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Genetics and Genomics

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

On The Distribution Of Genetic Variation In Ecological Communities, Isaac Overcast Feb 2020

On The Distribution Of Genetic Variation In Ecological Communities, Isaac Overcast

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Biodiversity in ecological communities is structured hierarchically across spatial and temporal scales. Many open questions remain as to how this structure accumulates. For example, what are the relative contributions of dispersal versus in situ speciation? Or, how important are stochastic drift versus deterministic processes? Up to this point, these questions have been investigated by isolated disciplines (e.g. macroecology, comparative phylogeography, macroevolution) using tools and data that tend to focus on only one axis of community scale data (e.g. phylogenies, relative abundances, and/or trait information). Yet we know that there are feedbacks among processes that respond on short ...


Genetic And Functional Approaches To Understanding Autoimmune And Inflammatory Pathologies, Abbas Raza Jan 2020

Genetic And Functional Approaches To Understanding Autoimmune And Inflammatory Pathologies, Abbas Raza

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Our understanding of genetic predisposition to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases has been enhanced by large scale quantitative trait loci (QTL) linkage mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, the resolution and interpretation of QTL linkage mapping or GWAS findings are limited. In this work, we complement genetic predictions for several human diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) and systemic capillary leakage syndrome (SCLS) with genetic and functional data in model organisms to associate genes with phenotypes and diseases.

Focusing on MS, an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), we experimentally tested the effect of three of the GWAS ...


Peroxiredoxin 6 And Inflammation In Alzheimer's Disease, Jared Ferrell-Penniman Dec 2019

Peroxiredoxin 6 And Inflammation In Alzheimer's Disease, Jared Ferrell-Penniman

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is known for its debilitating symptoms and poor prognosis. However, despite intense research into neurodegenerative diseases, there are few therapies targeted at the underlying mechanisms of the disease. Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are cellular phenomena thought to be key to the progression of the disease. Critically, peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6), an antioxidant protein with multiple functions, has been identified from mammalian studies as a potential regulator of both OS and inflammation that may have a specific effect on AD. This project seeks to elucidate the role of Prx6 in AD as well as the underlying mechanisms ...


Genetic Analysis Of A Novel Ftsk Homolog, Hfka, In Streptomyces Coelicolor Development-Associated Chromosome Segregation, Sumedha Sethi Dec 2019

Genetic Analysis Of A Novel Ftsk Homolog, Hfka, In Streptomyces Coelicolor Development-Associated Chromosome Segregation, Sumedha Sethi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A quintessential phenomenon occurring during prokaryotic development is accurate segregation of the replicated genomes into the daughter cells. Key energy-dependent processes like chromosome condensation and subcellular partitioning of the genomes are driven by conserved proteins like SMC, ParB, FtsK. During its complex developmental cycle, Streptomyces coelicolor segregates its genomes into chains of unicellular spores when its multigenomic syncytial aerial hyphae undergo division.

A novel ftsK-like gene, hfkA (Homolog of FtsK protein A), was examined for function and localization during development-associated chromosome segregation. Individual deletions did not affect segregation, but a ΔhfkA ΔftsK mutant exhibited 8% anucleate spores ...


Chasing The Genetics Of Ascites In Broilers Using Whole Genome Resequencing, Alia Parveen Dec 2019

Chasing The Genetics Of Ascites In Broilers Using Whole Genome Resequencing, Alia Parveen

Theses and Dissertations

We are using whole genome resequencing to identify chromosomal regions associated with resistance or susceptibility to ascites, a form of pulmonary hypertension syndrome, meat-type chickens. Previous Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have identified regions on chromosomes 2, 9 and Z. Despite several GWAS and further genotyping, there are no reliable or potential markers for ascites phenotype. We have completed screening of Copy Number Variations (CNVs) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in ascites resistant and susceptible birds from the relaxed, REL, line derived from a commercial elite broiler line. DNA samples from resistant and susceptible birds ...


