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Examining The Evolution Of Urban Multipurpose Facilities: Applying The Ideal-Type To The Facilities Of The National Hockey League And National Basketball Association, Benjamin Downs Jul 2019

Examining The Evolution Of Urban Multipurpose Facilities: Applying The Ideal-Type To The Facilities Of The National Hockey League And National Basketball Association, Benjamin Downs

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The standardized versions of ice hockey and basketball emerged during the last quarter of the 19thcentury. In short order both ice hockey and basketball evolved from amateur, recreational activities to professional sport and entertainment businesses. This study analyzes, contextualizes, and discusses the layout of the urban multipurpose facilities that emerged to house both professional hockey and professional basketball, with particular attention paid to the facilities of the National Hockey League and National Basketball Association. The study uses the lens of modernization and the ideal-type heuristic device to extend Bale’s and Seifried’s facility evolution models. In addition ...


Impact Of Psychological And Physical Stressors On The Exercise-Induced Immune Response In Collegiate Swimmers, Connor Alexander Kuremsky Jan 2019

Impact Of Psychological And Physical Stressors On The Exercise-Induced Immune Response In Collegiate Swimmers, Connor Alexander Kuremsky

LSU Master's Theses

Evidence suggests high-intensity exercise training increases incidence of upper respiratory infection in young-adult athletes (Spence et al. 2007). Collegiate athletes experience chronic stress, which has been shown to result in increased proportions of late-differentiated CD8+ T-cells of a dysfunctional phenotype (Bosch et al. 2009). However, many studies fail to consider possible moderators such as psychological stress and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Purpose: To examine the impact of psychological stress, CMV infection, and exercise on proportions of early- and late-differentiated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in collegiate swimmers over a 7-month training period. Methods: Data were collected from NCAA Division 1 swimmers (13 ...


Examining Anxiety And Achievement Goal Theory In Physical Activity Settings, Timothy Michael Dasinger Mar 2018

Examining Anxiety And Achievement Goal Theory In Physical Activity Settings, Timothy Michael Dasinger

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

In the United States (US), a majority of adults do not meet the recommended guides of physical activity despite the many benefits. One benefit of activity is the reduction of anxiety. Although there is robust evidence demonstrating the anxiolytic effects of physical activity, the mechanism is not fully understood. Some psychological explanations are related to a lack of confidence in one’s ability. Because of this, Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) may be a viable framework to explain the anxiolytic effects of physical activity. The focus of this dissertation is to examine the efficacy of AGT as a mechanism and to ...


Physiological And Psychological Well-Being During The Spring Season In Female Soccer Players, Adam Conrad Lowe Jan 2017

Physiological And Psychological Well-Being During The Spring Season In Female Soccer Players, Adam Conrad Lowe

LSU Master's Theses

Female student-athletes are an understudied population that are exposed to athletic stressors in addition to academic and social stressors. This study is designed to investigate the physiological and psychological well-being during the spring season in female Division I soccer players. During the 2017 spring season, participants competed in five matches over five weeks and participated in three to four soccer training sessions in between match days. To measure well-being, both objective and subjective measures were used. Activation state was collected via the Activation Deactivation Adjective Checklist (AD-ACL) before all matches. Heart rate and heart rate variability were measured during all ...


Kinetic And Kinematic Variables Related To Medial Elbow Joint Space In Collegiate Baseball Pitchers, Meghan Reid Jackson Jan 2017

Kinetic And Kinematic Variables Related To Medial Elbow Joint Space In Collegiate Baseball Pitchers, Meghan Reid Jackson

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a prime stabilizer in the elbow against valgus force. It is also a commonly injured structure in the overhead-throwing athlete. The majority of literature to date assesses the medial elbow by adding a valgus stress or evaluates the elbow after injury has occurred. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore static changes to the medial elbow and the relationship with the overhead throw. The first investigation sought to determine if there was a bilateral difference in the medial joint space of the elbow in general population college-aged students. There was no significant difference ...


