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Associations Of Cardiorespiratory Fitness And Muscular Strength With Arterial Stiffness In Older Adults, Emma Elizabeth Albin Jan 2019

Associations Of Cardiorespiratory Fitness And Muscular Strength With Arterial Stiffness In Older Adults, Emma Elizabeth Albin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: To evaluate the independent and combined associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular strength (MS) with arterial stiffness (AS) in older adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 427 older adults aged ≥65 years (mean age 72). CRF was assessed by time (seconds) to complete a 400-m walk test and MS by overall grip strength (maximum out of 3 trials on each hand, averaged; Jamar Plus+ 12-064). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used to assess AS (AtCor, Sphygmocor Xcel). High AS was defined as a PWV of 10 m/s or greater, as it has been established as a ...


Effects Of Preseason Concussion Education On Self-Reported Likelihood And Confidence In Concussion Reporting, Dana Edward Cash Jan 2019

Effects Of Preseason Concussion Education On Self-Reported Likelihood And Confidence In Concussion Reporting, Dana Edward Cash

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Around three million concussions happen in the United States from sport and recreational activity alone, and it is estimated 50% of concussions go undiagnosed. Collegiate athletes have been found to not report their symptoms of concussion mainly because they felt their symptoms were not severe enough and they did not think there were any long-term consequences from continuing to play. This study attempts to find if preseason concussion education for collegiate hockey players and club athletes changes their perceptions about concussions, and if these changes are maintained after returning to sport/competition. This study used three identical surveys over three ...


Effects Of Boxing On Force Characteristics In The Upper Extremities In People With Parkinson’S Disease Compared To Healthy Younger And Healthy Older Adults, Olivia Meyer Jan 2019

Effects Of Boxing On Force Characteristics In The Upper Extremities In People With Parkinson’S Disease Compared To Healthy Younger And Healthy Older Adults, Olivia Meyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to the nature of Parkinson’s disease (PD), force output characteristics of the muscles may become impaired in people with PD. Forced exercise and power-based resistance training exercise are trending modalities used to target the physiological effects of PD on muscle activity as an alternative to pharmaceutical and surgical treatments. Movements performed in boxing incorporate high-ballistic motions similar to those utilized in power-training. The objective of this is study is to determine the effects of an acute session of boxing on muscle activity in the upper extremities of persons with PD compared to healthy older adults and healthy younger ...


Associations Of Muscular Strength And Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Bone Mineral Density In Older Adults, Hyunsoo Kim Jan 2019

Associations Of Muscular Strength And Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Bone Mineral Density In Older Adults, Hyunsoo Kim

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: To evaluate the independent and combined associations of muscular strength (MS) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 353 older adults (189 women and 164 men) aged 65 years or older (mean ages 72 and 71 in women and men, respectively). MS was assessed by grip strength (average of the highest force values after three trials on each hand, Jamar+ digital hand dynamometer, Patterson Medical) and CRF was assessed by the 400-meter walk test (minutes to complete 400-meter walking). Whole-body BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic ...


Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortical Hemodynamics, Cognitive Inhibition, And Affective Responses To Exercise Among Children: Implications For Pediatric Exercise Prescription, Matthew A. Ladwig Jan 2019

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortical Hemodynamics, Cognitive Inhibition, And Affective Responses To Exercise Among Children: Implications For Pediatric Exercise Prescription, Matthew A. Ladwig

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Preliminary evidence suggests that children may report decreasing pleasure throughout incremental exercise tests. This pattern of affective responses might be related to the deviation of incremental and prolonged patterns of exercise from the innate propensity of children for intermittent movement. Furthermore, the self-regulation of affective responses during exercise may require cognitive strategies underpinned by cortical networks still under development during childhood. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine (1) whether dorsolateral prefrontal cortical (dlPFC) activity is associated with affective responses during an incremental cycling exercise test, and (2) whether theoretically relevant covariates moderate affective responses and dlPFC activation ...


