dissertations

Falls remain a significant problem for stroke patients. Tripping, the main cause of falls, occurs when there is insufficient clearance between the foot and ground. Based on an individual’s gait deficits, different joint angles and coordination patterns are necessary to achieve adequate foot clearance during walking. However, gait deficits are typically only quantified in a research or clinical setting, and it would be helpful to use wearable devices – such as accelerometers – to quantify gait disorders in real-world situations. Therefore, the objective of this project was to understand gait characteristics that influence the risk of tripping, and to detect these ...


An Examination Of Light Intensity Physical Activity And Health In Older Adults, Whitney A. Welch Aug 2016

An Examination Of Light Intensity Physical Activity And Health In Older Adults, Whitney A. Welch

Theses and Dissertations

Research has begun to quickly emerge on the potential benefit of light intensity physical activity (LPA) to the health of adults. Little is known about LPA, and much of the current LPA research stems from sedentary behavior research. The purpose of this dissertation was to more fully understand, describe, and characterize potential health benefits of LPA by determining the prevalence, patterns, and health benefits of light intensity physical activity in older adults. Three individual studies were completed to address each portion of this purpose. Study 1: Light Intensity Physical Activity and Health in Adults: A Systematic Review. The purpose of ...


The Effects Of Military Style Ruck Marching On Lower Extremity Loading, Daniel N. Poel Aug 2016

The Effects Of Military Style Ruck Marching On Lower Extremity Loading, Daniel N. Poel

Theses and Dissertations

Load carriage while performing prolonged marches may play a role in military overuse injuries. It is known that both external load carriage and muscular fatigue can contribute to increases in ground reaction forces and loading rate and play a role in stress injuries. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not a prolonged military style ruck march will cause changes in vertical ground reaction force and loading rate. 15 healthy members of the Army ROTC and Army National Guard performed vertical jumps, had ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion and eversion strength measured, and walked across a force plate ...


Foot Kinematics And Neuromuscular Preactivation In Habitual Forefoot And Rearfoot Runners, Rhiannon Seneli May 2016

Foot Kinematics And Neuromuscular Preactivation In Habitual Forefoot And Rearfoot Runners, Rhiannon Seneli

Theses and Dissertations

As the rate of running related injuries has failed to decline despite advances in footwear, many researchers have begun focusing on different foot strike patterns possible contribution to injury risk. While many studies have focused on the differences between RFS and FFS running, few have investigated kinematic differences within the distal foot in habitual RFS and FFS runners and have failed to consider mechanical and neuromuscular changes due to fatigue. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate foot kinematics and neuromuscular differences between RFS and FFS runners at the beginning and end of an exhaustive run. Fifteen habitual ...


A Study Of The Hydrostatic And Hydrodynamic Properties Of Aeoliscus Straigatus, Jeremy J. Keifenheim May 2016

A Study Of The Hydrostatic And Hydrodynamic Properties Of Aeoliscus Straigatus, Jeremy J. Keifenheim

Theses and Dissertations

Aeoliscus strigatus is a highly maneuverable fish found in the Indo-Pacific region. It boasts a unique head down posture and employs median paired fin propulsion to perform precise movements. The need for highly maneuverable underwater AUVs for exploration and testing drove the examination of the hydrostatics and hydrodynamics influencing Aeoliscus. To determine the stability of Aeoliscus the center of gravity and buoyancy were found. Center of gravity was experimentally located using the three plumb line method while center of buoyancy was located using two separate methods. The first method utilized the measured buoyant force, a rigidly mounted fish and a ...


Influence Of A Corrective Exercise Training Program On Measures Of Functional Movement Among Active-Duty Firefighters, David James Cornell May 2016

Influence Of A Corrective Exercise Training Program On Measures Of Functional Movement Among Active-Duty Firefighters, David James Cornell

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Previous research suggests that functional movement quality is related to musculoskeletal injury (MSKI) risk, as well as measures of health and fitness, among the firefighter population. Therefore, if a corrective exercise program could elicit improvements in functional movement quality among firefighters, it may be possible to concomitantly improve health and fitness, as well as decrease MSKI risk, among this cohort population of tactical athletes. Methods: Accordingly, 51 active-duty firefighters were recruited to participate in the pre-intervention (Phase 1) and intervention (Phase 2) portions of the current study. Phase 1 examined the relationship between two different functional movement assessments among ...


