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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Temporal Evaluation Of Corn Respiration Rates Using Pressure Sensors, Gagandeep Singh Ubhi May 2017

Temporal Evaluation Of Corn Respiration Rates Using Pressure Sensors, Gagandeep Singh Ubhi

Theses and Dissertations

High respiration rate of a grain indicates faster degradation of its dry matter. Proper grain management requires chronological and precise measurements of carbon dioxide evolved from grain respiration during the postharvest storage duration. Therefore the main goal of this research was to develop a new technique that evaluates temporal corn respiration rate using pressure sensors. It was based on measuring pressure drop associated with the grain respiration in a closed container and using it to calculate the grain respiration rates.

Dry corn (Zea Mays L.) was procured from a local farmer and stored at 4ºC. Corn rewetting technique was applied ...


Development Of A One Pass Microwave Heating Technology For Rice Drying And Decontamination, Deandrae Lynette Smith May 2017

Development Of A One Pass Microwave Heating Technology For Rice Drying And Decontamination, Deandrae Lynette Smith

Theses and Dissertations

An industrial microwave (MW) system operating at 915 MHz frequency was used to dry high moisture content (MC) (23% to 24% wet basis) medium-grain rough rice samples (cv. Jupiter). The rice beds were contained in a modified tray that accommodated up to 9 kg of rice separated by thin fiberglass mesh in 3 kg increments. Each layer of rice was fitted with fiber optic sensors connected to a real time data logger during MW treatments. It was determined that drying rice to a MC of 14% to 16% was feasible with the application of MW specific energy at 600 kJ ...


A Bifunctional Nanocomposites Based Electrochemical Biosensor For In-Field Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria In Food, Meng Xu Dec 2016

A Bifunctional Nanocomposites Based Electrochemical Biosensor For In-Field Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria In Food, Meng Xu

Theses and Dissertations

This research focused on the application of electrochemical biosensors for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium, in foods. The possible presence of pathogenic bacteria in foods has always been a great threat to the wellbeing of people and the revenue of food companies. Therefore, the demand for rapid and sensitive methods to detect foodborne pathogens is growing. In this research, an impedimetric immunosensor was first developed for the rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in foods. It was based on the techniques of immunomagnetic separation, enzyme labelling, and electrochemical ...


A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao Dec 2016

A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao

Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne diseases are a growing public health problem. In recent years, many rapid detection methods have been reported, but most of them are still in lab research and not practical for use in the field. In this study, a portable and automatic biosensing instrument was designed and constructed for separation and detection of target pathogens in food samples using nanobead-based magnetic separation and quantum dots (QDs)-labeled fluorescence measurement. The instrument consisted of a laptop with LabVIEW software, a data acquisition card (DAQ), a fluorescent detector, micro-pumps, stepper motors, and 3D printed tube holders. First, a sample in a syringe ...


Microbes In Rough Rice – Prevalence, Growth Kinetics And Links To Dry Matter Loss, Supriya Thote Aug 2016

Microbes In Rough Rice – Prevalence, Growth Kinetics And Links To Dry Matter Loss, Supriya Thote

Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of microorganisms on freshly-harvested long-grain hybrid, long-grain pureline, and medium-grain rice has not been elucidated. The first objective of this two-part study was to determine the relative prevalence of microbes on freshly-harvested, high moisture content rice of different types and cultivars. The total and surface aerobic plate counts (APC) and mold counts were determined in terms of log10 colony forming units per gram of rice (log10 CFU/g) for six rice cultivars over two years. In 2013, among harvested samples of all the studied rice cultivars, the long-grain hybrid cultivars had the lowest APC levels (M = 8.10 ...