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Is Modified By The Timing Of The Successful Identification Of Directional Cues, Mitchell Lewis Stephenson Jan 2019

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Is Modified By The Timing Of The Successful Identification Of Directional Cues, Mitchell Lewis Stephenson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite our best efforts, anterior cruciate ligament injury rates remain high in many athletic populations. Over the past two decades, investigations have sought to identify the potential role cognition may play in the functional injury mechanism. Across the body of literature, there is a general consensus that rapid, reactive environments found in team sports increase injury risk. But the precise biomechanical change in lower extremity control has been inconsistently identified across multiple investigations. We previously identified that an important, often uncontrolled component of rapid reactive movements is the timing of the directional cue to which the athlete responds. Reductions in ...


Methods And Evaluation Of A Health Coach Training Practicum Experience For Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Change, Kathryn Kathryn Deshaw Jan 2019

Methods And Evaluation Of A Health Coach Training Practicum Experience For Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Change, Kathryn Kathryn Deshaw

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The promotion of healthy lifestyle behaviors is a high public health priority due to the strong links to chronic disease and the associated impacts on health and quality of life. Motivational interviewing-based health coaching is a popular behavior change strategy to work toward encouraging healthy-decision making and provide accountability in making progress toward health goals and outcomes. A key priority in the field of health coaching is proper training to ensure proficient health coaches to engage with clients, participants, or patients for healthy lifestyle change. The purposes of this dissertation were to: 1) develop and implement an effective semester-based course ...


Evaluating The Effects Of External Load, Incline And Walking Speed On Iliotibial Band Strain In Wildland Firefighters, Laura Stacy Jan 2019

Evaluating The Effects Of External Load, Incline And Walking Speed On Iliotibial Band Strain In Wildland Firefighters, Laura Stacy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Wildland firefighters (WFF) and military personnel encounter extreme environments and working conditions as part of their occupation. High rates of overuse knee injury have been recorded in both populations, with Iliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS) being the highest reported overuse injury within the military. However, occupational demands that could contribute to such rates of ITBS have not been evaluated. PURPOSE: To evaluate if the effects of slow walking speed, external load carriage and incline increase strain and strain impulse of the ITB as a predictor of ITBS risk and to update the current ITB model to include the active components of ...


Epigenetic Changes In Skeletal Muscle: Does Resistance Exercise Protocol Make A Difference?, Jesslyn Hendrickson Jan 2019

Epigenetic Changes In Skeletal Muscle: Does Resistance Exercise Protocol Make A Difference?, Jesslyn Hendrickson

Creative Components

Performing regular resistance exercise training has been found to improve an individual’s health, including improved metabolism and ability to perform maximal contractile force in skeletal muscle. Certain epigenetic changes are believed to provide a positive impact on individuals and resistance exercise is also known to cause epigenetic changes to occur, including DNA methylation, changes in mRNA expression, differential microRNA expression, and histone modifications. There is debate as to whether these changes are beneficial but with chronic exercise, these changes do appear to provide a benefit to the individual. All these changes play a role in gene expression and the ...


Biomechanical Effects Of Shod Vs. Unshod Deadlift In Males, Jacob La Marche Jan 2019

Biomechanical Effects Of Shod Vs. Unshod Deadlift In Males, Jacob La Marche

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There are many forms of resistance training, with the barbell squat, bench press, and deadlift being three of the most popular exercises. The squat and bench press have been examined extensively, while the deadlift has not. The purpose of this study was to examine participants performing the barbell deadlift while wearing their normal lifting shoes and while barefoot. Thirty male participants aged 18-30 and with at least one year of deadlift experience were recruited for this study. An eight camera system and a force platform was used to measure three-dimensional movements and ground reaction forces during 80% one repetition maximum ...


