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Effects Of High-Carbohydrate Versus Mixed-Macronutrient Meals On Soccer Physiology And Performance, Jaison Lee Wynne Jul 2019

Effects Of High-Carbohydrate Versus Mixed-Macronutrient Meals On Soccer Physiology And Performance, Jaison Lee Wynne

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to measure the effects of an acute pre-competition high-carbohydrate (HCHO) meal versus a mixed-macronutrient (MM) meal on physiology, perceptual responses, and performance in 15 division I female collegiate soccer players. Being there are conjectural advantages to pre-exercise meals higher in fiber, fat, and protein, this study was conducted to evaluate the physiological and perceptual effects of pre-competition MM meals. This study used a randomized, investigator-blinded, crossover design involving two dietary interventions – HCHO and MM meals – that were consumed four hours prior to two separate intra-squad soccer scrimmages. Assessments included running metrics via global positioning ...


The Impact Of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructive Surgery On Neuromotor Function, Cortney Noel Armitano Apr 2019

The Impact Of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructive Surgery On Neuromotor Function, Cortney Noel Armitano

Rehabilitation Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the systemic neuromechanical implications in individuals who have had an ACL reconstruction (ACLR) compared to healthy controls. The specific aims addressed were to: 1) examine differences in inter-limb coordination during walking at different speeds, 2) examine differences in trunk, neck and head acceleration during gait, and 3) investigate whether the reaction time responses assessed during stepping are negatively affected by ACLR.

The findings of study 1 revealed that maximal coordination stability was achieved when walking at the person’s preferred gait speed. However, individuals with a previous ACLR exhibited reduced coordination stability ...


Effects Of A Postural Restoration Focused Intervention On Muscle Activation During Deadlifts, Caleb Richardson Apr 2019

Effects Of A Postural Restoration Focused Intervention On Muscle Activation During Deadlifts, Caleb Richardson

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of implementing two Postural Restoration exercises and relating principles on deadlifts using a hexagonal barbell. Specifically, we aimed to examine the effects of the intervention on muscle activation and the location of the ground reaction force (GRF) center of pressure. Sixteen subjects (age 18-35 yrs.; male (n=14); female (n=2)), with at least 1 year of deadlifting experience, were randomly assigned into a control and intervention group (both n=8). Both groups performed two sets of three repetitions of deadlifts at 50% and at 80% of their estimated one ...


Behavioral Determinants Of Exercise-Related Injury Prevention Program Participation, Emily M. Hartley Apr 2018

Behavioral Determinants Of Exercise-Related Injury Prevention Program Participation, Emily M. Hartley

Health Services Research Dissertations

Lower extremity injuries are common among the physically active population. There are many negative consequences associated with these injuries which have led to a shift in clinical practice towards prevention. Exercise-related injury prevention programs (ERIPPs) were created to prevent musculoskeletal injuries that occur due to participation in physical activity. However, one of the major limitations to their effectiveness is the compliance of the users to complete the prescribed exercises. It is imperative to better understand the reasons why compliance is low to develop implementation strategies and improve compliance rates.

The overarching purpose of this dissertation was to gain a better ...


Physiological Tremor In Handgun Aiming And Shooting Tasks, Kyle J. Kelleran Apr 2018

Physiological Tremor In Handgun Aiming And Shooting Tasks, Kyle J. Kelleran

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

When holding an outstretched limb or aiming at a target, humans produce small involuntary fluctuations that may hamper performance. Current strategies for minimizing the impact of tremulous oscillations predominantly include both extrinsic and intrinsic support. The aim of the current dissertation is to better understand the parameters of physiological tremor associated with handgun aiming with the end goal of improving shooting accuracy. Experiment 1 focused on handgun aiming and the influence of different arm posture adopted during aiming. Experiment 2 expanded upon the findings of experiment 1 by comparing tremor during finger pointing, handgun aiming, and handgun shooting. Experiment 3 ...