The Immediate And Extended Effect Of Diet And Exercise On Metabolic Flexibility, Timothy Allerton Jan 2017

The Immediate And Extended Effect Of Diet And Exercise On Metabolic Flexibility, Timothy Allerton

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Metabolic inflexibility is an emerging physiological marker indicative of metabolic dysfunction and associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Exercise is a potent stimulus to improve metabolic health, however, not much is known about the acute effects of exercise on metabolic flexibility (METFLEX). The purpose of this dissertation was study the time-course of diet and exercise and its effects on METFLEX. Three studies were conducted to investigate molecular and clinical aspects of diet and exercise and how these stimuli may alter the metabolic response to fuel. The first study was conducted on obesity-prone, Osborne-Mendel (OM) and obesity-resistant S5B/Pl ...


Organizational Misconduct Within The National Collegiate Athletic Association, Khirey Bennie Walker Jan 2017

Organizational Misconduct Within The National Collegiate Athletic Association, Khirey Bennie Walker

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Prior research on organizational misconduct within intercollegiate athletics focuses on the penalties administered by the NCAA and types of violations committed by member institutions, rather than the engagement of misconduct and the role of the NCAA as a social-control agent. Consequently, the purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the relationship between social-control agents and potential wrongdoers (i.e., organizations), in addition to how the relationship affects the evolving line separating right from wrong. A three-paper multiple method examination has been conducted, including a historical analysis of NCAA enforcement, a qualitative framing analysis on the detailing of NCAA major infractions ...


Exploring Social Indicators Of Situational Interest In Physical Education And Activity Classes: Integration Of Interest And Self-Determination Theories, Joseph Opiri Otundo Jan 2017

Exploring Social Indicators Of Situational Interest In Physical Education And Activity Classes: Integration Of Interest And Self-Determination Theories, Joseph Opiri Otundo

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

It is clearly documented that physically active lifestyles result in numerous health benefits. Unfortunately, a majority of individuals do not meet recommended physical activity (PA) guidelines. Physical education (PE) courses provide avenues for students to increase PA. Teachers and public health officials identify the importance of student motivation constructs such as interest in promoting PA behaviors and other healthy life habits. The purposes of this dissertation were to advance the measurement of situational interest by investigating social indicators derived from self-determination theory (SDT), and to test a theoretical model that integrates interest theory and SDT. Two quantitative studies were designed ...


Managerial Labor Mobility In The National Football League, Jeremy Joseph Foreman Jan 2017

Managerial Labor Mobility In The National Football League, Jeremy Joseph Foreman

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Within the present dissertation, determinants of leader dismissals, promotions, and demotions are explored. A model of CEO dismissals is adapted to the context of the National Football League (NFL), whereby head coaches represent CEOs. Building upon empirical studies of the CEO dismissal model, a proxy is established which is representative of actual candidates to replace an executive rather than proxies based on industry and firm characteristics. Using the proxy for candidates provided statistically insignificant results that challenge the theoretical relationship between candidate availability and executive dismissals. Additionally, the present dissertation proposed and found empirical justification for incorporating an additional socio-political ...


Class-Related Emotions In Physical Education: A Control-Value Theory Approach, Kelly L. Simonton Jan 2016

Class-Related Emotions In Physical Education: A Control-Value Theory Approach, Kelly L. Simonton

LSU Master's Theses

This study investigated a model of students’ control beliefs and task value in physical education (PE). Specifically, it examined relationships among students’ perceptions of their teachers’ communication and instructional clarity, control beliefs and values toward PE, and academic emotions. High school students (N= 529) completed valid and reliable instruments assessing perceptions of teacher characteristics, control, value, enjoyment, and boredom in PE. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and internal reliability estimates were calculated. A path analysis was used to test the hypothesis that teacher communication and clarity would be related to control-value appraisals which would in turn, positively predict enjoyment or boredom ...