Femur/Femoral Neck Load Estimation During Stair Navigation, Chen Deng Jan 2018

Femur/Femoral Neck Load Estimation During Stair Navigation, Chen Deng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Project 1:

Femoral neck is of particular concern in the hip fractures and aging. A better understanding of the hip loading environment is helpful for the hip fracture prevention, rehabilitation, and the design of osteogenic exercises. This study was to compare the femoral neck stresses between young and older adults during stair ascent and descent, and to identify the contribution of muscle and reaction forces to the stress. Motion analysis and inverse dynamics method, musculoskeletal and elliptical femoral neck cross-section models were used to estimate stress on the femoral neck. During stair ascent, a significantly increased tension at the superior ...


The Effects Of Running Speed, Form, And Fatigue On Intervertebral Disc Pressures At L5/S1: A Developmental Musculoskeletal And Finite Element Modeling Approach, Jeffrey Ray Mcclellan Jan 2018

The Effects Of Running Speed, Form, And Fatigue On Intervertebral Disc Pressures At L5/S1: A Developmental Musculoskeletal And Finite Element Modeling Approach, Jeffrey Ray Mcclellan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The occurrence of low back pain in society is a widespread and costly problem, while running is an accessible and common form of physical exercise. The intervertebral disc is a commonly studied location of interest within the low back, however limited research has been performed attempting to assess the risks or benefits associated with running on the health of the intervertebral disc, with zero research which estimates in-vivo loading on the intervertebral disc during running. Meanwhile, the available literature is not in agreement on whether running poses more of a risk or a benefit to intervertebral disc health, with some ...


Physical Activity And Sarcopenia In Older Adults, Nathan Frederick Meier Jan 2018

Physical Activity And Sarcopenia In Older Adults, Nathan Frederick Meier

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The aging process is typically associated with loss of muscle mass, strength, and function. At a certain threshold, low levels of muscle mass, strength, and function are considered a disease called sarcopenia, which is associated with increased risk of falls, loss of independence, mobility issues, and mortality. Evidence suggests some of the risk factors for sarcopenia, such as sedentary lifestyle, low physical activity, bedrest, chronic disease, certain drug treatments, malnutrition, anabolic resistance, intermuscular adipose tissue infiltration, and decreased neuromuscular activation, are modifiable. Also, both the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia call for prescription of physical activity. Therefore, the overall interest ...


Impact Of Acute Heat Treatment On Autophagy And Insulin Signaling In C2c12 Myotubes, Corey Michael Summers Jan 2018

Impact Of Acute Heat Treatment On Autophagy And Insulin Signaling In C2c12 Myotubes, Corey Michael Summers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes is reduced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. It is known that exercise and caloric restriction can improve skeletal muscle insulin resistance, but the mechanism by which this occurs is not completely elucidated. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is thought to be a major contributor to the metabolic benefits observed after exercise training and caloric restriction. Activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle can have a wide range of effects, one of which is the initiation of macroautophagy (herein referred to as autophagy). Autophagy is the bulk degradation system of the cell ...


The Effect Of Dehydration And Rehydration With A High Potassium Beverage On Muscular Strength In Collegiate Males, Mitchell Zaplatosch Jan 2018

The Effect Of Dehydration And Rehydration With A High Potassium Beverage On Muscular Strength In Collegiate Males, Mitchell Zaplatosch

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Dehydration has been shown to impact both health and aerobic exercise performance, with less research examining the impact of dehydration on muscular strength. Rapid weight loss via dehydration is a common practice in several weight class sports dealing with muscular strength and power. Exercisers may also unintentionally begin a resistance training session in a dehydrated state as a result of hot environmental conditions or failure to restore fluid balance following previous activity, possibly inhibiting performance. Most rehydration strategies have focused on the inclusion of sodium in a beverage to restore plasma volume, while less have considered the role of ...