Effects Of Knee Sleeves On Knee Mechanics During Squats At Variable Depths, Alexandria A. Trypuc Jan 2018

Effects Of Knee Sleeves On Knee Mechanics During Squats At Variable Depths, Alexandria A. Trypuc

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The squat is a functional, compound and multi-joint exercise that targets several muscles of the lower body and is widely used in both athletics and many exercise programs. This exercise has been the subject of many studies, comparing different squat variations and examining how external gear, such as squat suits and knee wraps impact the exercise. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of wearing neoprene knee sleeves on lower extremity kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activations during weighted back squats. Fifteen resistance trained men and women, aged 28±5 years, from the local fitness community and university ...


Hip Mechanics Of Unilateral Drop Landings, Bobbie S. Irmischer Jul 2017

Hip Mechanics Of Unilateral Drop Landings, Bobbie S. Irmischer

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Increased hip forces are a proposed factor for osteoarthritis and femoroacetabular impingement. These forces can be estimated through musculoskeletal modeling using measured kinematics and kinetics. An understanding of hip joint loading during landing in a asymptomatic population will begin to elucidate what, if any, sex differences exist and how changes in landing condition alter hip mechanics. The overall purpose of this dissertation was to explore how sex and landing condition effect landing mechanics. Landing mechanics were quantified using ground reaction forces (GRF), hip joint forces (HJF), and lower extremity kinematics during unilateral drop landings from 30-cm, 40-cm, and 50-cm, as ...


Associations Between Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, And Falls Risk In Healthy Older Individuals, Christopher Deane Vaughan Oct 2016

Associations Between Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, And Falls Risk In Healthy Older Individuals, Christopher Deane Vaughan

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between objectively measured physical activity, physical fitness, and the risk of falling. Methods: A total of n=29 subjects completed the study, n=15 male and n=14 female age (mean±SD)= 70± 4 and 71±3 years, respectively. In a single testing session, subjects performed pre-post evaluations of falls risk (Short-from PPA) with a 6-minute walking intervention between the assessments. The falls risk assessment included tests of balance, knee extensor strength, proprioception, reaction time, and visual contrast. The sub-maximal effort 6-minute walking task served as an indirect assessment of ...


The Effects Of Fitness Level And Sex On Epoc Following High Intensity Interval And Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise, Rachel Lauren Simmons Apr 2016

The Effects Of Fitness Level And Sex On Epoc Following High Intensity Interval And Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise, Rachel Lauren Simmons

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

In the past few years, much attention has been directed toward shorter-duration vigorous intensity aerobic exercise as opposed to longer-duration moderate intensity exercise. There is conflicting evidence as to whether vigorous exercise can result in a greater excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) and thus more calories burned when compared to moderate continuous exercise performed for a longer duration. In addition, the literature contains a dearth of information isolating and investigating male and female response to these exercises, as well as fit and unfit subjects. The purpose of this study was to quantify EPOC following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (MOD) and ...


Kinematics And Hydrodynamics Of Cephalopod Turning Performance In Routine Swimming And Predatory Attacks, Rachel A. Jastrebsky Oct 2015

Kinematics And Hydrodynamics Of Cephalopod Turning Performance In Routine Swimming And Predatory Attacks, Rachel A. Jastrebsky

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Steady rectilinear swimming has received considerable attention in aquatic animal locomotion studies. Unsteady swimming movements, however, represent a large portion of many aquatic animals’ locomotive repertoire and have not been examined extensively. This study incorporates kinematic analyses of routine turning performance of brief squid Lolliguncula brevis and dwarf cuttlefish Sepia bandensis (Chapter 2), 3D velocimetry techniques to examine hydrodynamic turning performance of L. brevis (Chapter 3) and kinematic analyses of turning performance of L. brevis during predatory attacks on shrimp and fish prey (Chapter 4).

Both L. brevis and S. bandensis demonstrated high maneuverability, having the lowest measures of length-specific ...