Assessment Of An Industrial Type Radiant Heating System For Drying Rough Rice, Anne Adhiambo Okeyo May 2016

Assessment Of An Industrial Type Radiant Heating System For Drying Rough Rice, Anne Adhiambo Okeyo

Theses and Dissertations

Rough rice is normally harvested at moisture contents (MCs) higher than that for safe storage. The objective for this study was to investigate the effectiveness of scaled-up infrared (IR) heating followed by tempering steps to dry freshly-harvested rough rice. An industrial type, pilot scale, IR drying equipment, designed to convey rough rice on a vibrating conveyor belt was used in this study. The heating zone of the equipment had catalytic IR emitters powered by natural gas. Freshly-harvested rough rice of long-grain pureline (cv. Cheniere), long-grain hybrid (cv. 6XP 756) and medium-grain (cv. CL 271) cultivars at initial moisture contents (IMCs ...


A Simulation Platform For Accurate Prediction Of In-Bin Drying And Storage Of Rough Rice, Houmin Zhong Dec 2015

A Simulation Platform For Accurate Prediction Of In-Bin Drying And Storage Of Rough Rice, Houmin Zhong

Theses and Dissertations

Natural air (NA), in-bin drying and storage of rough rice generally maintains high grain quality, but the associated slow movement and occasional stagnation of the drying front during the process may result in problems of rice quality reduction, mold growth, and mycotoxin development, especially for rough rice in the top layers of the bin. Using modeling techniques to simulate in-bin rough rice drying in typically-encountered field scenarios may provide a tool for rapidly predicting the grain condition as drying progresses. The objectives for this study were to (1) investigate accurate models for predicting equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of rough rice ...


Characterization Of Cellulase Enzyme Inhibitors Formed During The Chemical Pretreatments Of Rice Straw, Kalavathy Rajan May 2015

Characterization Of Cellulase Enzyme Inhibitors Formed During The Chemical Pretreatments Of Rice Straw, Kalavathy Rajan

Theses and Dissertations

Production of fuels and chemicals from a renewable and inexpensive resource such as lignocellulosic biomass is a lucrative and sustainable option for the advanced biofuel and bio-based chemical platform. Agricultural residues constitute the bulk of potential feedstock available for cellulosic fuel production. On a global scale, rice straw is the largest source of agricultural residues and is therefore an ideal crop model for biomass deconstruction studies. Lignocellulosic biofuel production involves the processes of biomass conditioning, enzymatic saccharification, microbial fermentation and ethanol distillation, and one of the major factors affecting its techno-economic feasibility is the biomass recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification. Preconditioning ...


Milling And Functional Properties Of Co-Mingled Rice Cultivars, Nikhil N. Basutkar May 2014

Milling And Functional Properties Of Co-Mingled Rice Cultivars, Nikhil N. Basutkar

Theses and Dissertations

Differences have been observed in the milling and functional properties of different rice cultivars, particularly between hybrid and pureline cultivars. Co-mingling of rice cultivars commonly occurs during harvest, storage and drying operations. Thus, there is a need to study the effect of co-mingling on the milling and functional properties of rice cultivars. Two long-grain, hybrid (H) cultivars CL XL745 and CL XL729 and two long-grain, pureline (P) cultivars CL 151 and Wells were used to prepare CL XL745/CL 151 (H/P), CL XL745/CL XL729 (H/H) and Wells/CL 151 (P/P) co-mingles, mixed in various proportions. Milled ...


Shrinkage Prediction During Pasta Dehydration, Gina Michelle Bressani Apr 2014

Shrinkage Prediction During Pasta Dehydration, Gina Michelle Bressani

Open Access Theses

Shrinkage models from different fields of study were reviewed. Pasta was used as a model to further develop the hypothesis of predicting shrinkage in terms of the rate of relaxation and the rate of moisture loss. An extended literature review of pasta properties, such as isotherms, diffusivity, glass transition, rheological properties, and shrinkage was conducted. Isotherm and glass transition models were developed from the literature data acquired. Creep was tested with a 25 mm-diameter flat plate at 20 to 40°C at varying moisture content. Viscoelastic properties for the Burgers model for creep were determined, where higher moisture content samples ...