Utility Of The Handgrip And Vertical Jump Assessments As Fitness Indicators In Physical Education, Jessica Ann Velthoff Jan 2018

Utility Of The Handgrip And Vertical Jump Assessments As Fitness Indicators In Physical Education, Jessica Ann Velthoff

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As research continues to provide evidence supporting musculoskeletal fitness as a strong indicator of an individual’s overall health, proposals for further evidence substantiating select indicator’s powerful link with youth health outcomes have been made. The vertical jump, a measure of lower body power, and handgrip strength, a measure of upper body musculoskeletal strength, have both been acknowledged as being strong measures of one’s health, and recommended for potential use in school fitness testing. FitnessGram®, the default fitness testing battery in United States (US) schools, is currently working to include these two measures to provide a more ...


Biomechanical Analysis Of Bovine Lamina, Ray Jeffrey Lee Jan 2018

Biomechanical Analysis Of Bovine Lamina, Ray Jeffrey Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine lameness is an economic drain on producers and is a welfare issue. There are many causes of lameness; however, most causes involve the hoof. One of the supporting structures of the hoof is the interface between the hard epidermal layer and the sensitive dermal layer and is referred to as the lamina. Lamina consist of leaflets of tissue that interdigitate with one another to allow for constant renewal and remodeling of these hoof attachments. Systemic or traumatic insults can compromise the integrity of the lamina and may result in reduced ambulatory capabilities of the animal, pain, and a myriad ...


Online Communities Of Practice As A Strategy For Staff Involvement In Switch, Rebecca Harken Jan 2018

Online Communities Of Practice As A Strategy For Staff Involvement In Switch, Rebecca Harken

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAP) target physical activity behaviors through the recommended “whole-of-school” approach which recommends staff from all areas of school should be involved in health promotion. The component of Staff Involvement is highly effective at improving student health behaviors; however, descriptive research in this area is limited. One program that focuses on supporting school staff to lead school wellness programing is SWITCH. It is recommended that school staff should be given opportunities for professional development that are ongoing and collaborative, and online communities of practice (CoP) have been shown to support staff in this way. Therefore, the ...


Estimation Of Physical Activity Using Accelerometry In Adult Populations: Using The Sensewear Armband And The Act24 As Comparison Tools For The Estimation Of Energy Expenditure And Physical Activity Intensity By The Sojourn Method, Matthew Stewart Jan 2018

Estimation Of Physical Activity Using Accelerometry In Adult Populations: Using The Sensewear Armband And The Act24 As Comparison Tools For The Estimation Of Energy Expenditure And Physical Activity Intensity By The Sojourn Method, Matthew Stewart

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Accurate assessments of physical activity are essential for advancing many lines of physical activity research. Numerous physical activity assessment techniques have been developed, but continual refinement and evaluation of these techniques is important to further improve accuracy and precision. A machine-learning technique known as the Sojourn method has demonstrated promise for improving the accuracy of accelerometer-based physical activity monitors, such as the widely used Actigraph. However, fewer studies have validated this method under free-living conditions. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of the Sojourn method for estimating energy expenditure and time spent at various intensities ...


The Effects Of Predisposition And Direction On Ankle Sprain Risk Predictive Factors During Jump Landing, Caleb R. Radley Jan 2018

The Effects Of Predisposition And Direction On Ankle Sprain Risk Predictive Factors During Jump Landing, Caleb R. Radley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ankle sprains are regarded as one of the most common lower extremity injury in sports. Previous research studying ankle sprain risk factors has examined the role of anticipation on dynamic movements such as cutting and jump landing. However, no previous research has examined the role of predisposition on ankle sprain risk during jump landing. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of jump direction and predisposition on ankle sprain risk predictive factors during jump landing. Seventeen participants participated in a jump-land-jump task in which the direction of the second jump was indicated before the ...