Lower Extremity Biomechanics In Individuals With And Without Previous Hamstring Injury, Jessica A. Mutchler Jul 2015

Lower Extremity Biomechanics In Individuals With And Without Previous Hamstring Injury, Jessica A. Mutchler

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Primary risk factors for hamstrings strains such as fatigue, previous injury and strength deficits have been identified in the research, yet re-injury rates remain high among the physically active. Sub-acute analysis of the hip, knee and ankle biomechanics following a hamstrings strain have been largely overlooked and may provide additional insight into re-injury risks. It was the aim of this dissertation to explore long-term adaptations in walking and running tasks following a hamstrings strain, and to develop a hip endurance test that could be used in future studies.

Project one used a cross-sectional study with test-retest design to develop and ...


The Effects Of Pre-Maximal Exertion Inhalation Of Ammonia And The Performance Effects During Deadlift Maximal Tests, Justin Nicholas Vigil Jul 2015

The Effects Of Pre-Maximal Exertion Inhalation Of Ammonia And The Performance Effects During Deadlift Maximal Tests, Justin Nicholas Vigil

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ammonia as a stimulant on athletic performance during a deadlift one maximal repetition (1-RM) absolute strength test. It was hypothesized that ammonia inhalation would result in a larger 1-RM, possibly due to immediate catecholamine release attributed to the fight-or-flight response. If proven effective, ammonia inhalation would present an option to increase power and strength performance during training and competition based on an acute manipulation of natural occurring hormones, eliminating the side effects attributed to other supplementation methods. Subjects (n = 10 males, X±SD age = 21±1 years, mass = 72 ...


Educational Practices And Attainment Of Competency In The Professional Preparation Of An Athletic Trainer, Julie M. Cavallario Apr 2015

Educational Practices And Attainment Of Competency In The Professional Preparation Of An Athletic Trainer, Julie M. Cavallario

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The professional education of athletic trainers will continue to evolve as the needs of the profession, and the healthcare system, change. In current educational practices the educational preparation of an athletic trainer can take place at the undergraduate or post-baccalaureate level. Additionally, there are no universally applicable outcome measures for comparison of student performance in the clinical education portion of existing curriculums.

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the existing education practices, especially relevant to clinical education, currently in place for athletic training (AT) at the professional level. The purpose of the literature review was to historically examine ...


Lower Extremity Biomechanics During Single Leg Drop Landings In Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain, Stacey L. Gaven Apr 2013

Lower Extremity Biomechanics During Single Leg Drop Landings In Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain, Stacey L. Gaven

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Patellofemoral joint pain (PFP) is one of the most common afflictions of the active population. While etiological factors encompassing the entire lower extremity have been associated with PFP, participation in athletic activities while fatigued may further influence abnormal biomechanics in individuals with this condition. The aim of Project I was to investigate the lower extremity (LE) biomechanics during a single leg(SL) drop landing in individuals with and without PFP. Project II aimed to investigate the LE biomechanics of individuals with PFP during a SL drop landing pre and post an aerobic exercise protocol. Project 111 investigated the LE biomechanics ...


Changes In The Dynamics Of Postural And Locomotor Control As A Result Of Varying Task Demands, Kathleen Sherry Thomas Apr 2013

Changes In The Dynamics Of Postural And Locomotor Control As A Result Of Varying Task Demands, Kathleen Sherry Thomas

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The aim of this study was to examine changes in postural and locomotor control under varying task demands. Three experiments were designed to address the impact that fast walking had on standing posture over time, slow walking had on gait dynamics over time, and the extent to which gait speed interacts with the ability to walk randomly.

For experiment I, the aim was to identify the time course in which postural adaptation occurred while walking at faster than preferred speeds. Postural motion was assessed at specific intervals over a 35-min walking trial. Findings revealed that walking at a faster speed ...


