Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Four Legs Good, Two Legs Bad: How Slaughterhouse Safety Hasn’T Kept Up With The Times, Emily Ziemski Dec 2017

Four Legs Good, Two Legs Bad: How Slaughterhouse Safety Hasn’T Kept Up With The Times, Emily Ziemski

Capstones

From legal loopholes and outdated rules to undetectable infections and understaffing, the United States Department of Agriculture may not be doing all it can to make sure the American public’s health isn't at risk. As the people of the United States consume over 500 million pounds of beef a year, food safety policy and slaughterhouses are falling behind in proper procedural measurements in the beef industry.

emziemski.com/capstone


Sodium Reduction In Turkey Breast Meat By Using Sodium Anion Species, Janamkumar Pandya Mar 2017

Sodium Reduction In Turkey Breast Meat By Using Sodium Anion Species, Janamkumar Pandya

Masters Theses

Research studies show that an average American consumes 3,400 to 4,500 mg/day of sodium in their diet against the dietary recommendation of 1,500 to 2,300 mg/day. The majority of this sodium comes from processed foods. Excess sodium in the diet can potentially cause health issues such as hypertension, heart attack, kidney failure, and bone problems. The objective of this study is to understand sodium diffusion in a protein model using turkey breast meat and determine the opportunities of its reduction by changing the process conditions and combining table salt with other sodium salts.

Since ...


Characterization Of Antimicrobial-Resistant Staphylococcus Spp. In Food Animals And Retail Meat, Kanika Bhargava Jan 2013

Characterization Of Antimicrobial-Resistant Staphylococcus Spp. In Food Animals And Retail Meat, Kanika Bhargava

Wayne State University Dissertations

Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus spp. is a worldwide epidemic concern in hospital and community settings. Food animals and retail meat are important reservoirs of these pathogens that can pose potential threat to humans. In this dissertation, we aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCoNS) in food animals and retail meat to provide insight into the role of agricultural environment in transmitting bacteria of human clinical significance. Furthermore, the potential application of phytochemicals as antimicrobials and antimicrobial adjuvants to control MRSA infections was explored.

CoNS recovered from food animals were characterized by ...


Evaluation Of High Hydrostatic Pressure, Meat Species, And Ingredients To Control Listeria Monocytogenes In Ready-To-Eat Meats, Kevin Myers Jan 2012

Evaluation Of High Hydrostatic Pressure, Meat Species, And Ingredients To Control Listeria Monocytogenes In Ready-To-Eat Meats, Kevin Myers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of meat species, ingredients, and level of high hydrostatic pressure on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meats. The overall findings of the research show the benefits of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in controlling L. monocytogenes by serving as a post-packaging treatment capable of decreasing the number of L. monocytogenes by over 3 log CFU/g at 600 MPa.

The first research study presented here showed that HHP is a technology capable of decreasing the number of L. monocytogenes organisms by 3-4 log CFU/g in conventionally-cured processed meats. The ...


Rapid Detection Of Listeria Monocytogenes, Wim Lippens May 2003

Rapid Detection Of Listeria Monocytogenes, Wim Lippens

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodbome pathogen that can cause severe illness and even death. It is found in dairy and meat products. The focus is on rapid detection since conventional methods are time consuming (4-5 days). Pre-enrichment steps, as part of those methods, are time consuming. Our objective was to develop a detection system without a pre-enrichment step, giving a final result within 2 to 4 h.

In the concept of "the need for speed," a detection system with an antibody-based capture technique, followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was developed. Glass beads coated with a Listeria polyclonal antibody were ...


The Contribution Of Meats To Energy And Essential Nutrient Intakes Of Women In The United States, C. Dian Martin May 1994

The Contribution Of Meats To Energy And Essential Nutrient Intakes Of Women In The United States, C. Dian Martin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study used the 1987-88 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey to investigate the contribution meat products make to intakes of nutrients at risk of inadequate or excessive consumption by women. The study is unique in that meat nutrients were extracted from mixed dishes, providing a more accurate picture of consumption. Cluster analysis was used to classify nonpregnant, nonlactating women 19 years and older based on their consumption patterns of total meat and individual meats (beef, poultry, processed meats, pork and seafoods) as percent of caloric intake.