A Possible Luxr Solo Type Regulator Of An Antibiotic-Like Compound From The Soil Bacterium Rhodococcus, Katelyn Sellick Dec 2019

A Possible Luxr Solo Type Regulator Of An Antibiotic-Like Compound From The Soil Bacterium Rhodococcus, Katelyn Sellick

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rhodococcus, a species of bacteria commonly found in the soil, is an under-explored producer of small bioactive compounds including siderophores, pigments and antibiotics. MTM3W5.2 is a strain of Rhodococcus that was previously discovered to produce an antibiotic-like compound that has inhibitory effects on other Rhodococcus strains, including the veterinary pathogen, R. equi. The biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for production of the antibiotic has been identified, and a small gene, BTZ20_3964 at the start of the operon is believed to be a luxR solo regulator of the gene cluster. The goal of this project was to determine this gene’s ...


Finding And Analyzing De Novo Mutations In The Exomes Of Parent-Offspring Trios Of Spontaneous Chiari Malformation Type 1 Patients, Brian Leon Ricardo Dec 2019

Finding And Analyzing De Novo Mutations In The Exomes Of Parent-Offspring Trios Of Spontaneous Chiari Malformation Type 1 Patients, Brian Leon Ricardo

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chiari Malformation Type 1 (CM1) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs when one of the cerebellar tonsils herniates past the foramen magnum causing headaches, motor or sensory deficits, sleep apnea, and difficulty swallowing. This disorder is estimated to affect 1% of the population but due to the need of neuroimaging for diagnosis and the presence of asymptomatic patients there is still uncertainty about the exact proportion of the population affected. CM1 often presents itself with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as syringomyelia, scoliosis, and known genetic syndromes such as Klippel-Feil and Marfan syndromes. Twin, family, and familial clustering studies have established ...


The Effects Of Foot And Udder Scoring On Cow And Calf Performance, Clayton Lee Mcguire Dec 2019

The Effects Of Foot And Udder Scoring On Cow And Calf Performance, Clayton Lee Mcguire

Theses and Dissertations

Foot soundness and udder conformation are essential for longevity in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of foot angle (FA), claw set (CS), teat size (TS) and udder suspension (US) scores on cowherd performance. Data were analyzed for 1,685 observations on Angus-based cows over a four-year period. At weaning FA, CS, TS, and US were evaluated. Scores are based on nine-point scales. A score of one indicates straight pasterns, divergent toes, enlarged bottle shaped teats, and absence of a median suspensory ligament; nine indicates weak pasterns, curled toes, small symmetrical teats, and a ...


Functional Importance Of Lipin Phosphorylation, Stephanie Elizabeth Hood Dec 2019

Functional Importance Of Lipin Phosphorylation, Stephanie Elizabeth Hood

Theses and Dissertations

Highly conserved throughout evolution, lipins are dual functioning proteins found from yeast to humans. Functioning in the cytoplasm as phosphatidate phosphatase enzymes (PAP), lipins produce diacylglycerol that serves as a precursor for neutral fats and membrane phospholipids. Alternatively, nuclear lipins are responsible for the regulation of metabolic genes. Interestingly, both the mammalian lipin 1 paralog and the single Drosophila Lipin ortholog are highly phosphorylated proteins. Target of rapamycin (TOR) has previously been identified as one of the kinases that controls the subcellular localization of both lipin 1 and Drosophila Lipin. However, other serine and threonine kinases are predicted to be ...


Vines In The Neotropics: Phylogenomics, Biogeography And Systematics In Passion Flowers (Passiflora Subgenus Decaloba Section Decaloba), Serena Acha Nov 2019

Vines In The Neotropics: Phylogenomics, Biogeography And Systematics In Passion Flowers (Passiflora Subgenus Decaloba Section Decaloba), Serena Acha

Dissertations

With 600 species, Passiflora is a large, morphologically complex and broadly distributed genus in Passifloraceae that represents a major challenge to scientists interested in understanding the evolutionary history of tropical vines. Passiflora has been divided into subgenera, super sections and sections. One of the most enigmatic and species-rich (~120 spp.) groups in Passiflora is section Decaloba, which occurs in the Neotropics and is particularly diverse in Andean montane forests. In this study, we used phylogenomic and population genomic approaches to investigate the evolutionary history, biologeography, species boundaries, and taxonomy of Passiflora section Decaloba. We sampled herbarium specimens, extracted DNA, and ...


