Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase-Mediated Lipid Metabolism In Obesity And Colon Tumorigenesis, Weicang Wang Oct 2019

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase-Mediated Lipid Metabolism In Obesity And Colon Tumorigenesis, Weicang Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

Colon cancer is a major public health issue: it is expected to have 140,250 new cases and 50,630 deaths during 2018, making colon cancer the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Obesity is associated with enhanced colonic inflammation, which is a major risk factor of colorectal cancer. Currently, more than 35% of adults and nearly 17% of children are obese. Considering the obesity and colon cancer epidemic in the United States, there is an urgent need to identify novel therapeutic targets for obesity and colon cancer ...


Effect Of Grain Sorghum Polyphenols On Fecal Fermentation, Danielle Marie Ashley Aug 2018

Effect Of Grain Sorghum Polyphenols On Fecal Fermentation, Danielle Marie Ashley

Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is an increasing epidemic which during 2015-2016 afflicted 39.8% of adults and 18.5% of youth in the United States. Not only can obesity affect quality of life, but it can lead to life-threatening diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and some cancers. Animal and human research have demonstrated a pattern of gut microbiota perturbation in overweight and obesity, characterized by a reduction of beneficial bacterial species and increase in harmful species. Diet has been established as a contributing factor in gut ecology, and foods including fiber, resistant starch, and polyphenols have been found to ...


Effects Of Mitochondrial Nadp+-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Deficiency On Fructose-Induced Obesity In Mice, Allison Michelle Montalbano, Kaleigh Elizabeth Beane May 2018

Effects Of Mitochondrial Nadp+-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Deficiency On Fructose-Induced Obesity In Mice, Allison Michelle Montalbano, Kaleigh Elizabeth Beane

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Management Undergraduate Honors Theses

Obesity prevalence in the United States continues to increase and is associated with health consequences such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia. Among many contributing factors to obesity, fructose may be one of the major reasons as it disrupts the antioxidant system thereby resulting in an accumulation of reactive oxidative species and leading to obese conditions. The enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate from the TCA Cycle, hence might be implicated with not only energy metabolism but also cellular redox homeostasis. Therefore, the hypothesis was that IDH2 deficiency in mice would exacerbate hepatic lipid ...


Assessment Of Nutrition Knowledge And Dietary Behaviors Of Post Bariatric Surgery Patients Attending The Outpatient Clinic Of Rashid Hospital, Dubai, Souheir Mahmoud Alia Mar 2018

Assessment Of Nutrition Knowledge And Dietary Behaviors Of Post Bariatric Surgery Patients Attending The Outpatient Clinic Of Rashid Hospital, Dubai, Souheir Mahmoud Alia

Food Science Theses

Obesity is regarded as an increasingly prevalent public health problem, with enormous adverse health consequences. It also increases the risk for co-morbidities. There are several means to treat obesity, and bariatric surgery has emerged as one of the most prevalent ways to treat obesity. Despite the vast research assessing nutrition knowledge of patients regarding several health conditions, existing research assessing the nutrition knowledge of post-bariatric surgery patients is limited, although this category of patients is very susceptible to malnutrition post-surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the patients’ general nutrition knowledge and the knowledge specific to the dietary ...


Effects Of Permethrin, A Pyrethroid Insecticide, On Glucose And Lipid Metabolism, Xiao Xiao Jul 2017

Effects Of Permethrin, A Pyrethroid Insecticide, On Glucose And Lipid Metabolism, Xiao Xiao

Doctoral Dissertations

Over the last few decades, the decline of using organochlorine and organophosphorus insecticides has partially contributed to the rising utilization of newer synthetic insecticides, which are considered as less harmful and more environmental friendly than the older generation of insecticides. Pyrethroid insecticides are one of the newer insecticide classes reported with better biodegradability and low mammalian toxicity without sacrificing its insecticidal efficacy. Permethrin is one of the most widely used pyrethroid insecticides with structural similarity with natural pyrethrin insecticide from the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium. Since its introduction in the 1970’s, permethrin has been extensively used in medicine, military ...


Optimization Of Growth Conditions And Characterization Of Properties On Christensenella Minuta, Qing Ai Jan 2017

Optimization Of Growth Conditions And Characterization Of Properties On Christensenella Minuta, Qing Ai

Wayne State University Theses

Currently, increasing numbers of people are suffering from obesity. The gut microbiome becomes a useful approach to control the mechanisms associated with obesity. A novel bacterium, Christensenella minuta, which was discovered in 2012, triggers body weight loss. Our purpose in this study is to further realize characteristics of C. Minuta as a potential probiotic supplement for future obesity studies. This study determines the following characteristics of C. Minuta: DNA identification, turbidity verification, generation time, as well as optimization of pH and temperature. To test the tolerance of C. Minuta as a gastrointestinal treatment, the pH and bile salts concentration in ...


The Potential Stimulation Of C. Minuta Growth By Various Prebiotics, And Its Sensitivity To Various Antibiotics, Maria Elena Hakim Jan 2017

The Potential Stimulation Of C. Minuta Growth By Various Prebiotics, And Its Sensitivity To Various Antibiotics, Maria Elena Hakim

Wayne State University Theses

Gut microbiota play a crucial role in maintaining intestinal health and integrity; a feature that is both heritable, as well as affected by the environment and lifestyle. Probiotics are supplements containing live microorganisms that act in a similar manner to gut microflora, and maintain a balance in the latter. C. minuta is a novel bacterium in the gut that was found to be associated with reduction in body weight and adiposity. The aim of this study was to determine the possible effects of different prebiotics on C. minuta growth, and the survival of C. minuta in response to different antibiotics ...