Investigation Of Neural Mechanisms Of Grip Relaxation, Binal Motawar May 2016

Investigation Of Neural Mechanisms Of Grip Relaxation, Binal Motawar

Theses and Dissertations

Neural mechanisms for grip relaxation are relatively unknown and understudied, as compared to mechanisms for grip initiation. Yet, termination of motor activity is as important as initiation in daily function. This knowledge gap presents incomplete understanding of neural control of hand function and its impairment with aging and neurologic disorders. The purpose of this dissertation was to identify and examine neural mechanisms of grip relaxation in healthy young adults, with aging, and in chronic stroke survivors. A series of experiments in healthy young adults showed that the relaxation from a maximum power grip was mediated by increase in the short-interval ...


The Lived Experiences Of An Injured Athlete And Members Of A Performance Management Team During Injury Rehabilitation: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, Courtney Wynne Hess Dec 2015

The Lived Experiences Of An Injured Athlete And Members Of A Performance Management Team During Injury Rehabilitation: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, Courtney Wynne Hess

Theses and Dissertations

In response to an ever growing understanding of the biopsychosocial nature of health and well-being, multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to rehabilitation have grown in acceptance over the past decade. Studies that have explored the effect of these two approaches have found them to be effective in improving rehabilitation outcomes (McAlister et al., 2001; Tur et al., 2003). Although they have been shown to be objectively effective, the impact that these approaches have on the lived experiences of the team employing them, and the athlete or patient they serve, is not well understood. As such, the purpose of the current study ...


Upper Extremity Kinematic And Kinetic Comparison Of Anterior Versus Posterior Walkers During Functional Activities In Children With Cerebral Palsy, Chris Burckardt Dec 2015

Upper Extremity Kinematic And Kinetic Comparison Of Anterior Versus Posterior Walkers During Functional Activities In Children With Cerebral Palsy, Chris Burckardt

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Investigating the differences in upper extremity (UE) joint biomechanics between anterior and posterior walkers has been explored in limited contexts, even though research has shown that prolonged use of walking aids can lead to UE joint weakening or musculoskeletal injuries. Recent studies have investigated some of these differences in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) during gait; however, no research has been conducted that compare these UE joint biomechanical differences during functional activities or activities of daily living (ADLs). The aim of this study is to use motion analysis to compare kinematic and kinetic differences between anterior and ...


The Development Of The Single-Leg Landing Error Scoring System (Sl-Less) For Lower Extremity Movement Screening, Maegan L. O'Connor Dec 2015

The Development Of The Single-Leg Landing Error Scoring System (Sl-Less) For Lower Extremity Movement Screening, Maegan L. O'Connor

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Musculoskeletal knee injuries are some of the most common sports-related injuries. Movement screening assessments are often implemented to identify high-risk individuals in order to prevent the injury and the negative long-term consequences related to sustaining these injuries. While there are numerous established field-based assessments none have shown a strong ability to predict future injury. Additionally, there is currently there is no two-dimensional (2D) screening measure to evaluate the movement of multiple body segments in more than one plane during a single-leg task. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Single-Leg Landing Error ...


Adaptation Of Moiré Phase Tracking To A Mobile Device For Field 3d Data Collections, Amar Nikhanj Dec 2015

Adaptation Of Moiré Phase Tracking To A Mobile Device For Field 3d Data Collections, Amar Nikhanj

Theses and Dissertations

The accelerating technologies of mobiles devices such as tablets and phones provide an ability to

perform high intensity calculations all while obtaining precise data with increasingly more accurate

sensors. Image metrology and 3D motion tracking can take advantage of these improvements as

they require both significant processing power and camera controls not seen in mobile devices until

very recently. This thesis discusses the development of 3D motion tracking using Google Nexus

tablets and applying the technology to the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) to demonstrate

the technology’s application to field measurements. RULA analysis determines the stress placed on

a ...


Entheses And Activities: The Multivariate Mechanisms Of Entheseal Change For Individuals Represented By The 2013 Excavations Of The Milwaukee County Institution Grounds Cemetery, Jessica L. Skinner Dec 2015

Entheses And Activities: The Multivariate Mechanisms Of Entheseal Change For Individuals Represented By The 2013 Excavations Of The Milwaukee County Institution Grounds Cemetery, Jessica L. Skinner

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

ENTHESES AND ACTIVITIES: THE MULTIVARIATE MECHANISMS OF ENTHESEAL CHANGE FOR INDIVIDUALS REPRESENTED BY THE 2013 EXCAVATIONS OF THE MILWAUKEE COUNTY INSTITUTION GROUNDS CEMETERY

by

Jessica L. Skinner

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2015

Under the Supervision of Professor Fred Anapol

The analysis of the features that mark tendon and muscle insertion sites on bone has been used in an attempt to reconstruct past life activity patterns of individuals and populations represented by skeletal remains. Many of these analyses have focused on comparing evidence from these individuals with known musculoskeletal and biomechanical data. Recent experimental tests have illustrated that defining these ...