Rna Interference Of Worker Sterility Genes: Testing Mechanisms Of Reproductive Regulation In Apis Mellifera, Anthony J. Gallo Sep 2019

Rna Interference Of Worker Sterility Genes: Testing Mechanisms Of Reproductive Regulation In Apis Mellifera, Anthony J. Gallo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Social insects such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera) are well known for their reproductive division of labour and eusocial colony systems. Honey bee workers forgo reproduction in favour of being selfless in directing reproductive benefits towards their queen mother. This altruistic tendency is a result of both behavioural and physiological changes under control of the presence of the queen’s mandibular pheromone. The genetic mechanism that underlies this response is, however, not well understood. Here, this study used RNA interference to knock down the expression of single genes (fruitless and ftz-f1) that have been previously identified as influential in ...


Chromatin Digestion By The Chemotherapeutic Agent Bleomycin Produces Nucleosome And Transcription Factor Footprinting Patterns Similar To Micrococcal Nuclease, Joshua Michael Stolz Sep 2019

Chromatin Digestion By The Chemotherapeutic Agent Bleomycin Produces Nucleosome And Transcription Factor Footprinting Patterns Similar To Micrococcal Nuclease, Joshua Michael Stolz

Theses and Dissertations

Bleomycin (BLM), a glycopeptide antibiotic commonly used in chemotherapeutic treatments, has been shown to produce single and double stranded DNA breaks. Subsequent analysis of DNA fragmentation patterns has demonstrated preferential digestion of chromatin in the TSS of active genes and the ability to produce nucleosome-sized fragments within intact chromatin. Nucleosome positioning plays a critical role in the regulation of gene activation. Currently, micrococcal nuclease (MNase) is used as the standard for mapping the position of nucleosomes in the genome. In order to identify whether BLM can be used as an effective nucleosome-mapping agent, BLM was used to digest chromatin in ...


Geographic Population Structure And Taxonomic Identity Of Rhinichthys Osculus, The Santa Ana Speckled Dace, As Elucidated By Nuclear Dna Intron Sequencing, Liane Raynette Greaver Sep 2019

Geographic Population Structure And Taxonomic Identity Of Rhinichthys Osculus, The Santa Ana Speckled Dace, As Elucidated By Nuclear Dna Intron Sequencing, Liane Raynette Greaver

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Rhinichthys osculus (Cyprinidae), the speckled dace, is the most widely distributed freshwater fish in the western United States. The southern California populations of R. osculus are identified as the Santa Ana speckled dace (SASD), though the SASD has not yet been formally recognized as a distinct taxon. Current mtDNA analysis performed in the Metcalf Lab has shown a reciprocally monophyletic relationship among three California regions; southern, central coast, and Owens Valley. Similarly, microsatellite genotyping has shown significant levels of geographic population structure. The purpose of this study was to provide nuclear DNA sequence data to determine the taxonomic status of ...


Isolation Of Caldatribacterium (Op9) And Investigation Of Its Potential Interactions With A Novel, Co-Cultivated Thermodesulfobacterium Species, Toshio Alvarado Sep 2019

Isolation Of Caldatribacterium (Op9) And Investigation Of Its Potential Interactions With A Novel, Co-Cultivated Thermodesulfobacterium Species, Toshio Alvarado

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Atribacteria (OP9), candidate phylum with no representatives in pure culture, is found in various anaerobic environments worldwide. “Caldatribacterium”, a lineage within Atribacteria that is predicted to be a strictly anaerobic sugar fermenter based on cultivation-independent genomic analyses, is currently being maintained in lab enrichment cultures with fucose as its sole growth substrate. Metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing indicated that the fucose culture was a co-culture of “Caldatribacterium” and an uncultivated member of the genus Thermodesulfobacterium. Due to failed attempts to isolate “Caldatribacterium” by dilution-to-extinction and plating, it was hypothesized that “Caldatribacterium” is dependent in some way on the ...


