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Understanding Flow Occurrence: Contributions From The 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework, Devan Antczak Mar 2016

Understanding Flow Occurrence: Contributions From The 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework, Devan Antczak

Theses and Dissertations

Flow is often described as an optimal state, a rewarding experience, and highly motivating. Yet, much of how flow occurs is not understood. Multiple factors have been found to be antecedents of flow, one of which is motivation. The purpose of this study was to determine if variations in motivation according to the 2x2 achievement goal theory resulted in differences in occurrence of flow. An experimental design was utilized. Currently training male and female runners (N=60, ages 18-44 years), were randomly assigned to one of the four different achievement goal groups and reported on the level of flow experienced ...


The Effects Of Caffeine On Reaction Time Of Two Neurocognitive Tests, Kyle Petit Mar 2016

The Effects Of Caffeine On Reaction Time Of Two Neurocognitive Tests, Kyle Petit

Theses and Dissertations

Context: A concussion is defined as a traumatically induced transient disturbance of the brain caused by a biomechanical force. These problematic injuries can prevent athletes from participating in physical activity for a number of days, weeks, or even months. Caffeine is known for improving mental alertness in everyday tasks and is found in many popular drinks such as, coffee, tea, energy shots, and even soda. Due to its increase in memory, mental alertness, and concentration, caffeine could potentially be utilized to improve the outcomes of post-concussion neurocognitive testing. This improvement would allow athletes to return to play before they have ...


A Comparison Of Blood Flow Changes In Tissues Treated With Therapeutic Ultrasound And Electrical Stimulation, Ryanne Mcdaniel Feb 2016

A Comparison Of Blood Flow Changes In Tissues Treated With Therapeutic Ultrasound And Electrical Stimulation, Ryanne Mcdaniel

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Therapeutic ultrasound and electrical stimulation both claim to achieve many effects on the body, one of which is increasing blood flow in tissues. Research on electrical stimulation in regards to blood flow has shown both increased and decreased blood flow, due to the electrode placement and the muscular contractions elicited during the treatment, while research on therapeutic ultrasound has provided mixed results, some suggesting that increased blood flow is seen only with intolerable treatment intensities for the patients. The two treatments have not been previously compared in the same study. Objective: To compare radial artery blood flow following therapeutic ...


Manual Therapy Effects On Low Back Pain, Shelby Dale Feb 2016

Manual Therapy Effects On Low Back Pain, Shelby Dale

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM), specifically the Graston Technique® (GT), uses six stainless steel instruments to mobilize soft tissue by exploiting the principles of transverse friction massage. Muscle energy technique (MET) is an active technique where the patient contracts specific muscles, when instructed, in a specific direction against a distinctly executed counterforce from the clinician. MET is used to mobilize restricted joints, strengthen weak muscles, reduce pain, stretch tight muscles and fascia, increase range of motion (ROM) and improve circulation.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare MET in combination with GT to MET in isolation ...


The Effect Of Self-Adherent Tape And Lace Up Ankle Braces On Ankle Range Of Motion And Dynamic Balance In Collegiate Football Players, Kristin Willeford Mar 2015

The Effect Of Self-Adherent Tape And Lace Up Ankle Braces On Ankle Range Of Motion And Dynamic Balance In Collegiate Football Players, Kristin Willeford

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries in the physically active population. Previous research has shown that supporting the ankle with taping or bracing methods is effective at preventing ankle sprains. However, no research exists on the effects of self-adherent tape and lace up ankle braces on the restriction of range of motion and dynamic balance in collegiate football players. Objective: To examine the effectiveness of self-adherent tape and lace up ankle braces in reducing ankle range of motion and improving dynamic balance before and after a typical collegiate football practice. Design: Crossover. Setting: Athletic Training Room ...


