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Theses/Dissertations

Food Science

Cheese

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

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Growth Characteristics Of Lactobacillus Wasatchensis And Its Detection And Enumeration Using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Isaac Brockbank Bowen Aug 2018

Growth Characteristics Of Lactobacillus Wasatchensis And Its Detection And Enumeration Using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Isaac Brockbank Bowen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There are numerous challenges encountered during the manufacturing and storage of cheese by both the large-scale and artesian producers. One such challenge has been the formation of late gassy defect, which occurs when gas is produced by certain lactic acid bacteria found in the cheese block during storage and aging over a three month time period. Negative consequences of late gas production are slits and cracks in the cheese block and puffy cheese packaging, which cause significant financial losses for manufacturers along with poor consumer acceptance.

Lactobacillus wasatchensis is one such lactic acid bacterium shown to produce gas during cheese ...


Investigating The Strategies To Improve The Quality Of Low-Fat Mozzarella And Cheddar Cheeses, Ranjeeta Wadhwani May 2011

Investigating The Strategies To Improve The Quality Of Low-Fat Mozzarella And Cheddar Cheeses, Ranjeeta Wadhwani

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Low-fat cheese faces great challenges associated with its texture being hard and rubbery, desirable flavors being missing, color being undesirably intense and translucent appearing, and melting being improper. In an effort of improving the quality of low-fat cheeses, several strategies have been tried to accomplish three major objectives, 1) improving the melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese, 2) improving the color of low-fat Cheddar cheese, and 3) investigating the feasibilities of enriching low-fat Cheddar cheese with dietary fibers.

For objective 1, 4 batches of low-fat Mozzarella cheese with target fat of 6.0%, 4.5%, 3.0%, and ...


Comparative Performance Of Fluorometry And High Performance Liquid Chromatography In The Detection Of Alfatoxin M1 In Two Commercial Cheeses, Gustavo Pena May 2010

Comparative Performance Of Fluorometry And High Performance Liquid Chromatography In The Detection Of Alfatoxin M1 In Two Commercial Cheeses, Gustavo Pena

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is frequently found in milk and dairy products. It is a metabolite formed in cows from aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), contained in animal feeds. In cheese production AFM1 distributes between curds and whey. In this study, cows were fed 64 µg/AFB1/d for the high treatment, and 5 µg/AFB1/d for the low treatment, to obtain milk contaminated with AFM1 over the 0.5 µg/L and under 0.05 µg/L restrictions, respectively. Cheese was manufactured with milk contaminated with AFM1 at 0.8 and 0.03 ìg/kg by the higher and lower treatment ...


The Effect Of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Streptococcus Thermophilus Mr1c On Functionality In High Moisture Cheddar-Type Cheese, Tyler J. Singleton May 2007

The Effect Of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Streptococcus Thermophilus Mr1c On Functionality In High Moisture Cheddar-Type Cheese, Tyler J. Singleton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Differences in texture at any particular stage of ripening depend upon differences in the basic structure and the extent to which the basic structure is modified by physical parameters. Thus, very young cheeses of the same variety differ in texture because of variations in pH and in salt, moisture, and fat content. How well a cheese melts and shreds depend on its texture and physical parameters. Streptococcus thermophilus MR1C produces an exopolysaccharide (EPS) that is tightly associated with the bacterial cell wall. Addition of S. thermophilus MR1C to the cheese make will increase the moisture of the cheese 2-3% and ...


The Effect Of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Cultures On The Moisture Retention And Functional Properties Of Low Fat Mozzarella Cheese, David B. Perry May 2000

The Effect Of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Cultures On The Moisture Retention And Functional Properties Of Low Fat Mozzarella Cheese, David B. Perry

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Low fat Mozzarella cheese was made using exopolysaccharide-producing starter cultures consisting of single strains of Streptococcus thermophilus MR-1C and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus MR-1R with or without the addition of mesophilic exopolysaccharide-producing adjunct mixed culture consisting of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris. A control cheese was made using a non-exopolysaccharide-producing starter culture consisting of S. thermophilus TA061 and Lactobacillus helveticusLH100. Cheeses were analyzed for moisture, melt, fat, and protein. Cheeses made with the addition of the mesophilic exopolysaccharide-producing adjunct culture showed significant differences in moisture, but not in melting properties when compared to cheeses made ...


Influence Of Carbohydrate Starvation On The Culturability And Amino Acid Utilization Of Lactococcus Lactis, Mark R. Stuart May 1999

Influence Of Carbohydrate Starvation On The Culturability And Amino Acid Utilization Of Lactococcus Lactis, Mark R. Stuart

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lactococci are widely used in the cheese industry as a starter culture. Starter cultures face carbohydrate starvation due to the absence of a fermentable carbohydrate in the cheese curd after pressing. Starvation leads to a decreased ability to synthesize ATP, generate a proton motive force, and accumulate nutrients necessary to maintain viability. The aim of this work was to investigate the culturability of lactococci grown with and without lactose in a chemically defined medium, and to define the metabolic changes that occur during carbohydrate starvation.

Lactose metabolism provided energy for logarithmic phase growth and greater cell density in L. lactis ...


