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Investigating Uncured No Nitrate Or Nitrite Added Processed Meat Products , Jeffrey Joseph Sindelar Jan 2006

Investigating Uncured No Nitrate Or Nitrite Added Processed Meat Products , Jeffrey Joseph Sindelar

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Samples of different commercial brands (4 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added and one nitrite-added) of three product types (frankfurters, hams and bacons) were evaluated for color, pigment content, pH, lipid oxidation, residual nitrate and nitrite quantity, and consumer acceptance. All samples contained residual nitrate and residual nitrite except for Brands B and D bacons (<1 ppm nitrite). A large variation in severity of lipid oxidation existed between product types within brands with frankfurters reporting the highest levels. Color measurements indicated the majority of products and brands were similar to the control. Consumer sensory ratings determined that variation existed;The effects of varying levels of vegetable juice powder (VJP) and incubation times (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics and sensory properties of emulsified frankfurter-style cooked (EFSC) sausages and hams over a 90-day storage period were investigated. Four EFSC sausage treatments (TRT) (TRT1: 0.20% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT3: 0.40% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT4: 0.40% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added (156 mg/kg) control (C) were identified for this study. No differences for lipid oxidation between any TRTs and C or over time were identified. No differences (P>0.05) for Commission International D'Edairerage (CIE) L* values were found between TRTs. CIE a* and reflectance ratio values revealed TRTs 2, 4 and C were redder and had better cured color than TRTs 1 and 3 at Day 0. Trained sensory intensity ratings determined that all ...


Mechanisms Of Lipid Peroxidation In Meats From Different Animal Species , Byungrok Min Jan 2006

Mechanisms Of Lipid Peroxidation In Meats From Different Animal Species , Byungrok Min

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the elements that make differences in the oxidative stability of meats from different animal species and (2) to determine the major catalysts of lipid peroxidation in meat and meat products. The most important difference in the susceptibility of meat from different animal species to lipid peroxidation was the balance between anti- and pro-oxidative factors in meat. Raw and cooked ground beef were the most susceptible to lipid peroxidation, followed by chicken thigh meat, pork, and chicken breast meat. The high storage stability of chicken breast meat was attributed to a very ...


Effects Of Oxidation, Ph, And Ionic Strength On Inhibition Of [Mu]- And M-Calpain By Calpastatin , Kasey Rae Maddock Jan 2005

Effects Of Oxidation, Ph, And Ionic Strength On Inhibition Of [Mu]- And M-Calpain By Calpastatin , Kasey Rae Maddock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objective was to determine the effects of pH, ionic strength, and oxidation on inhibition of mu- and m-calpain by calpastatin. Calcium activated cysteine proteinases, mu- and m-calpain, were evaluated for activity under pH (7.5, 6.5, and 6.0), ionic strength (165 and 295 mM NaCl), and oxidizing (with or without H2O2) conditions in the presence of calpastatin, their inhibitor. Using a fluorogenic peptide, mu-calpain is most active at pH 6.5 and m-calpain is most active at pH 7.5 and 165 mM NaCl. Oxidation with 0.16 muM H2O2 decreased mu- and m-calpain activity. It was ...


Dietary Functional Ingredients And Quality Of Irradiated Turkey Breast Meat , Haijie Yan Jan 2005