Testing Fitness-Related Phone Application Technology In Physical Activity Classes, Angela Nicole Simonton Jan 2016

Testing Fitness-Related Phone Application Technology In Physical Activity Classes, Angela Nicole Simonton

LSU Master's Theses

Many young adults are inactive (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010) and time spent on smartphones and applications (“apps”) is high (Pew Research Center, 2014; The Nielsen Company, 2014). Technology is often viewed as a barrier to health behavior, so seeking ways of using technology to facilitate physical activity (PA) and other health-related behaviors could be beneficial. The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) framework was used to determine if the NexTrack smartphone app could increase PA behaviors and SCT-related constructs among university students in PA courses. Participants in the NexTrack app intervention group were hypothesized to report increased psychosocial and ...


Neural Recovery Rates Of Knee Extensors Following A Resistance Exercise Protocol, Darren Michael Polk Jan 2016

Neural Recovery Rates Of Knee Extensors Following A Resistance Exercise Protocol, Darren Michael Polk

LSU Master's Theses

Fatigue can manifest in the human body in a multitude of ways, one of these is neural-based fatigue. Neural-based fatigue occurs when the nerve fails to activate a muscle (Brooks et al., 2005). The purpose of this research is to investigate rates of neural recovery following a resistance exercise protocol. A pre-test consisting of a 5-second maximum voluntary isometric knee extension was performed. Next, each subject performed a resistance exercise protocol consisting of 5 sets of 10 repetitions of isokinetic knee extensions. Post-tests following the resistance exercise protocol consisted of 5-second maximum voluntary isometric knee extensions after 1, 5, 10 ...


How Do Social Norms Affect Physical Activity And Performance On An Endurance Task?, Keith David Randazzo Jan 2016

How Do Social Norms Affect Physical Activity And Performance On An Endurance Task?, Keith David Randazzo

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Despite the extensive benefits associated with a physically active life style, less than 50% of US adults engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA), so finding ways to structure environments to promote PA is an important concern. Social norms, conceptualized as an individual’s perception of peer behavior, provide a framework for exploring factors that influence decisions to be physically active. Although researchers have investigated how social norms influence a variety of behaviors, the PA domain has not been fully explored. The focus of this dissertation is to apply social norms theories to investigate how normative information influences PA ...


Relationship Between Metabolic By-Products And Nervous System Failure/Fatigue, Tyler Mitchell Farney Jan 2016

Relationship Between Metabolic By-Products And Nervous System Failure/Fatigue, Tyler Mitchell Farney

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Fatigue has generally been defined as an acute impairment of exercise/sport performance that includes both an increase in the perceived effort necessary to exert a desired force or power output, and the inability to produce the desired force or power output. The majority of research to date looking at fatigue has focused upon substrate utilization, however, what is relatively unknown is the contribution the nervous system has upon fatigue. Therefore, the purpose of this dissertation was to investigate potential mechanisms that relate to neural fatigue. An additional purpose was to determine if there were any relationships between metabolic by-products ...


An Ideal-Type Through Innovation Diffusion: Recording The Construction History Of Football Stadiums In The National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (Fbs), Patrick Michael Tutka Jan 2016

An Ideal-Type Through Innovation Diffusion: Recording The Construction History Of Football Stadiums In The National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (Fbs), Patrick Michael Tutka

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Dr. John Bale (1984) argued sport scholars need to examine whether innovation diffusion occurred in sport. Rogers (1962, 2003) argued innovation diffusion process involves the following: 1) an innovation; 2) an available communication system(s); and occurs 3) over time; and 4) among members of a social system (p. 11). This project also adds geography as suggested by Bale (1984) and Hagerstrand (1952, 1953) to the study of innovation diffusion. The purpose of the current project is to examine whether innovation diffusion exists within the strong social system of college football. The study involves the collection of data on college ...


The Effects Of Using Knee Wraps On Back Squat And Vertical Jump Performance., Cardyl Trionfante Jan 2016

The Effects Of Using Knee Wraps On Back Squat And Vertical Jump Performance., Cardyl Trionfante

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Using knee wraps (KW) as an ergogenic aid has been commonly practiced in various sports such as powerlifting, strongman, and Olympic weightlifting. There is limited research investigating the effects of using KW during back squat (BS) and none regarding vertical jump (VJ). This dissertation investigates the effects of wearing KW on BS and VJ performance through a series of studies. The first study was designed to observe acute and long term effects of using KW on VJ performance. VJ performance decreased when KW were worn and was not considered an ergogenic aid for VJ. The second study was designed to ...