Total fat and SFA intakes exceeded National Research Council (NRC) goals regardless of meat ...


Determining The Validity Of Methods Used In Meat Iron Analysis, Padmashri Ummadi May 1991

Determining The Validity Of Methods Used In Meat Iron Analysis, Padmashri Ummadi

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The validity of the Homsey method for heme iron, modified Schricker and sodium pyrophosphate extraction methods for nonheme iron and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and ferrozine methods for total iron were determined using spikes of hemoglobin, ground beef baked to different degrees of doneness, proportional beef liver:catfish mixtures and National Institute of Science and Technology reference materials.

The mean spike recoveries of 0.0lg and 0.02g Hb in raw beef and raw chicken samples were 96.7% of the heme iron for the Homsey method, 97.9% of the total iron for the ferrozine method, and 85.7 ...


The Bioavailability Of Iron From Meat, Spinach, Soy Protein Isolate, Meat:Spinach And Meat:Spi Mixtures Fed To Anemic And Healthy Rats, Dejia Zhang May 1988

The Bioavailability Of Iron From Meat, Spinach, Soy Protein Isolate, Meat:Spinach And Meat:Spi Mixtures Fed To Anemic And Healthy Rats, Dejia Zhang

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Two Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of iron status and iron source on iron bioavailability using the rat model. Beef was proportionally mixed with spinach (Experiment I) or soy protein isolate (Experiment II) to test if meat enhances the absorption of iron from spinach or SPI. Five diets with the iron from meat:spinach (or SPI) ratios of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 were prepared and fed to rats. FeS04 was used as a reference. Two trials of rats were used in Experiment I. In trial I, half of the rats were ...


Plasmid-Linked Maltose Utilization In Lactobacillus Spp. Isolated From Meat, Mei-Ling Liu May 1987

Plasmid-Linked Maltose Utilization In Lactobacillus Spp. Isolated From Meat, Mei-Ling Liu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Five strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and four strains of Lactobacillus species isolated from fresh meat were examined for the presence of plasmid DNA. All strains examined contained between one and five plasmids ranging in molecular mass from 1.3 to 51.6 (Mdal). Plasmid-curing experiments suggest that maltose utilization is associated with a 51 Mdal plasmid in Lactobacillus sp. DB29 and 42 Mdal plasmids in Lactobacillus spp. DB27, DB28, DB31. Southern blot DNA-DNA hybridization showed homology between the maltose plasmid from Lactobacillus sp. DB29 and several plasmids from the other Lactobacillus spp.


The Relative Roles Of Initial And Residual Sodium Nitrite On Germination Of Clostridium Botulinam Spores In Meat, Orchid Mettanant May 1982

The Relative Roles Of Initial And Residual Sodium Nitrite On Germination Of Clostridium Botulinam Spores In Meat, Orchid Mettanant

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Four levels of NaNO2 (0 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm, and 156 ppm) were tested for antibotulinal activity in ground pork inoculated with spores of Clostridium botulinum either at the time of formulation or after cooking. Samples formulated with less than 156 ppm sodium nitrite received additional nitrite to adjust the residual nitrite equal to that found after cooking in samples formulated with 156 ppm nitrite. All samples were subjected to abusive storage at 27 C. Inoculating the spores at the time of formulation resulted in a faster rate of swelling. Heating C. botulinum spores for 30 min. at ...