Using Single-Cell Sorting, Fish And 13c-Labeling To Cultivate And Assess Carbon Substrate Utilization Of ‘Aigarchaeota’ And Other Novel Thermophiles, Damon Kurtis Mosier Sep 2019

Using Single-Cell Sorting, Fish And 13c-Labeling To Cultivate And Assess Carbon Substrate Utilization Of ‘Aigarchaeota’ And Other Novel Thermophiles, Damon Kurtis Mosier

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

‘Aigarchaeota’, a deeply branching lineage in the domain Archaea with no cultivated representatives, includes both thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms that reside in terrestrial and marine geothermal environments. The ‘Aigarchaeota’ consists of at least nine proposed genus-level groups that have been confirmed via 16S rRNA sequencing, with ‘Aigarchaeota’ Group 1 (AigG1) being the focus of this study. Based on cultivation-independent genomic data available from several AigG1 members in Great Boiling Spring (GBS), NV, and Yellowstone National Park, 22 different types of growth media were designed and tested for their ability to support growth of AigG1. One of these cultures, G1-10, was ...


Eugenics In The 21st Century, Jessica Linn Chin Sep 2019

Eugenics In The 21st Century, Jessica Linn Chin

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Eugenics is the science of enhancing the human population through the management of breeding and hereditary traits. This thesis explores the history of eugenics and shows how eugenic practices continue in the 21st century with advancements in technology and positive eugenic goals that can result in adverse effects on the human body and society. When Sir Francis Galton coined the term eugenics in 1883, he intended to improve British society with the use of positive eugenics. Galton used positive eugenics to encourage people with good mental and physical qualities to produce more children. He avoided negative eugenics, which involved ...


Assessing The Role Of Drosophila Melanogaster Neuroligin 3 On Social Spacing And Climbing Behaviour, J. Wesley Robinson Aug 2019

Assessing The Role Of Drosophila Melanogaster Neuroligin 3 On Social Spacing And Climbing Behaviour, J. Wesley Robinson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Autism spectrum disorders can be clinically defined in part by impairments of social interactions. Social interactions can be modeled in Drosophila melanogaster with behaviours such as social spacing. Here, I examined the effects of autism-related gene neuroligin 3 on fly social spacing. I hypothesized if neuroligin 3 is mutated or gene expression is targeted for knockdown, then flies will have altered social space in males and females at different ages. Using the social space assay, I found that different mutations to neuroligin 3 change the fly’s behavior, in a mutation and sex-specific manner. Using an antibody against Nlg3, I ...


The Dispersal Pattern Of Thekopsora Minima In Wild Blueberry Determined By A Molecular Detection Method, Nghi Nguyen Aug 2019

The Dispersal Pattern Of Thekopsora Minima In Wild Blueberry Determined By A Molecular Detection Method, Nghi Nguyen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Blueberry rust caused by Thekopsora minima is a common disease in wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) and other Vaccinium genera. Understanding the spore dispersal pattern and disease cycle of fungal pathogens in wild blueberry is crucial for the development of a more efficient disease management program. Molecular assays for rapid detection and quantification of Thekopsora minima were developed to be incorporated with a spore trap sampling method and weather data collection to examine spore dispersal pattern and production in three different fields: Blueberry Hill Farm in Jonesboro, East Machias, and Spring Pond in Deblois, Maine, in three years 2014, 2015 and ...


From Single Cells To Human Disease: High-Resolution Phenotyping Of Male Infertility Models Using Single-Cell Rna Sequencing, Min Jung Aug 2019

From Single Cells To Human Disease: High-Resolution Phenotyping Of Male Infertility Models Using Single-Cell Rna Sequencing, Min Jung

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Male infertility is a complex disease that can result in significant emotional distress and treatment costs. Globally, male infertility affects 7% of males, and while its incidence is rising, its etiology remains elusive. In order to improve patient care, it is critical to identify the nature of spermatogenic failure in as many men as possible. The extensive cellular heterogeneity of testis has limited the application of bulk expression measurements to capture crucial information to dissect molecular mechanisms of defects in the infertile patients. Thus, the application of single-cell RNA-sequencing on male germ cells provides an amazing new set of scientific ...


Response Of Early Life Stage Homarus Americanus To Ocean Warming And Acidification: An Interpopulation Comparison, Maura K. Niemisto Aug 2019

Response Of Early Life Stage Homarus Americanus To Ocean Warming And Acidification: An Interpopulation Comparison, Maura K. Niemisto

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anthropogenic carbon released into the atmosphere is driving rapid, concurrent increases in temperature and acidity across the world’s oceans, most prominently in northern latitudes. The geographic range of the iconic American lobster (Homarus americanus) spans a steep thermal gradient and one of the most rapidly warming oceanic environments. Understanding the interactive effects of ocean warming and acidification on this species’ most vulnerable early life stages is important to predict its response to climate change on a stage-specific and population level. This study compares the responses of lobster larvae from two sub-populations spanning New England’s north-south temperature gradient (southern ...