An Investigation Of The Generalizability Of Buoyancy From Academics To Athletics, Jackie Rae Victoriano Jan 2016

An Investigation Of The Generalizability Of Buoyancy From Academics To Athletics, Jackie Rae Victoriano

LSU Master's Theses

Buoyancy, the ability of an individual to handle everyday setbacks, has been applied successfully to academics, and has implications for performance and well-being. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the concept of buoyancy can be successfully applied to the domain of sports (i.e., athletic buoyancy). This study sought to examine the relationship between academic and athletic buoyancy, as well as the efficacy of five sport-oriented predictors (5Cs), confidence, coordination (planning), commitment, composure (anxiety), and control, on both athletic and academic buoyancy. Sport club athletes (N = 285) aged 18 to 31 years completed a one-time survey assessing ...


Cardiovascular And Autonomic Nervous System Function: Impact Of Glucose Ingestion, Hydration Status And Exercise In Heated Environments, Kate Suzanne Early Jan 2016

Cardiovascular And Autonomic Nervous System Function: Impact Of Glucose Ingestion, Hydration Status And Exercise In Heated Environments, Kate Suzanne Early

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Cardiovascular function is under the influence of autonomic nervous system, both of which can be assessed non-invasively. The purpose of this dissertation was to examine these non-invasive markers of cardiovascular and autonomic function and their relationships with exercise training, glucose ingestion and hydration status. A series of three studies were conducted to gain insight to various influences on cardiovascular and autonomic function. The first study examined the influence of exercise training of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BAFMD) using meta-analytic techniques. Sixty-six studies included in the analysis demonstrated exercise training improves BAFMD compared to controls. Results indicated exercise training significantly alters ...


An Experimental Investigation Of Autonomy Support Versus Thwart In An Exergaming Context, Amanda Joy Weathers-Meyer Jan 2015

An Experimental Investigation Of Autonomy Support Versus Thwart In An Exergaming Context, Amanda Joy Weathers-Meyer

LSU Master's Theses

Considerable literature in self-determination theory (SDT) establishes satisfaction of basic psychological needs related to competence, autonomy, and relatedness as important determinants of well-being and motivation. Despite the abundance of SDT literature, few studies provide an investigation of autonomy support and autonomy thwart within an experimental design. Using SDT as a guiding framework, the effects of autonomy support (AS) versus autonomy thwart (AT) were examined within an exergaming context. Specifically, this study investigated the impact of autonomy support / thwart on five variables: perceived autonomy need satisfaction and autonomy thwart, affect, game performance, and willingness to recommend the study to others. Students ...


A Multi-Theoretical Analysis Of Motivation In College Activity Courses, Louis Hines Jan 2015

A Multi-Theoretical Analysis Of Motivation In College Activity Courses, Louis Hines

LSU Master's Theses

College activity courses present an opportunity for physical educators to increase physical activity among young adults. Facilitating motivation in activity courses may lead to increased engagement and future participation in physical activities. The purpose of this study was to examine motivation in college activity courses utilizing a multi-theoretical approach in order to assess changes in physical self-concept and intention for participation in physical activities. It was hypothesized that a task-involved motivational climate would predict need satisfaction, which would in turn predict self-determined motivation. It was further hypothesized that this motivational sequence would predict changes in physical self-concept and intention to ...


An Investigation Of The Quality And Quantity Of Student Motivation In Physical Education, Trey Douglas Willoughby Jan 2015

An Investigation Of The Quality And Quantity Of Student Motivation In Physical Education, Trey Douglas Willoughby

LSU Master's Theses

Physical inactivity is a prevalent problem in the United States associated with numerous health risk factors. Over half the population fails to meet prescribed physical activity recommendations, suggesting that individuals become less active as they age. It is important to observe individuals in the Physical Education setting because it is an ideal environment to provide meaningful physical activity, while promoting lifetime physical activity. This research sought to understand motivational behaviors in high school adolescents, attempting to draw links between physical education, student satisfaction, and leisure-time physical activity. Three research questions were present: (1) What relationships do high school student perceive ...