The Iron Bioavailability Of Mechanically-Deboned Meats, Bonnie Rae Anderson Farmer May 1977

The Iron Bioavailability Of Mechanically-Deboned Meats, Bonnie Rae Anderson Farmer

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Two separate experiments were used to investigate iron bioavailability of mechanically-deboned meats using hemoglobin regeneration to measure iron utilization. In both studies, male weanling rats were made anemic by bleeding and being fed a low-iron diet. Experimental diets were control fed to the animals and final hemoglobin concentrations were recorded. Animals were sacrificed and liver iron concentrations determined. The first experiment measured the iron bioavailability of mechanically-deboned and hand-deboned beef plate was better utilized by rats than the iron from mechanically- deboned shank and mechanically-deboned plate. The effect of lipid source and level on iron bioavailability of mechanically-deboned turkey meat ...


Quantitation Of Aliphatic Aldehydes In Rancid Turkey Meat Using A Substituted Hydrazone, Stanley J. Andrews May 1976

Quantitation Of Aliphatic Aldehydes In Rancid Turkey Meat Using A Substituted Hydrazone, Stanley J. Andrews

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many objective chemical tests have attempted to correlate with organoleptic evaluation of oxidative rancidity. Major chemical tests used to detect oxidative rancidity of lipids measure nonvolatile high molecular weight carbonylic substances which make no considerable contribution to rancid flavors. High molecular weight carbonyls are present at much greater concentrations than volatile low molecular weight carbonyls. Peroxides and other unknown substances also react in these chemical tests to give at best an empirical evaluation. A 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone chemical test is proposed which corrected some deficiencies of earlier procedures, and was correlated with organoleptic evaluation of rancid turkey samples. The proposed test ...


Mechanical Desinewing Of Meat, Kamchorn Tantikarnjathep May 1975

Mechanical Desinewing Of Meat, Kamchorn Tantikarnjathep

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effects of mechanical desinewing on yield, proximate analyses and connective tissue content of pork and beef have been examined and it's influence on the appearance and palatability of cooked salami was evaluated. Mechanical desinewing removed approximately half of the connective tissue and reduced the tendency for formation of gelatin pockets in cooked salami. Yields from the desinewer ranged from 71 to 87 percent, however, cooking yield defined as cooked weight divided by uncooked weight from the desinewed salami were 6 to 7 percent higher than from the nondesinewed salami. For both the beef and pork there was no ...


Effect Of Processing On Aliphatic Aldehyde Content Of Turkey Meat, Carolyn G. Ponce May 1975

Effect Of Processing On Aliphatic Aldehyde Content Of Turkey Meat, Carolyn G. Ponce

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nitrite at the level found in turkey frankfurter formulations vii did not interfere in the hydrazone test as developed by Andrews (1975). The aldehyde levels of frankfurters made principally from MD turkey meat were, on the average, twice as high as the levels in the raw meat. Aldehyde levels generally increased as the frozen storage time of the raw meat increased. There were some variations from this trend due to variation in the fat content of the raw meat. Sixty days was recommended as a maximum frozen storage time. However, because of variation in the fat content from sample to ...


Post-Mortem Physiochemical Changes In Turkey Muscle , Robert Arthur Jungk Jan 1971

Post-Mortem Physiochemical Changes In Turkey Muscle , Robert Arthur Jungk

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Subcellular Events Associated With The Development And Release Of Isometric Tension In Post-Mortem Bovine, Rabbit And Porcine Skeletal Muscle , Wayne Alvin Busch Jan 1969

Subcellular Events Associated With The Development And Release Of Isometric Tension In Post-Mortem Bovine, Rabbit And Porcine Skeletal Muscle , Wayne Alvin Busch

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Factors Influencing The Quality And Palatability Of Venison In Utah, Flora H. Bardwell May 1963

Factors Influencing The Quality And Palatability Of Venison In Utah, Flora H. Bardwell

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Outdoor recreational activities dealing with the pursuit of game is exceedingly popular today and its popularity is increasing each year. Annually over 180,000 hunters go afield in Utah in search of deer. There is harvested in the state over 12,000,000 pounds of dressed venison from Utah deer herds each fall. These hunters contribute 10.5 million dollars to the economy of the state for licenses, lodging, transportation and other expense of hunting.

Deer hunting is often done by the amateur, who with little or no experience has few or improper tools or information for dressing and caring ...