Analysis Of Force, Time, Energy, Psychological Demand And Safety Of Common Kicks In Martial Arts, Anupam Singh Jan 2017

Analysis Of Force, Time, Energy, Psychological Demand And Safety Of Common Kicks In Martial Arts, Anupam Singh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Different forms of Martial Arts have become a popular sport and ways of being fit in the past couple of decades; Kick boxing, Taekwondo, Mixed Martial Arts, being some of them. Complex combinations of punches, kicks and both have been developed over the years. This study focuses on kicks and the aim was to find the best kick with regards to force, time of kick, energy consumption, force/energy, heart rate, safety and psychological demand which was in terms of mental demand, physical demand, temporal demand, effort, performance and frustration. A study was conducted in which 16 participants (5 females ...


The Behavioral Wellness In Pregnancy Study: A Theory-Based Multi-Component Intervention To Promote Appropriate Weight Gain And Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors In Previously Sedentary Pregnant Women, Lyndi Marie Buckingham-Schutt Jan 2017

The Behavioral Wellness In Pregnancy Study: A Theory-Based Multi-Component Intervention To Promote Appropriate Weight Gain And Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors In Previously Sedentary Pregnant Women, Lyndi Marie Buckingham-Schutt

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is the second largest modifiable cause of preventable death in the United States. Pregnancy is an ideal time to prevent the development of obesity as it offers the opportunity to influence the health of both the current and future generations. The Be-Well, Behavioral Wellness in Pregnancy, intervention is a randomized-controlled, multi-component self-determination theory (SDT)-based intervention designed to help pregnant women meet the current pregnancy weight gain guidelines through diet and physical activity (PA) modification.

Fifty-six women were randomized to either usual care (UC) or intervention; 48 (n = 23 intervention; n = 25 UC) completed the study. The intervention group ...


Bone Strain Change As A Result Of A Long Distance Run Modeled On A Finite Element Tibia, Jenna Kirstin Burnett Jan 2017

Bone Strain Change As A Result Of A Long Distance Run Modeled On A Finite Element Tibia, Jenna Kirstin Burnett

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stress injuries typically develop as a result of overuse and lack of recovery. However, despite a 7-year stress fracture incidence rate of approximately 40%, in vivo bone stresses and strains do not approach levels of ultimate strength. Therefore, there must be outside factors such as muscle fatigue which lead to increased strain and injury risks. PURPOSE: Muscle fatigue during a long distance run may lead to increased bone strain in the tibia, and result in increased injury risk. METHODS: Sixteen runners did a graded treadmill test to determine max heart rate and VO2,max, which were then used to set ...


Message Framing And Physical Activity: One Size Fits All Versus A Tailored Approach, Konstantinos Mantis Jan 2017

Message Framing And Physical Activity: One Size Fits All Versus A Tailored Approach, Konstantinos Mantis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Message framing (i.e., emphasis on gains or losses) is a communication strategy that has been used to promote physical activity (PA). Previous research has led to inconsistent results regarding the persuasive effect of gains and losses. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore whether a fit between message content and individuals’ motivational orientation improves the effectiveness of messages. Undergraduate students participated in studies via the Department of Psychology SONA system. Study 1 (n = 441) tested whether a fit between Frame (gains, losses), Regulatory Focus (promoters, preventers), and Message Valence (positive, negative, mixed) improves the persuasiveness of PA messages ...


Physical Activity In The Preschool Classroom: An Approach To Enhance Executive Functioning Through The Move For Thought Prek-K Program, Morgan Nichole Morse Jan 2017

Physical Activity In The Preschool Classroom: An Approach To Enhance Executive Functioning Through The Move For Thought Prek-K Program, Morgan Nichole Morse

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to assess the Move For Thought PreK-K Program (M4T) activities on inhibitory control via response time and accuracy, as well as the level of feasibility, engagement, and program satisfaction. Eight preschool (3-5 years old) classes participated with four classrooms being randomly assigned to the early implementation group (intervention, N=52) and four classrooms to the late implementation group (control, N=51), whom would get to participate once the study was complete.

Prior to and following the cessation of the eight-week intervention, all children participated in the computerized day/night executive function task to assess ...