Investigating The Role Of Cd109 In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Mennatallah Shaheen Aug 2019

Investigating The Role Of Cd109 In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Mennatallah Shaheen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the 3rd leading cause of cancer death in the US. We performed loss of function genomic screening on a cohort of four patient derived PDAC cell populations and our data shows a cell surface receptor CD109 to be a common vulnerability, the biologic role of which in PDAC is yet unstudied and largely unknown. We hypothesized that CD109 expression provides PDAC cells with a survival advantage, and promotes cancer progression through activation of downstream signaling. We believe therefore that targeting CD109 could improve PDAC patients’ survival. Here we report that CD109 plays a role in ...


P53r245w Mutation Elicits Metastatic Phenotype In Pten Deficient Prostate Cancer, Ky Pham Aug 2019

P53r245w Mutation Elicits Metastatic Phenotype In Pten Deficient Prostate Cancer, Ky Pham

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Trp53 mutations are the most frequent genetic alterations in prostate cancer and are associated with more aggressive disease and worse overall survival. The majority of Trp53 mutations in prostate cancer are missense mutations, resulting in amino acid substitutions with profound effect. In addition to the loss of wild type function, missense mutations in Trp53 result in a gain-of-function (GOF) phenotype. This GOF phenotype confers biologic advantages to the tumor cells, enabling them to metastasize and invade distant organs. In this study, we generated mice carrying a conditional prostate-specific p53R245W mutant and Pten deletion to access the role of this common ...


Rescue And Reestablishment Of Chicken Models For Spontaneously Occurring Hashimoto’S Thyroiditis And Systemic Sclerosis/Scleroderma, Joseph Zolton Hiltz Aug 2019

Rescue And Reestablishment Of Chicken Models For Spontaneously Occurring Hashimoto’S Thyroiditis And Systemic Sclerosis/Scleroderma, Joseph Zolton Hiltz

Theses and Dissertations

The loss of biodiversity is a topic gaining popularity both in the political and scientific forums. Nearly 30 years ago researchers and politicians congregated in Rio de Janeiro (1992) to attend the first Earth Summit. It was the first meeting of its kind discussing the tangible pressing consequences of biodiversity loss as well as the potential long term ramifications. Many of the countries represented at this summit implemented short and long term plans in order to accurately measure losses of biodiversity as well as establishing organizations to help diagnose and remedy the current problems at hand. These new organizations and ...


Homology Modeling Of The Squalus Acanthias Ahr1 To Locate Structural Determinants Of Function, Timothy Bock Aug 2019

Homology Modeling Of The Squalus Acanthias Ahr1 To Locate Structural Determinants Of Function, Timothy Bock

Master's Theses, Dissertations, Graduate Research and Major Papers Overview

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates a toxic response to many environmental contaminants. Cartilaginous fishes, due to gene duplication events, express 4 distinct AHR genes. Squalus acanthias AHR1 (SaAHR1) does not bind to typical AHR agonists, including dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs), whereas SaAHR2 binds to DLCs and subsequently upregulates genes containing dioxin responsive elements. Three-dimensional homology models were created based upon both human HIF1α and human HIF2α structural templates. These models yielded different secondary structural characteristics, most notably in the length of the β-strand on the C-terminal end of the ligand binding domain, which is ...


Multi-Polygenic Risk Score Prediction Model For Bipolar Disorder, Travis Mize Aug 2019

Multi-Polygenic Risk Score Prediction Model For Bipolar Disorder, Travis Mize

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Bipolar disorder (BP), a severe mental disorder characterized by recurring manic and depressive episodes, has been shown to have a strong genetic underpinning. Current theory suggests that it is the summation of risk alleles, spread across the entirety of the genome, which contributes to the development of BP, as well as other polygenic traits. The comorbid nature of these polygenic traits are often problematic for diagnosticians as the symptomology of the disorders may vary substantially between individuals and can create diagnostic confusion. To alleviate issues such as these, a more objective measure, to be used alongside current diagnostic procedures, is ...