Dietary Functional Ingredients And Quality Of Irradiated Turkey Breast Meat , Haijie Yan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Four hundreds and eighty male turkeys (12-week-old, raised on a corn-soybean basal diet) were randomly fed 8 experimental diets supplemented with none (Control, Con), 200 IU/kg vitamin E (VE), 0.3 ppm Se (Se), 2.5%CLA (CLA), 200 IU/kg vitamin E+0.3 ppm Se (VE+Se), 200 IU/kg vitamin E+2.5%CLA (VE+CLA), 2.5%CLA+0.3ppm Se (Se+CLA), or 200 IU/kg vitamin E+0.3ppm Se+2.5%CLA (VE+Se+CLA). At 15 week breast meat was sampled and irradiated.;Irradiation increased (p < 0.05) lipid oxidation and Hunter color a* value. Dietary Vitamin E, Se, CLA alone and their combinations decreased (p < 0.05) lipid oxidation in meat caused by both irradiation and storage. Production of off-odor in turkey breast meat caused by storage and ionizing irradiation was reduced by treatment VE+Se, VE+CLA, and VE+Se+CLA.;Treatment VE+Se, VE+CLA, Se+CLA, and VE+Se+CLA reduced lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated turkey breast meat samples by 24%, 29%, 26%, and 40%, respectively after 7 days of storage under aerobic conditions. Dietary vitamin E and Se decreased the internal color a* value of vacuum packaged irradiated meats at day 0 and 7. Treatments VE+Se, VE+CLA, and VE+Se+CLA reduced the difference in sulfur-containing compounds between irradiated and non-irradiated meat, aerobic packaging was more effective in reducing sulfur-containing compounds in irradiated meat than vacuum packaging. Therefore, dietary treatments plus packaging methods are effective in reducing the quality defects induced by irradiation.;Raw and cooked samples from 32 treatments, 8 dietary treatments *2 irradiation doses* 2 package (aerobic and vacuum), were tested by eight trained panelists for turkey aroma and irradiation off-aroma. Irradiation off-aroma in turkey breast was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) by treatments containing vitamin E. Meat samples from four dietary treatments containing CLA had higher turkey aroma scores while two treatments containing vitamin E (VE and VE+Se) had lower scores.;Consumer acceptance tests on five selected treatments showed that consumers disliked the aroma of irradiated raw meat. Consumer preferred the appearance of cooked irradiated meat to non-irradiated meat.


Irradiation Processing Of Ready-To-Eat Meats, Wigberto Núñez Maisonet Jan 2005

Irradiation Processing Of Ready-To-Eat Meats, Wigberto Núñez Maisonet

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Commercially available ham and pork frankfurters were irradiated at 1.6 kGy and evaluated for color, lipid oxidation, odor, flavor and the production of volatiles over 8 weeks of storage. Corned beef, roast beef, beef frankfurters, chicken roll, chicken frankfurters, turkey roll, cured turkey roll and turkey frankfurters were manufactured at the Iowa State Meat Laboratory and irradiated at 1.6 kGy. These products were evaluated for color, odor, flavor, and volatile compounds. Hams were manufactured at the Iowa State Meat Laboratory to achieve three different pHs in the finished products. The hams were treated with 0.0 kGy, 1 ...


Quality Characteristics Of Irradiated Ready-To-Eat Meats , Terry Andrew Houser Jan 2004

Quality Characteristics Of Irradiated Ready-To-Eat Meats , Terry Andrew Houser

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Sliced, ham and all-pork frankfurters were irradiated at 1.6 kGy and evaluated for color, lipid oxidation, odor, flavor, and the production of volatiles over an 8-week storage period. Irradiation processing did not affect color or lipid oxidation values for the ham or frankfurters. Irradiation processing increased off-odor scores for the ham but not for frankfurters. Off-flavor scores were not significantly different for ham but were higher in frankfurters due to irradiation processing. Dimethyl disulfide content increased as a result of irradiation in both products but decreased over the 8-week storage period.;Corned beef, roast beef, all-beef frankfurters, chicken roll ...