Identification Of The Practices, Preferences, Knowledge, Attitudes And Barriers To Strength Training Participation Of Young College Aged Women, Brianna Ackerman Mar 2015

Identification Of The Practices, Preferences, Knowledge, Attitudes And Barriers To Strength Training Participation Of Young College Aged Women, Brianna Ackerman

Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and United States Department of Health and Human Services classify muscular fitness as a key component of health (13,20). While important for both men and women, women can benefit from resistance training, specifically strength training, in many ways. Muscular strength gains, increases and maintenance of lean body mass such as muscle and bone and possible fat loss are some benefits that women who regularly participate in resistance training can achieve (4,5,6,9,18).

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the practices, preferences, knowledge, attitudes and barriers ...


Associations Between Physical Activity And Weight Status With Grade-School Performance, Taylor Panfil Mar 2015

Associations Between Physical Activity And Weight Status With Grade-School Performance, Taylor Panfil

Theses and Dissertations

Physical activity and weight control are predictive of childhood health, but more recent research suggests they may also be associated with academic success.

PURPOSE: To explore the relationships between physical activity, weight status, and academic performance in children.

METHODS: 614 third-to-fifth grade children (53.9% female, age 9.6 ± 0.9 years) from two Midwestern communities participated. Physical activity was assessed using a Digiwalker 200-SW pedometer worn for seven consecutive days. Teachers provided an estimate of general academic performance, and children were categorized into three performance groups (high, moderate, low). School behavior (attentiveness, staying on task, interruptive behavior) was ...


Analysis Of Heart Rate Training Responses In Division I Collegiate Athletes, Maria Canino Mar 2015

Analysis Of Heart Rate Training Responses In Division I Collegiate Athletes, Maria Canino

Theses and Dissertations

New technology continuously develops to assist with enhancing athletic performance. Assessing the physiological responses athletes experience from training is crucial when developing programs to simultaneously optimize performance and improve fitness levels. By combining coaching expertise with scientific technology, coaches can monitor and obtain their athletes' individual objective physiological responses (i.e. heart rates) on the effectiveness of the applied external stimuli or training program(s). PURPOSE: To examine the physical training doses through heart rate monitoring of strength and condition (S&C) sessions compared to a typical game setting in female soccer and basketball collegiate athletes. METHODS: Participants were nine ...


The Effect Of Muscle Energy Technique On Forward Shoulder Posture, Pectoralis Minor Length, And Upper Extremity Blood Flow In Collegiate Female Swimmers, Elizabeth Gross Feb 2015

The Effect Of Muscle Energy Technique On Forward Shoulder Posture, Pectoralis Minor Length, And Upper Extremity Blood Flow In Collegiate Female Swimmers, Elizabeth Gross

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Overhead sports are at an increased risk of shoulder injury, particularly when scapular posture is restricted. Pectoralis minor length has been linked to scapular malpositioning and forward shoulder posture. Upper extremity blood flow has also been linked to shortened pectoralis minor length, which could lead to thoracic neurovascular occlusion. Swimmers specifically may be at an increased risk for shoulder injury if the pectoralis minor is shortened. Stretching of the pectoralis minor has been suggested as a treatment to correct shortening of the muscle, however research examining muscle energy technique (MET) applied to the pectoralis minor is limited. Objective: To ...


The Effects Of Opedix Tm Knee Support System, Philip Mathew Jul 2014

The Effects Of Opedix Tm Knee Support System, Philip Mathew

Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Knee supports are often employed to decrease adductor angle and/or adductor moment and thus medial knee joint loading in persons with medial knee osteoarthritis. It is compelling that these gait alterations would also be considered beneficial in healthy individuals from a prophylactic application. While the Opedix product was designed specifically as a knee support system, in the present study lower extremity kinematic chain with emphasis on hip and knee were investigated.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test Opedix garments and describe the changes in sagittal (X), frontal (Y), and transverse (Z) planes for both kinematic ...