Modulating Visuomotor Adaptation In Young Healthy Adults: Effects Of Reward And Punishment, Yanlong Song Jan 2017

Modulating Visuomotor Adaptation In Young Healthy Adults: Effects Of Reward And Punishment, Yanlong Song

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Recent human motor adaptation/learning studies revealed that punishment accelerates acquisition of motor memory while reward enhances consolidation of motor memory. This study tested the robustness and a possible cause for this potential dissociation. During learning to adapt to an abrupt visual rotation in moving to a visual target, young healthy participants were provided with performance-based monetary reward or punishment. By manipulating the probability of reward or punishment distribution and controlling visual feedback of the cursor while moving to a target, the present study demonstrated that punishment induced faster adaptation than reward in both continuous and non-continuous visual feedback contexts ...


The Effects Of An Irregular Surface On Contact Geometry, Shock Attenuation And Metabolic Cost During Running, Alyssa M. Gantz Jan 2016

The Effects Of An Irregular Surface On Contact Geometry, Shock Attenuation And Metabolic Cost During Running, Alyssa M. Gantz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With the popularity of non-traditional and off-road race events on the rise, the number of runners encountering trail surfaces has undergone a marked increase in recent years. Despite the growing popularity of trail and off-road running, little research has been done to investigate the effects of running on irregular surfaces. PURPOSE: The purpose was to investigate the kinematic and metabolic effects of running on an irregular surface. We hypothesized that the irregular surface would cause runners to reduce frontal plane foot inversion and increase knee flexion at contact, increasing the metabolic cost of running and shock attenuation. We also examined ...


Estimation Of Physical Activity Intensity Using Triaxial Actigraph Accelerometers In Youth Populations: Impact Of Data Type, Attachment Site, And Modeling Approach, Including Adaptations Of The Sojourn Method For Varied Use In Youth, Paul Hibbing Jan 2016

Estimation Of Physical Activity Intensity Using Triaxial Actigraph Accelerometers In Youth Populations: Impact Of Data Type, Attachment Site, And Modeling Approach, Including Adaptations Of The Sojourn Method For Varied Use In Youth, Paul Hibbing

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Adequate physical activity (PA) in youth is essential for short- and long-term health. However, it is difficult to perform large-scale assessments of youth PA levels and be assured of accurate results. Recent developments in accelerometer-based PA monitoring for adults (e.g. the Sojourn method) have enhanced the accuracy attainable by those devices, but the same has not been accomplished for youth. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate versions of the established Sojourn method that can be used for research with youth. METHODS: The study involved two phases. In Phase 1, existing ActiGraph monitor data from ...


School Fitness Assessment And Promotion: State And National Evaluations With Fitnessgram, Yang Bai Jan 2016

School Fitness Assessment And Promotion: State And National Evaluations With Fitnessgram, Yang Bai

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

FITNESSGRAM is the most widely used youth fitness assessment and reporting tool in school physical education programs. It has been adopted by thousands of schools in the United States and is required as a mandated statewide fitness assessment tool in several states. While developed primarily for educational applications, FITNESSGRAM also has utility for research and public health applications. This dissertation summarizes FITNESSGRAM outcomes from two large applications to advance research on youth fitness research and practice. The first application, Texas Youth Fitness Study, involved the evaluation of statewide data collected in the state of Texas as part of mandated school ...


Longitudinal Validity Of The Fnpa Screening Tool To Predict Changes In Weight Status In Children, Karissa Lyn Peyer Jan 2016

Longitudinal Validity Of The Fnpa Screening Tool To Predict Changes In Weight Status In Children, Karissa Lyn Peyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity and the accompanying comorbidities among children and adolescents in recent decades is cause for public health concern. Many factors influence weight status and obesity risk, but little research has examined the influence of the home environment on weight status across different age groups, particularly in longitudinal designs. The Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) screening tool is a validated measure of the home environment, but further testing of the tool is needed. The purposes of this dissertation were to 1) compare various versions of the FNPA to evaluate user perceptions and test reliability ...