Investigation Into Roseburia Intesinalis For Optimal Growth And Survivability Conditions For Potential Probiotic Use, Lisa Rana Felczak Jan 2017

Investigation Into Roseburia Intesinalis For Optimal Growth And Survivability Conditions For Potential Probiotic Use, Lisa Rana Felczak

Wayne State University Theses

Obesity and diabetes is an epidemic of increasing concern. Certain novel bacteria have been found to be an aid in reversing some of the mechanisms associated. This study focused on investigating the optimal stability conditions for R.intestinalis that can associate with an increase in growth. First, environmental conditions were tested to find the optimal conditions associated with each. Once growth conditions were found, generation time was calculated and various prebiotics were used to investigate a potential for additional growth. Next, common antibiotics were tested to see if the R.intestinalis could still show growth when exposed. Large batches of ...


Effects Of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Cla) On Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, Yoo Kim Nov 2015

Effects Of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Cla) On Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, Yoo Kim

Doctoral Dissertations

Although it is well known that increased physical activity can help reduce incidences of obesity, physical activity can be influenced by complex issues, making it difficult to use universal means to control obesity. Recent discoveries of the effects of exercise at the cellular level opened up the unique opportunity to develop compounds with ‘exercise-like’ effects. In fact, CLA has been shown to promote voluntary activity and endurance capacity in mice. Thus, the purpose of these studies is to determine the mechanisms of conjugated linoleic acid on muscle metabolism via the modulation of biochemical events including mitochondrial biogenesis and the alternation ...


Postprandial Effects Of Resistant Starch Corn Porridges On Blood Glucose And Satiety Responses In Non-Overweight And Overweight Adults, Danielle Alexander Jan 2012

Postprandial Effects Of Resistant Starch Corn Porridges On Blood Glucose And Satiety Responses In Non-Overweight And Overweight Adults, Danielle Alexander

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Diabetes and obesity are major health concerns in the United States. There are several lifestyle factors that contribute to the development of these conditions and diet plays a large role in both etiology and treatment of these diseases. Poor carbohydrate quality and excess caloric intake can contribute to obesity and the development of insulin resistance, eventually progressing into Type 2 diabetes (DM2) and its associated co-morbidities. Resistant starch (RS), a type of dietary fiber, is thought to be a tool for prevention and treatment of obesity and DM2 due to its slow release of glucose post prandially, low energy ...


Cultural Diabetes, Keri E. Noll Jan 2012

Cultural Diabetes, Keri E. Noll

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Diabetes has become a cultural problem across America, but particularly in the Midwest and Southern regions. For my film, I explored these two areas and compared the food and exercise culture to one of the healthier regions, the West. Having moved from Indiana to Colorado, I used my own personal experiences to analyze why people in the Midwest struggle with diabetes and obesity at such a higher rate than those nearer to the Pacific Ocean. Through a series of interviews with close friends and observational analysis of each state, I came to learn something very important about health: our food ...


The Relationship Between Calcium Intake, Obesity, And Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: The Jackson Heart Study, Marjuyua Lartey-Rowser Aug 2009

The Relationship Between Calcium Intake, Obesity, And Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: The Jackson Heart Study, Marjuyua Lartey-Rowser

Dissertations

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health risk in the United States. Major indicators of CVD risk include obesity, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Modifiable risk factors associated with CVD include body composition (body mass index and waist circumference), serum lipids, and blood pressure. Data suggest calcium intake may play a role in regulation of weight, serum lipids, and blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships of dietary calcium intake with weight status, and cardiovascular disease risks in African American population participating in the Jackson Heart Study.

The subjects included 4,267 African American adults ages ...


The Effects Of Eating Behaviors And Exercise Patterns On The Processing Of Food And Exercise Related Stimuli, Carrie Potter Jan 2009

The Effects Of Eating Behaviors And Exercise Patterns On The Processing Of Food And Exercise Related Stimuli, Carrie Potter

Honors Theses

The effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for eating disorders has established a link between cognitive processes and unhealthy eating behaviors. However, the relationship between individual differences in unhealthy eating behaviors that are not related to clinical eating disorders, such as overeating and restrained eating, and the processing of food related verbal stimuli remains undetermined. Furthermore, the cognitive processes that promote unhealthy and healthy exercise patterns remain virtually unexplored by previous research. The present study compared individual differences in attitudes and behaviors around eating and exercise to responses to food and exercise-related words using a Lexical Decision Task (LDT). Participants ...


Weight Maintenance: Determinants Of Success, Cynthia Mitchell May 2005

Weight Maintenance: Determinants Of Success, Cynthia Mitchell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This literature review was a selective examination of current obesity and physical activity research and opinions. Its purpose was more to evoke thought and discussion regarding the United States' obesity epidemic, rather than serve as an exhaustive account of prospective causes and solutions. Obesity and physical inactivity are major preventable health problems in the United States, but despite overwhelming evidence regarding the benefits of a healthy weight and regular physical activity, adult, childhood and adolescent obesity rates continue to escalate, creating significant health, medical and economic consequences.

While obesity rates soar, a small population percentage has proven successful in long-term ...


Body Mass Index And Soft Drink Consumption Among Adolescents, Olivia Love Mccord Jul 2004

Body Mass Index And Soft Drink Consumption Among Adolescents, Olivia Love Mccord

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and soft drink consumption among adolescents. It is hypothesized that soft drink consumption contributes to overweight and obesity among adolescents.

Background: Research examining the relationship between body mass index and soft drink consumption is inconsistent. Several studies have found a negative association between total sugar intake and BMI; however, others have found a link between sugar-sweetened drinks and obesity. There are no known studies that have controlled for physical activity.

Data and Methods: Data on approximately 225 adolescents were used. Frequency of soft drink consumption, type of milk, and calcium ...