The Effects Of Cognitively Engaging Physical Activity On The Executive Function Of Sixth Graders, Alyssa Michele Humphreys Jul 2014

The Effects Of Cognitively Engaging Physical Activity On The Executive Function Of Sixth Graders, Alyssa Michele Humphreys

Theses and Dissertations

This purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cognitively engaging exercise, aerobic exercise, and resting conditions on the executive function of 6th graders. Four conditions were tested: cognitively engaging exercise, repetitive aerobic exercise, cognitively engaging rest, and rest. Executive function was measured by pre and post Stroop tests, which is a test of reaction time and inhibition. Results showed no significant differences between conditions in the choice reaction time test, however the cognitively engaging exercise was significantly different from all other conditions on the Stroop test.


The Effects Of A Foot-Toe Orthosis On Dynamic Balance And Hallux Valgus Angle, Adam Richard Kelly Apr 2014

The Effects Of A Foot-Toe Orthosis On Dynamic Balance And Hallux Valgus Angle, Adam Richard Kelly

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Decreased balance has been identified as a risk factor for lower extremity injury in several populations. Previous literature has investigated the effects of using orthotics, textured insoles and textured surfaces on balance. However, no research exists on the effects of a foot-toe orthosis on dynamic balance. Objective: To determine the effects of a foot-toe orthosis on dynamic balance and hallux valgus angle. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Setting: Athletic Training research laboratory. Participants: Sixty-three healthy and recreationally active collegiate students. (age: 21.59±1.49yrs, height 172.48±8.99cm, mass 73.86kg±15.64kg) Interventions: Participants were randomly ...


Current Trends In Concussion Management Among Athletic Trainers In Different Workplace Settings, Katelyn Persoage Apr 2014

Current Trends In Concussion Management Among Athletic Trainers In Different Workplace Settings, Katelyn Persoage

Theses and Dissertations

Context: There are many techniques used by athletic trainers in the management of concussions. Athletic trainers may use different management methods based on workplace setting but it is unclear what those differences may be. Objective: To determine the current concussion management protocols used by athletic trainers in different workplace settings. Design: Quantitative analysis. Setting: Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants: A link to an online survey was sent to 1000 Certified Athletic Trainers through the National Athletic Trainers' Association. One hundred twenty-seven participants responded to the survey from the following settings: College (n=35), High School (n=72), Non-Academic (n ...


Perceptions And Practices Of Hydration In Triathlon, Corey Stephen O'Connor Mar 2014

Perceptions And Practices Of Hydration In Triathlon, Corey Stephen O'Connor

Theses and Dissertations

Perceptions and Practices of Hydration in Triathlon

Corey S. O'Connor, David Q. Thomas, Kelly R. Laurson, Dale D. Brown. Illinois State University, Normal, IL

Purpose: To examine where triathletes obtain information regarding hydration, if their performances have been affected by dehydration, and how they monitor their hydration status. Methods: Two hundred and two participants (age=38.70 ± 9.73 years) from various triathlon groups in Illinois participated in the study. Each participant was asked to complete an electronic survey. The survey was composed of twenty seven items and was developed by O'Neal (2011). The survey was modified ...


Effects Of Graston Technique On Blood Flow In The Upper Extremity, Ashley Nicole Keck Mar 2014

Effects Of Graston Technique On Blood Flow In The Upper Extremity, Ashley Nicole Keck

Theses and Dissertations

Context: When musculature around the shoulder is tight, alterations in scapular positioning may result, thus compressing the blood vessels to the upper extremity and decreasing blood flow. Graston Technique (GT) mobilizes the soft tissues to break up adhesions in fascia and lengthens tight musculature. The effect of GT has on blood flow after treatment to the shoulder musculature is unknown. Objective: To determine if GT has an effect on blood flow and pectorals minor length after a single treatment session. Design: Controlled laboratory study with randomization. Setting: University athletic training laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty healthy subjects (27 male ...