Effect Of Irradiation And Antimicrobials On The Growth And Survival Of Listeria Monocytogenes And Quality Of Ready-To-Eat Turkey Meat Products, Meijun Zhu Jan 2004

Effect Of Irradiation And Antimicrobials On The Growth And Survival Of Listeria Monocytogenes And Quality Of Ready-To-Eat Turkey Meat Products, Meijun Zhu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigated the effect of irradiation and antimicrobials on the quality and survival of L. monocytogenes, a significant safety concern, in RTE turkey meat products. Results showed that dietary vitamin E was effective in reducing the number of L. monocytogenes carried by live turkeys, a source of L. monocytogenes contamination in RTE products. Irradiation was very effective in eliminating L. monocytogenes in both turkey breast rolls and hams. However, irradiation also caused quality changes. A dose of 2.0 kGy irradiation produced significant off-odor, mainly sulfur-related odor/flavor, in vacuum-packaged RTE turkey ham and rolls. Thus, only low dose ...


Inhibition Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Frankfurters Treated With Organic Acid Salts , Zheng Lu Jan 2004

Inhibition Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Frankfurters Treated With Organic Acid Salts , Zheng Lu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Several listeriosis outbreaks linked to the consumption of food products have occurred in the last two decades. Post-processing contamination of frankfurters with L. monocytogenes after cooking or before packaging is one such major concern for the food industry and has become an important food safety issue for meat processors.;The hypothesis for this study was that surface dipping of frankfurters with chemical preservatives or their combinations will inhibit L. monocytogenes growth on frankfurters with the degree of inhibition dependent upon temperature.;Phase I of this study was an evaluation of different anti-microbials for effectiveness. Surface dipping solutions of organic acids ...


The Effect Of Various Protein Ingredients Utilized As A Lean Meat Replacement In A Model Emulsion System And Frankfurters , Jay Benjamin Wenther Jan 2003

The Effect Of Various Protein Ingredients Utilized As A Lean Meat Replacement In A Model Emulsion System And Frankfurters , Jay Benjamin Wenther

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effects of various protein ingredients (whey protein concentrate, beef gelling plasma, pork skin collagen, chicken skin collagen, and turkey skin collagen) utilized as a lean meat replacement in a model emulsion system and frankfurters were measured. The treatments consisted of a 1:3 ratio (1 percent protein ingredient and 3 percent water) and a 2:6 ratio (2 percent protein ingredient and 6 percent water) hydration ratio of the treatment ingredient to replace 4 or 8 percent of the lean in the formulation, respectively. The parameters measured included yield, thermal emulsion stability, color (CIE L*, a*, b*), pH, proximate ...


Effects Of Power Ultrasound Treatments On Properties Of Longissimus Beef Muscle , Gustavo Mario Gonzalez Jan 2003

Effects Of Power Ultrasound Treatments On Properties Of Longissimus Beef Muscle , Gustavo Mario Gonzalez

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was conducted to determine the effects of power ultrasound treatments on properties of Longissimus beef muscle. Twenty pairs of loins from steer carcasses, USDA Choice, maturity A were obtained 24hrs after slaughter for this study. Two experiments will be conducted at different intensity/time levels: (1) Control, 1.5 w/cm2, 3 w/cm2, and 5 w/cm2 for 3 minutes/side. (2) Control, 20 w/cm2, 40 w/cm2, and 60 w/cm2 for 45s/side (at 20 kHz) under refrigerated conditions. Each steak (four pieces) will be randomly allotted among these two experiments. Each loin was ...


Use Of Pediocin With Other Barriers For Control Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Ready-To-Eat (Rte) Processed Meats , Chih-Ming Chen Jan 2003

Use Of Pediocin With Other Barriers For Control Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Ready-To-Eat (Rte) Processed Meats , Chih-Ming Chen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Frankfurters, in 1-link, 5-link and 10-link packages, were surface-inoculated with a 5-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes (3.40 or 5.20 log CFU/g) after treatment with 3,000 or 6,000 AU pediocin (in ALTA(TM) 2341) per link (Pdn-3000 or Pdn-6000). The frankfurters were vacuum-packaged, after which the packages were heated in hot water at 71°C, 81°C or 96°C for 30, 60 or 120 s or irradiated at 1.2 or 2.3 (single-link or 5-link packages), and 1.4 or 3.5 kGy (10-link packages). L. monocytogenes was enumerated following the treatments. Selected treatments ...