Classification Of Adequate Impact Protection For Hands, Patrick Dylan Loshek Aug 2015

Classification Of Adequate Impact Protection For Hands, Patrick Dylan Loshek

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

CLASSIFICATION OF ADEQUATE

IMPACT PROTECTION FOR HANDS

by

Patrick D. Loshek

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2015

Under the Supervision of Professor Naira Campbell-Kyureghyan

Historically, hand injuries have been a large burden for the manufacturing, construction, mining, oil and gas industries. Specially designed gloves are commonly used in industry today to protect hands from impacts. These gloves are designed to reduce hand injuries by absorbing the impact forces workers may encounter due to objects striking the hand. However, to date, there is no standard for the testing of these gloves and quantifying the force reduction a user would experience when ...


Individual, Occupational And Biomechanical Factors That Affect Slip And Fall Risk From Fixed Ladders, Erika Mae Pliner Aug 2015

Individual, Occupational And Biomechanical Factors That Affect Slip And Fall Risk From Fixed Ladders, Erika Mae Pliner

Theses and Dissertations

Injuries from ladder falls are prevalent and severe. Previous research has examined certain elements of ladder falls such as the ladder base slipping, but few studies have examined the factors that contribute to climbers falling from the ladder, particularly for permanent/fixed ladders. In addition, the biomechanical response to a ladder slip/misstep during ladder climbing and the factors that affect a fall from a ladder are not well understood. This thesis is a two part study that simulated ladder slips and missteps in order to find factors 1) associated with ladder slip risk and 2) that decrease fall severity ...


An Optimization Method For Estimating Joint Parameters Of The Hip And Knee, Ben Tesch Dec 2014

An Optimization Method For Estimating Joint Parameters Of The Hip And Knee, Ben Tesch

Theses and Dissertations

Biomechanics, generally speaking, concerns the application of engineeringprinciples to the study of living things. This work is concerned withhuman movement analysis, a subfield of biomechanics, where the methodsof classical mechanics are applied to human movement. This field hascontributed to the general understanding of human movement, and itstechniques are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Centralto the field is the process of measuring human movement. Since classicalmechanics deals with the motion of rigid bodies, and ideal measurementsystem would be able to accurately record the exact pose --- combinedposition and orientation --- of the bones. The techniques that reachthis ideal require exposure ...


Foot And Ankle Kinematic And Lower Extremity Muscle Activity During Descent From Varying Step Heights, Emily Gerstle Dec 2014

Foot And Ankle Kinematic And Lower Extremity Muscle Activity During Descent From Varying Step Heights, Emily Gerstle

Theses and Dissertations

Ankle injuries are common during activities of daily living, particularly in negotiation of steps. Previous studies examining steps have generally focused on the ankle, knee, or hip and descent of multiple steps. Joint motion within the foot, utilizing a multi-segment foot model, during step descent has not been extensively studied. Although peroneal muscle activity differences have been identified between participants with healthy and unstable ankles during static activities, little is known about peroneal activity during activities of daily living. A better understanding of the foot kinematics and muscle activity in persons with uninjured ankles may help future studies elucidate the ...


Role Of Sensation In Altered Phalanx Grip Force In Persons With Stroke, Leah R. Enders Dec 2014

Role Of Sensation In Altered Phalanx Grip Force In Persons With Stroke, Leah R. Enders

Theses and Dissertations

Many individuals experience hand impairment after stroke leading to decreased ability to perform daily living activities. Previous research studies have investigated how stroke survivors' pinch grip control differs from healthy individuals, even though many individuals can only grasp with power grip after stroke. Furthermore, many stroke survivors experience tactile sensory deficit in their paretic limb in addition to motor deficit. It is currently unknown how stroke induced tactile sensory deficit affects power grip force directional control, which is important in terms of preventing object slippage and power grip normal force generation. Additionally it is unknown if power grip could be ...


Effects Of Active Video Games In The Rehabilitation Of Ankle Sprains And Chronic Ankle Instability, Nathan Maresh Aug 2014

Effects Of Active Video Games In The Rehabilitation Of Ankle Sprains And Chronic Ankle Instability, Nathan Maresh

Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Research into the treatment of acute lateral ankle sprains with individuals currently suffering from an acute injury, rather than a history of injury, is sparse. These acute injuries have psychological effects (e.g. confidence in one's readiness to return to play, changes to one's mood, adherence to the rehabilitation) to the individual that must be recognized as they have the potential to affect the rehabilitation process as much as the physical effects. In spite of previous research into the treatment of acute lateral ankle sprains the rate of recurrent injury remains high. With these recurrent ankle sprains ...