A Comparison Of Functional Manual Reaction To Passive Joint Mobilization On Dorsiflexion And Star Excursion Reach Distance, Timothy Frederic Boerger Mar 2014

A Comparison Of Functional Manual Reaction To Passive Joint Mobilization On Dorsiflexion And Star Excursion Reach Distance, Timothy Frederic Boerger

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Joint mobilizations (JM) and functional manual reaction (FMR) are techniques commonly utilized in rehabilitation to promote restoration of ankle dorsiflexion (DF). Additionally, it is possible that JM have an effect upon postural control. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparative immediate effects of JM and FMR on DF and Star Excursion Balance (SEBT) reach distance in healthy subjects. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: A university laboratory. Patients or other participants: We included 43 college aged subjects for our investigation (20M, 23F). Main outcome variables: Our variables were straight knee DF, bent knee DF, anterior SEBT ...


Comparison Of Body Composition Techniques In Determining Body Fat Percentages In College Age Students, Jillian Louise Barnas Mar 2014

Comparison Of Body Composition Techniques In Determining Body Fat Percentages In College Age Students, Jillian Louise Barnas

Theses and Dissertations

While the use of body composition analyzers can become a critical tool in breaking the continual weight loss/weight gain cycle in Americans, the accuracy of these analyzers at measuring body composition remains in question. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of various body composition techniques at determining body fat percentages (%BF). METHODS: Sixty males (mean ± SD) [age: 21.3 ± 1.7 yr., height: 178.1 ± 7.2 cm., mass: 81.9 ± 12.6 kg., body fat %: 14.6 ± 7.5 %] and thirty-nine females [age: 20.5 ± 0.9 ...


Relationships Between Humeral Retroversion, Anterior Glenohumeral Laxity, And Forward Scapular Posture In Collegiate Baseball Players, Yuya Mukaihara Mar 2014

Relationships Between Humeral Retroversion, Anterior Glenohumeral Laxity, And Forward Scapular Posture In Collegiate Baseball Players, Yuya Mukaihara

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Baseball players are prone to soft tissue and bony adaptations due to repetitive throwing. Humeral retroversion, anterior shoulder laxity, and forward scapular posture are three common adaptations that have been associated with posterior shoulder tightness. Objective: To investigate if relationships exist between humeral retroversion, anterior shoulder laxity, and forward scapular posture among collegiate baseball players. Design: A cross–sectional correlation study. Setting: Athletic training facility at universities. Participants: Forty–eight asymptomatic NCAA Division-I baseball players (age 20.2 ± 1.2, weight 90.39 ± 8.92 kg, height 185.63 ± 6.69 cm). Interventions: Humeral retroversion and anterior shoulder laxity ...


Correlation Of Shoulder And Elbow Kinetics With Ball Velocity In College Baseball Pitchers, Eric Post Oct 2013

Correlation Of Shoulder And Elbow Kinetics With Ball Velocity In College Baseball Pitchers, Eric Post

Theses and Dissertations

Specific injuries at the elbow and glenohumeral joints have been linked to several kinetic variables that occur throughout the throwing motion. Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) sprains have been linked to excessive elbow valgus and shoulder external rotation torques occurring during the late-cocking phase of throwing. Shoulder external rotation torque during the late arm-cocking phase and shoulder distraction forces during the deceleration phase contribute to tears of the labrum. Additionally, it is believed that the peak distraction force generated during the arm deceleration phase also contributes to SLAP tears and rotator cuff pathologies. Very little research has been done to directly ...


Validity Of Four Activity Monitors During Controlled And Free-Living Conditions, Joey Lee Aug 2013

Validity Of Four Activity Monitors During Controlled And Free-Living Conditions, Joey Lee

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the step count validity of the pendulum-based Yamax Digiwalker SW-701 pedometer (YX), piezoelectric Omron HJ-720-T pedometer (OP), uni-axial Polar Active accelerometer (PAC), and micro electro-mechanical system Actigraph gt3x accelerometer (AG) during controlled and free-living conditions. A convenience sample of college-aged students participated in Study 1 (treadmill walking, n = 43; 21 females) and Study 2 (free-living, n = 37; 18 females). During study 1, subjects walked on a treadmill at five speeds for 3-minutes per stage wearing all four devices while a researcher manually counted steps which provided a criterion measure. During study 2 ...