Sequence Analysis Of The Ren1 Genomic Region From The Grapevine ‘Kishmish Vatkana’, Dani Joseph Aug 2019

Sequence Analysis Of The Ren1 Genomic Region From The Grapevine ‘Kishmish Vatkana’, Dani Joseph

MSU Graduate Theses

The REN1 region of the grapevine ‘Kishmish Vatkana’ was mapped as the locus that confers resistance to the economically important disease, grape powdery mildew. The purpose of this work was to extend the nucleotide sequence information of this region. By sequencing a heretofore unknown bacterial artificial chromosome clone, the sequence information of this region was extended by 46,890 nucleotides. Sequencing was performed using the third-generation sequencing method, named Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT). In order to improve the accuracy of the sequence data, a modified ONT library preparation method was developed. ONT sequencing of a library prepared with the modified ...


The Effect Of Metal Composition And Particle Size On Nanostructure-Toxicity In Plants, Natalie Lynn Smith Aug 2019

The Effect Of Metal Composition And Particle Size On Nanostructure-Toxicity In Plants, Natalie Lynn Smith

MSU Graduate Theses

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have consistently been shown to have a detrimental effect on bacteria, fungi, and plants. The interaction of AgNPs with plants has received considerable scientific attention, because it is potentially through plants that these structures can enter the food chain and bioaccumulate in humans and animals. To determine the effects of AgNPs on plants, Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were chronically exposed to sublethal levels of AgNPs using a standardized method. To gain insight on mechanism of phytotoxicity, the seedlings were exposed to low concentrations of Ag+ (in the form of silver nitrate), AgNPs, or gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). To test ...


Intron And Small Rna Localization In Mammalian Neurons, Harleen Saini Jul 2019

Intron And Small Rna Localization In Mammalian Neurons, Harleen Saini

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

RNA molecules are diverse in form and function. They include messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are templates for proteins, splice products such as introns that can generate functional noncoding RNAs, and a slew of smaller RNAs such as transfer RNAs (tRNAs) that help decode mRNAs into proteins. RNAs can show distinct patterns of subcellular localization that play an important role in protein localization. However, RNA distribution in cells is incompletely understood, with prior studies focusing primarily on RNAs that are long (>200 nucleotides), fully processed, and polyadenylated. We examined the distribution of RNAs in neurons. Neuronal compartments can be separated by ...


Identifying Brachypodium Distachyon Proteins Interacting With Histone Deacetylase Bdhd1, Alberto Giovanni Torrez Jul 2019

Identifying Brachypodium Distachyon Proteins Interacting With Histone Deacetylase Bdhd1, Alberto Giovanni Torrez

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Current evidence has revealed the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms, including histone deacetylases (HDACs), in plant stress responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, HDA19, belonging to the RPD3/HDA1 class, interacts with transcription factors to form repressor complexes. HDAC research mainly exists for dicotyledons, whereas research on monocotyledons is limited. Brachypodium distachyon is used as a model plant to investigate questions unique to monocot crops. BdHD1 is the closest homologous gene to HDA19 in B. distachyon. This study investigated potential protein-protein interactions between BdHD1 and each of BdMYB22, BdWRKY24, and BdHOS15. Protein interactions were investigated using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation ...


Mechanistic Basis For Control Of Early Embryonic Development By A 5’ Trna Fragment, Xin Y. Bing Jul 2019

Mechanistic Basis For Control Of Early Embryonic Development By A 5’ Trna Fragment, Xin Y. Bing

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Ancestral environmental conditions can instruct offspring development, although the mechanism(s) underlying such transgenerational epigenetic inheritance is unclear. In murine models focused on paternal dietary effects, we and others have identified tRNA fragments (tRFs) in mature sperm as potential carriers of epigenetic information. In our search for molecular targets of specific tRFs, we observed that altering the level of 5’-tRF Glycine-GCC (tRF-GG) in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and preimplantation embryos modulates the expression of the endogenous retrovirus MERV-L and genes regulated by MERV-L. Intriguingly, transient derepression of MERV-L is associated with totipotency of two-cell stage embryos and a ...