Principal Motives Of Positive Youth-Adult Relationships: A Model For Identifying The Motives Of Adult Volunteers And Youth-Adult Relationships In Physical Activity-Based Youth Development Programs, Stephanie Marie Goudeau Jan 2015

Principal Motives Of Positive Youth-Adult Relationships: A Model For Identifying The Motives Of Adult Volunteers And Youth-Adult Relationships In Physical Activity-Based Youth Development Programs, Stephanie Marie Goudeau

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The field of positive youth development has evolved in response to the growing effort to provide youth with safe and healthful activities during leisure time. Physical activity-based youth development programs (PA-based YDPs) utilize a range of individual and team sports and physical activities as tools to simultaneously teach character development and physical skills for the acquisition of life skills. The intentional focus on positive youth development provides a suitable context for the development of a youth-adult relationship (YAR). The bonding between a youth and adult is critical to the development of adaptive responses and life skills which ultimately impact the ...


Motor Learning Effects Of Two Types Of Stressors: Implications For Practice Specificity, Christopher Adam Aiken Jan 2015

Motor Learning Effects Of Two Types Of Stressors: Implications For Practice Specificity, Christopher Adam Aiken

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Various types of stress have been found to have both positive and negative effects on motor performance (Szalma & Hancock, 2011; Van Gemmert & Van Galen, 1997). One potential explanation for these diverse findings is that stress increases the amount of neuromotor noise in the system (Van Gemmert, 1997). Low levels of stress may have an activating effect on the system which may improve motor performance whereas larger levels of stress decrease motor performance. Research has also suggested that increases in stress increase effort (Hockey, 1997) which may in turn facilitate motor learning (Lee, Swinnen, & Serrien, 1994). The primary purpose of this dissertation was ...


The Influence Of The Lower Trapezius Muscle On Shoulder Impingement And Scapula Dyskinesis, Christian Louque Coulon Jan 2015

The Influence Of The Lower Trapezius Muscle On Shoulder Impingement And Scapula Dyskinesis, Christian Louque Coulon

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation contains three experiments all conducted in an outpatient physical therapy setting. Shoulder impingement is a common problem seen in overhead athletes and other individuals and associated changes in muscle activity, biomechanics, and movement patterns have been observed in this condition. Differentially diagnosing impingement and specifically addressing the underlying causes is a vital component of any rehabilitation program and can facilitate the individuals return to normal function and daily living. Current rehabilitation attempts to facilitate healing while promoting proper movement patterns through therapeutic exercise and understanding each shoulder muscles contribution is vitally important to treatment of individuals with shoulder ...


Recovery From Exercise: The Influences Of Supplementation And Rest Interval, Ryan Miskowiec Jan 2015

Recovery From Exercise: The Influences Of Supplementation And Rest Interval, Ryan Miskowiec

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Recovery from exercise is immensely important and under studied. The experiments conducted throughout this research have focused on testing the effects of rest interval during resistance exercise and the efficacy of acetic acid feeding on recovery rate. To elucidate the relationship between rest interval and recovery energy expenditure two experiments were undertaken. These experiments were designed to alter only rest interval while maintaining work intensity and volume. No difference in the total energy expenditure during the short phase of recovery (first hour) was found, but energy expenditure during the prolonged phase (days post exercise) was minorly increased by lowering rest ...


Active Versus Passive Control Of Arm Swing: Implication Of The Restriction Of Pelvis Rotation During Human Locomotion, Stephen Paul Canton Jan 2015

Active Versus Passive Control Of Arm Swing: Implication Of The Restriction Of Pelvis Rotation During Human Locomotion, Stephen Paul Canton

LSU Master's Theses

To date, it remains unclear how passive dynamics and active neural control contribute to arm swing during human locomotion. The passive hypothesis attributes arm swing to the passive transfer of energy from the legs to the arms via biomechanical linkages, while the active hypothesis states that arm swing is actively driven by muscles via neural mechanisms. The present study aims to investigate this phenomenon further by disrupting the biomechanical linkages, thereby directly challenging the passive hypothesis. Ten healthy individuals walked on a treadmill with and without an apparatus that constrained pelvis rotation at 3 different speeds (2 mph, 3 mph ...