Multilevel Analysis Of Physical Activity Among Us Adults Across Us Census Regions: The Role Of Environmental Contexts, Sariyamon Tiraphat Jul 2012

Multilevel Analysis Of Physical Activity Among Us Adults Across Us Census Regions: The Role Of Environmental Contexts, Sariyamon Tiraphat

Health Services Research Dissertations

This study uses nationally representative data to explain the variation in physical activity among U.S. adults across four geographic regions of Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether environmental conditions inclusive of natural amenity, built environment, urbanization, crime, and social economic neighborhood are associated with physical activity and whether these associations are modified by geographic region. The study also investigates whether the influences of environmental contexts vary by subgroup and whether they are modified by geographic region. Determining regional factors that influence physical activity is essential to planning appropriate physical activity interventions ...


Alternative Therapy And Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes, Carmine R. Grieco Apr 2012

Alternative Therapy And Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes, Carmine R. Grieco

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The rise in prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in the developing world continues unabated. Current treatment strategies, however, fall short of achieving optimal glycemic control. The aim of project I was to investigate the effect of an acute bout of a yogic breathing exercise on heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with T2D. Project II was designed to assess the effectiveness of the neurohormone melatonin in lowering short- and long-term glucose levels, lipids and oxidative stress in T2D. Project III investigated the differential effects of two different styles of aerobic exercise on postprandial glycemia, mood and ...


The Influence Of Interlimb Differences On Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Factors In Female Collegiate Soccer Athletes, Eric Kevin Greska Apr 2012

The Influence Of Interlimb Differences On Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Factors In Female Collegiate Soccer Athletes, Eric Kevin Greska

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Female collegiate soccer athletes suffer anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries at a rate of 0.31 per 1000 athlete-exposures, with 67% of injuries expected to be from a non-contact mechanism. As well, previous studies have demonstrated dissimilarity in non-contact ACL injuries relative to dominant and non-dominant legs; with the non-dominant leg being the involved side in 48-67% of reported incidents. The aim of this study was to examine lower extremity neuromechanics relative to leg dominance during an unanticipated sidestep cutting task, with differing states of fatigue and training.

Twenty female collegiate soccer players performed three valid trials for both the ...


Evidence-Based Practice For The Athletic Training Profession, Cailee Elizabeth Welch Apr 2012

Evidence-Based Practice For The Athletic Training Profession, Cailee Elizabeth Welch

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

As evidence-based practice (EBP) becomes a necessity in athletic training, it is essential to recognize current barriers and modes of accessibility to information for enhancement of clinical decision-making. Furthermore, the effectiveness of educational interventions (EI) to enhance knowledge of EBP concepts must be investigated. The aim of Project I was to assess attitudes and beliefs, perceived barriers, and accessibility to resources of EBP among athletic trainers (AT). Project II was designed to investigate the effect of an EI on enhancing AT's knowledge of EBP concepts. Project III explored ATs' experiences of the EI and whether it elicited changes within ...


Optimizing Chronic Slow Breathing Training To Cause A Therapeutic Effect On Heart Rate Variability, Jennifer Joy Brown Jan 2012

Optimizing Chronic Slow Breathing Training To Cause A Therapeutic Effect On Heart Rate Variability, Jennifer Joy Brown

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to determine the basic state of an individual's autonomic health. The current study attempted to establish the minimum frequency of breathing practice necessary to produce a therapeutic effect on HRV over the course of a four-week period with four different treatment groups, specifically, groups that practiced a slow breathing protocol for either 2, 3 or 5 times per week, and a control group. Forty-three subjects (14 males, 29 females), ages 18–50 years, were screened, pre-tested, matched for sex, age and HRV, assigned to a ...


Evidence-Based Practice In Clinical Athletic Training Education, Dorice A. Hankemeier Apr 2011

Evidence-Based Practice In Clinical Athletic Training Education, Dorice A. Hankemeier

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) concepts are becoming more prevalent in the educational curricula of nursing, medicine, physical therapy, and athletic training. The infusion of EBP in the clinical education experience of students has been slow especially in athletic training. The aim of Project I was to investigate approved clinical instructors (ACIs) experience and implementation of EBP with students through emergent design qualitative interviews. Project II was designed to develop and establish the reliability of the Evidence-Based Concepts Assessment (EBCA) to assess athletic trainers' perceived importance, attitudes & beliefs, knowledge, confidence, accessibility, and barriers of EBP. Project III investigated the importance, knowledge, and ...