Tryptophan Catabolism By Lactobacillus Spp. : Biochemistry And Implications On Flavor Development In Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese, Sanjay Gummalla May 1998

Tryptophan Catabolism By Lactobacillus Spp. : Biochemistry And Implications On Flavor Development In Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese, Sanjay Gummalla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Amino acids derived from the degradation of casein in cheese serve as precursors for the generation of key flavor compounds. Microbial degradation of tryptophan (Trp) is thought to promote formation of aromatic compounds that impart putrid fecal or unclean flavors in cheese, but pathways for their production have not been established. This study investigated tryptophan catabolism by Lactobacillus casei LC301 and LC202 and Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32 and LH212 cheese flavor adjuncts in carbohydrate starvation (pH 6.5, 30 or 37°C, no sugar) and cheese-like conditions (pH 5.2, 4% NaCl, 15°C, no sugar). Enzyme assays of cell-free extracts ...


Consumption Of Iron-Fortified Cheese And Lipid Peroxidation In Females, Gene J. Giunti May 1994

Consumption Of Iron-Fortified Cheese And Lipid Peroxidation In Females, Gene J. Giunti

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Dairy products are important sources of calcium and other nutrients but are a poor source of dietary iron. Cheese comprises a substantial portion of dairy food consumption and has been determined an appropriate medium for iron-fortification. However, iron may promote the potentially harmful process in food and biological systems known as lipid peroxidation. Therefore, the safety of consuming iron-fortified cheese was examined.

Commercial-scale batches of Cheddar cheese were iron-fortified to a level of two milligrams of iron per ounce with either ferric chloride, ferric-casein complex, or ferric-whey protein complex. Fifty-four premenopausal females were divided into three treatment groups and supplemented ...


Effect Of Proteolytic Activity Of The Lactic Cultures On Mozzarella Cheese Quality, Wen-Hsu Amos Wang May 1989

Effect Of Proteolytic Activity Of The Lactic Cultures On Mozzarella Cheese Quality, Wen-Hsu Amos Wang

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Mozzarella cheese market is growing rapidly. Major concerns with cheese meltability and color have arisen in the fast food industry. Pre starter culture was used in this study to improve the physical properties of Mozzarella cheese. Three tests (stretch test, melt test, and browning test) were modified to evaluate the quality of cheese.

A stretch test using the Brookfield helipath viscometer to stretch the cheese sample at 60°C was successful in distinguishing cheeses from different make procedures and from different proteolytic strains. A melt test using a glass tube to hold the cheese flow at 110°C for ...


Persistence Of Mucor Miehei Protease In Cheddar Cheese And Pasteurized Whey And It's Effect Of Sterile Milk Products, Randall Kirk Thunell May 1977

Persistence Of Mucor Miehei Protease In Cheddar Cheese And Pasteurized Whey And It's Effect Of Sterile Milk Products, Randall Kirk Thunell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Whey from a commercial cheese plant, taken at draining on five separate days, from cheese made with a Mucor miehei coagulant was cooled within 1 h to 4 C. Portions were adjusted from pH 4.2 to 6.4 at .2 pH intervals and subjected to HTST pasteurization at 73.9, 76.6, and 79.5 C for 25 sec. Milk clotting activity in whey was determined before and after pasteurization. Resistance to heat in-activation increased with decreasing pH. All measurable activity was destroyed above pH 5.4 by pasteurization at 79.5 C, above pH 5.8 at 76 ...


A Process Incorporating Ultrafiltration Concentrated Whey Solids Into Cheese For Increased Cheese Yield, Rodney Jay Brown May 1977

A Process Incorporating Ultrafiltration Concentrated Whey Solids Into Cheese For Increased Cheese Yield, Rodney Jay Brown

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A process which incorporates whey sol ids, primarily protein, into cheese to increase cheese yield and eliminate whey handling problems was evaluated. Whey was concentrated by ultrafiltration to levels of 9.8 to 20.3 percent total solids (4.3 to 7.1 percent protein), heated at 70 C for 30 minutes and added to cheese milk with the coagulating enzyme.

Increase in cheese yield, on the basis of 39 percent moisture, for 10 pairs of samples was 4.0 ± 2.8 (S.D.) percent. This increase was significant at alpha less than 0.001. Moisture and protein content increased ...


Manufacture Of Monterey Cheese From Preacidified Milk, Faisal O. Mohamed May 1974

Manufacture Of Monterey Cheese From Preacidified Milk, Faisal O. Mohamed

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Whole milk acidified to pH 5.3 with hydrochloric acid was used for the manufacture of Monterey cheese. The milk was inoculated with one and one-half percent lactic starter and set with 12.5 ml rennet per 1000 pounds of milk. Normal washing treatments resulted in cheese with moisture in excess of 44 percent. Moisture content was brought below 44 percent by using wash water at a temperature such that the water-curd whey mixture was 35 C. The pH of cheese made by preacidification was all between 5.21 and 5.09. No acid defects were encountered. Preacidification eliminated chance ...


Pasteurized Versus Raw Milk In Brick Cheese-Making, Z. Doyle Roundy May 1933

Pasteurized Versus Raw Milk In Brick Cheese-Making, Z. Doyle Roundy

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The prime object of the work undertaken in the present study has been done with the view of determining whether or not the quality and yield of brick cheese may be improved by pasteurizing the milk from which the cheese is made. An effort should be made to put brick cheese-making on a more scientific basis and at the same time produce cheese of better and more uniform quality. Since milk, containing large numbers of undesirable microorganisms thus causing objectionable flavors and odors in dairy products, is frequently delivered to cheese factories to be processed, pasteurization seems to be one ...