Mechanisms Of Color Change And The Prevention Of Off-Color And Off-Flavor In Irradiated Meat , Ki-Chang Nam Jan 2002

Mechanisms Of Color Change And The Prevention Of Off-Color And Off-Flavor In Irradiated Meat , Ki-Chang Nam

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

To determine the effect of irradiation on the oxidative quality changes during the storage, pork loin and turkey breast muscles were irradiated using an electron beam. Irradiation accelerated lipid oxidation, increased redness, and produced several sulfur (S)-volatiles that were responsible for the characteristic irradiation off-odor. This quality deterioration by irradiation was dependent on packaging conditions. Lipid oxidation was more problematic when meat was aerobically stored, whereas the production of S-volatiles was greater in vacuum-packaged irradiated raw meats. But when meat was freezer-stored, aerobic packaging was more susceptible to the production of both oxidation-dependent and S-volatiles. Irradiation made the color ...


Effect Of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Cla) On The Fatty Acid Status In Chicken And Meat Quality , Min Du Jan 2001

Effect Of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Cla) On The Fatty Acid Status In Chicken And Meat Quality , Min Du

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation includes studies on the effect of dietary CLA on the growth, fat accumulation and fatty acid status of chicken, and chicken meat quality as influenced by irradiation. Results showed that dietary CLA did not have significant effects on the growth rate and feed efficiency in chicken. And high levels of dietary CLA slightly reduced the whole body fat content. High ratio of dietary CLA can incorporate into chicken meat and egg yolk. Dietary CLA reduced the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, also reduced as ...


Effect Of Dietary Glycolytic Inhibitors On Pork Quality , Brian Thomas Kremer Jan 1999

Effect Of Dietary Glycolytic Inhibitors On Pork Quality , Brian Thomas Kremer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Four studies were performed to determine the effectiveness of short term feeding of several dietary glycolytic inhibitors on the quality of pork. In the first experiment the oxalate was provided to 110 kg pigs in the form of sodium oxalate at levels of 0, 7.0, and 9.7 g/pig. The ingestion of sodium oxalate decreased the rate of muscle pH decline and lowered the pork water loss (WL). In an additional experiment with sodium oxalate, 30 kg pigs were used as a model for market pigs. The sodium oxalate (0 and 2.6 g/pig) again decreased the ...


Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Effects On Quantitative And Qualitative Characteristics Of Pork , Rebecca Lynn Thiel Jan 1999

Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Effects On Quantitative And Qualitative Characteristics Of Pork , Rebecca Lynn Thiel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of a group of geometric and positional isomers of linoleic acid. CLA has been shown to improve animal performance, and composition, be anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, and improve immune function. To test the hypothesis that dietary CLA would improve performance and quality characteristics of pork, forty crossbred pigs (8 replications) were fed diets containing 0, .12, .25, .50 or 1.0% CLA by weight of the diet from 26.3 to 114 kg. Average daily gain (P < .05) and gain/feed (P < .05) were improved. Fat depth at the 10th rib decreased as the amount of CLA in the diet increased (P < .05). Ultrasound showed an increase in muscling, but no differences in loin eye area were observed on carcasses. Belly hardness (firmness) increased linearly with an increase of dietary CLA supplementation both lean side up (P < .01) and lean side down (P < .05). CLA as a percentage of total lipids increased (P < .01) in both subcutaneous fat and lean tissue. Day one postmortem loin chops exhibited no differences between controls and CLA supplemented chops for pH, water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force, and a significant linear increase (P < .05) occurred in Hunter a* (redness) as the amount of CLA in the diet increased. A trained sensory panel found that day one controls exhibited more initial juiciness (P < .05) than did the. 12% dietary CLA supplemented loin chops. No other sensory panel differences were detected. No differences were determined between 1.0% CLA treatments and controls for Hunter color, sensory panel scores, and cook loss or drip loss of loin chops held for 7, 14, 28 or 56 days of fresh storage. A preliminary study of 70/30 fresh pork patties held for 1, 3, 7, or 14 days of fresh storage as measured by Hunter L*, a*, and b* values suggested that CLA supplementation up to .50% enhanced/maintained patty color. Immune response and blood chemistry parameters were measured at 52, 68, 91, and 114 kg live weight. Immune response was not compromised and blood chemistry parameters indicated no pathological conditions as a result of dietary CLA supplementation.