The Association Between Different Clinical Methods For Evaluating Lower Extremity Muscular Function, Roger Olen Kollock Jr. Jan 2011

The Association Between Different Clinical Methods For Evaluating Lower Extremity Muscular Function, Roger Olen Kollock Jr.

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Insufficient muscular strength at the hip and thigh may increase an athlete's susceptibility to lower extremity injuries. In an attempt to reduce this risk, researchers have proposed lower limb strength testing within preparticipation physical examinations (PPE) and return-to-play (RTP) evaluations. However, because of cost, mobility, and or set-up time, some methods are not feasible in certain settings. Since methodological approaches between methods can vary, having different contraction modes and testing parameters, substitution of one method for another may not be valid. Therefore, the purpose of this study is three-fold: a) to determine the association between isometric and isokinetic contraction ...


Evidence-Based Practice In Undergraduate Athletic Training Education, Sarah A. Manspeaker Apr 2010

Evidence-Based Practice In Undergraduate Athletic Training Education, Sarah A. Manspeaker

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

As Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) has progressed within medicine, nursing, and physical therapy, athletic training has been subsequently slow to infuse EBP and its associated concepts at the professional level. The aim of Project I was to determine athletic training instructors experience and use of evidence-based concepts (EBC) during instruction through emergent design qualitative interviews. Project II was designed to establish the Evidence-Based Teaching Model (EBTM) as a tool for athletic training educators' to use to introduce EBP concepts to professional students.

Project I featured 11 educators from Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) programs. Instructors identified primary approaches ...


Neuromechanical Analysis Of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Risk Factors In Female Collegiate Soccer Athletes, Nelson Cortes Apr 2010

Neuromechanical Analysis Of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Risk Factors In Female Collegiate Soccer Athletes, Nelson Cortes

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) acts in an essential role to prevent anterior tibial displacement when experiencing jump-landing forces that are applied to the lower extremity; more than 100,000 injuries per year in the United States in sport activities that often require landing, deceleration-acceleration, cutting and pivoting actions have been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the nature of any lower limb coupling differences between a drop-jump and a side-step cutting actions, assess kinematic and kinetic differences between three tasks, and evaluate the effects of two landing techniques in biomechanical risk factors while performing two unanticipated ...


Identifying Determinants Of Physical Activity In Maritime Union Members Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Susan Atkinson Tweed Jul 2008

Identifying Determinants Of Physical Activity In Maritime Union Members Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Susan Atkinson Tweed

Health Services Research Dissertations

This study examined the usefulness of the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict how attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention are associated with physical activity in longshoremen from the Hampton Roads Shipping Association-International Longshoreman's Association (HRSA-ILA). The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, five focus groups were conducted to elicit information about the health behaviors of longshoremen. From the results of these focus groups, a 90-question, theory based, self-reported questionnaire was developed to identify beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions that contribute to longshoremen engaging in physical activity. In the ...


The Effect Of Three Foot Orthoses On Plantar Pressure Under The First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Of Pes Planus Foot Type During Standing And Slow Running, Lacey Ann Nordsiden Apr 2007

The Effect Of Three Foot Orthoses On Plantar Pressure Under The First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Of Pes Planus Foot Type During Standing And Slow Running, Lacey Ann Nordsiden

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of three different foot orthoses on plantar pressure under the first metatarsophalangeal joint during standing and slow running. Twenty physically active participants, 12 males (19.7±1.3 years, 181.5±6.3cm, 83.6±12.3kg) and 8 females (20.8±1.5 years, 172.7±11.2cm, 69.9±14.2kg) with navicular drop greater than 10mm, no history of surgery to the lower extremity, and no history of pain or injury to the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint in the past six months volunteered for the study. Each subject ...