An Analysis Of A University Reclassification Effect On Applications Following A Move To A New Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Dylan P. Williams Jan 2014

An Analysis Of A University Reclassification Effect On Applications Following A Move To A New Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Dylan P. Williams

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Scholars have argued that athletics are utilized by universities to advertise their school to all individuals (Collins, 2012; Dwyer, Eddy, Havard, & Braa, 2010; Toma & Cross, 1998; Washington & Ventresca, 2004; Weaver, 2010). Expectedly, university officials are willing to contribute resources in order to develop an effective athletics program to establish an institution’s legitimacy among other universities (Collins, 2012; Toma & Cross, 1998; Washington & Ventresca, 2004). One tactic employed by schools focuses on the process of athletic association reclassification into the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) from other member associations (e.g., National Association for Intercollegiate Athletics). Officials consider this move due to the NCAA’s identity as the premiere intercollegiate athletic association. As such, studies on college movement recognized that universities are more likely to move to the NCAA if other universities with shared characteristics have reclassified in order to become legitimate among peers (Smith, Williams, Soebbing, & Washington, 2013; Washington, 2004; 2004-05). However, research has not been conducted to estimate the quantity and duration of a potential 'reclassification' effect. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine if a change in athletic association will increase the number of application receives after reclassification. The dissertation analyzes ...


Parental Pressure, Anxiety, And Performance Among Age Group Swimmers, Timothy Michael Dasinger Jan 2014

Parental Pressure, Anxiety, And Performance Among Age Group Swimmers, Timothy Michael Dasinger

LSU Master's Theses

Background/Purpose: Parents introduce children to youth sport and can increase a child’s level of enjoyment in the sport. However, parents can also place too much pressure on the child, which can lead to increased pre-competition anxiety and decreased performance (Bois, Lalanne, & Delforge, 2008; Scanlan & Lewthwaite, 1984). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among perceived and desired parental pressure, pre-competition state anxiety, subsequent performance, and intention to continue the sport in youth swimmers ages 9-18. Method: A sample of 43 swimmers (17 male, 26 female; M=12.8±2.6 years) on a United States Swimming (USS) sanctioned club team in a mid-sized Southern city participated in this study. These swimmers completed the directive behavior scale of the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire (PISQ) in the days preceding a swim meet. Variables analyzed in the PISQ include perceived pressure, desired pressure ...


Methionine Restriction-Induced Metabolic Changes In C57bl6j Mice, Cory Christopher Cortez Jan 2014

Methionine Restriction-Induced Metabolic Changes In C57bl6j Mice, Cory Christopher Cortez

LSU Master's Theses

Introduction: Eighty percent restriction of normal dietary methionine (MR) intake has been shown to increase energy expenditure and attenuate the rate of adiposity gain in rodents, despite a paradoxical increase in energy intake. Energy expenditure in rats was shown to increase, even though physical activity level stays the same. This observation suggests that metabolic mechanisms account for the majority of increased energy expenditure measured in methionine restricted animals. Purpose: To observe and document the onset of physiological effects brought about and to determine the mechanistic role of the skeletal muscle on MR-induced metabolic changes in the C57BL6J mouse. Methods: C57BL6J ...


Can Gravitational Influences Explain Endpoint Precision Between Visual Conditions?, Chelsea Marie Soebbing Jan 2014

Can Gravitational Influences Explain Endpoint Precision Between Visual Conditions?, Chelsea Marie Soebbing

LSU Master's Theses

Reaches to remembered target locations often result in different endpoint precision when compared to reaches to actual (seen) targets. Interestingly, errors are observed whether the reach to the remembered location is performed in an environment with or without allocentric cues (visual cues from the environment) available. People tend to point below remembered target locations in the dark relative to normal room lighting while seated, standing, and reaching with a step. In this study we questioned the effect of gravitational influences on upper extremity reaching and pointing accuracy in dark and illuminated environments. We hypothesized that alterations in body orientation would ...