Quality Changes In Hermetically Stored Corn Caused By Fungi And Sitophilus Zeamais, Nda-Agyima Addae-Mensah K Apr 2014

Quality Changes In Hermetically Stored Corn Caused By Fungi And Sitophilus Zeamais, Nda-Agyima Addae-Mensah K

Open Access Theses

Hermetic storage has been shown to be effective in controlling insect pests and maintaining grain quality of dry grains at 13% moisture and below. However, the feasibility and use of hermetic storage for grains at intermediate mid-moisture levels under the influence of the sub-Saharan African weather conditions is relatively unknown. Hermetic storage experiments were conducted on grade 1 "6297 and 6333 VT RIB" hybrid corn under controlled temperature conditions at 10 degrees centigrade and 25 degrees centigrade at target approximate moisture content levels of 11, 15, 18 and 21% wet basis for a total storage period of 6 months. Corn ...


Study Of The Sustainbility Issues Of Food Production Using Vertical Farm Methods In An Urban Environment Within The State Of Indiana, Victor Mendez Perez Apr 2014

Study Of The Sustainbility Issues Of Food Production Using Vertical Farm Methods In An Urban Environment Within The State Of Indiana, Victor Mendez Perez

Open Access Theses

There are several problems around the globe related to water scarcity, energy shortages, deforestation and loss of fertile land, and food security. Climate change is making environmental and social issues arise. Issues such as, changes in the agricultural landscape, increasing population (9 billion is the expected population for 2040), rising food borne illnesses, scarcity of drinking water, and more crop failure due to plant pathogens and insect pests, among other factors make this study specially significant. Vertical farming could be a potencial solution to some of these problems.

Due to these problems the present thesis analyzed vertical farming as a ...


Measuring The Energy Required To Dry Rice In Commercial Rice Dryers, Maria Alejandra Billiris May 2013

Measuring The Energy Required To Dry Rice In Commercial Rice Dryers, Maria Alejandra Billiris

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research was to quantify and assess the energy use and efficiency of commercial cross-flow dryers when drying rice using a range of drying and ambient conditions. First, equations that predict the theoretical energy required to dry rice from any given initial moisture content to a desired final moisture content were developed for several rice cultivars using a semi-theoretical approach to obtain a basis for comparison to calculate energy efficiency. Theoretical energy requirements, expressed as the energy required per unit mass of water removed, increased exponentially as initial moisture content decreased. Additionally, medium-grains required more energy to ...


Biological Strategies And Mathematical Approaches For Limiting Bacterial Contaminants And Chemical Pollutants In Bioethanol Fermentations, Alia Chahed Ep Limayem May 2012

Biological Strategies And Mathematical Approaches For Limiting Bacterial Contaminants And Chemical Pollutants In Bioethanol Fermentations, Alia Chahed Ep Limayem

Theses and Dissertations

During the most recent decades increased interest in fuel from biomass in the United States and worldwide has emerged each time petroleum derived-gasoline registered well publicized spikes in price. The willingness of the U.S. government to face the issues of more heavily high-priced foreign oil and climate change has led to more investment on plant-derived sustainable biofuel sources. Biomass derived from corn has become one of the primary feedstocks for bioethanol production for the past several years in the U.S. However, the argument of whether to use food as biofuel has led to a search for alternative non-food ...


Improvements On Just-About-Right (Jar) Scales As Product Optimization Tools Using Kano Modeling Concepts, Bangde Li Dec 2011

Improvements On Just-About-Right (Jar) Scales As Product Optimization Tools Using Kano Modeling Concepts, Bangde Li

Theses and Dissertations

Attribute Kano characteristics are useful in product design to prioritize development efforts. However, attribute Kano characteristics have not been discussed and applied to product optimization when using Just-About-Right (JAR) scales. Product optimizations without identifying attributes Kano characteristics can be misleading. The two objectives in this research were: 1. Determine attribute Kano categories using a modified classic Kano classification methodology. 2. Propose a method to measure attribute performance and identify attribute Kano characteristics to direct product optimization. Two methodologies of attribute Kano classification were investigated. In experiment one, a modified classic Kano methodology was employed to determine attribute Kano categories through ...