Lipid Oxidation And Production Of Off-Odor In Irradiated Meat , Cheorun Jo Jan 1999

Lipid Oxidation And Production Of Off-Odor In Irradiated Meat , Cheorun Jo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Emulsion-type raw and cooked pork sausage with different fat content or fatty acids was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile production during storage. Lipid oxidation increased with the increase of fat content or irradiation dose in both raw and cooked pork products. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxide content than non-irradiated, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in raw irradiated pork batters were 7alpha- and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol. Hunter a- and b-values of both raw and cooked pork products in aerobic packaging decreased with irradiation regardless of fat content. In vacuum packaging ...


Effects Of Ionizing Radiation On Pork, Beef, And Turkey Quality , Kevin Eugene Nanke Jan 1998

Effects Of Ionizing Radiation On Pork, Beef, And Turkey Quality , Kevin Eugene Nanke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Color changes observed in irradiated meat were found to be species- and package-type dependent. Irradiated vacuum-packaged (VP) pork and turkey became redder following to irradiation relative to unirradiated controls. However, irradiated VP beef decreased in redness as compared to unirradiated controls. In contrast, aerobically-packaged (AP) pork and beef became less red as a result of irradiation compared to unirradiated controls. Whereas, redness values of irradiated AP turkey increased due to irradiation. Redness values of the VP pork and turkey were unchanged during 12 and 10 wks, respectively, of display, but decreased for VP beef and all AP samples during display ...


Assessment Of Intramuscular Fat, Lean Growth, And Lean Composition Using Real-Time Ultrasound , Kevin Duane Ragland Jan 1998

Assessment Of Intramuscular Fat, Lean Growth, And Lean Composition Using Real-Time Ultrasound , Kevin Duane Ragland

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Real-time ultrasonic measurements were collected on live animals as part of two studies. The first study (n = 300) was designed to evaluate the use of real-time ultrasound to predict intramuscular fat in the longissimus muscle of live swine. The purpose of the second study (n = 240) was to assess the accuracy of serial real-time ultrasonic measurements of loin muscle and fat thickness for determining carcass lean and lean of the major primal cuts. In the first study, a cross-sectional and longitudinal image was collected on each animal. The cross-sectional image was used felt determining backfat and loin muscle area. The ...


Petfood: Physico-Chemical Characteristics And Functional Properties Of Meat By-Products And Mechanically Separated Chicken (Msc) In A High-Moisture Model System , José Antonio Rivera Jan 1998

Petfood: Physico-Chemical Characteristics And Functional Properties Of Meat By-Products And Mechanically Separated Chicken (Msc) In A High-Moisture Model System , José Antonio Rivera

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Two studies were conducted to determine the physico-chemical characteristics and functional properties of selected pork and poultry by-products used in the formulation of high-moisture petfood;In the first study, pork by-products (lung lobes, kidneys), chicken viscera (head, feet and viscera) and MSC were evaluated for proximate composition, protein distribution and connective tissue. Proximate composition varied among meat by-products and MSC. Pork by-products contained the highest level of crude protein (p 0.05) affected by salt (2%), phosphate (0.3%) or NaOH (0.075%). Chicken viscera had the lowest (p < 0.05) mean texture measurements among the meat by-products and MSC. Strong negative correlations (p < 0.05) were obtained for texture with total collagen, soluble collagen and high ionic strength soluble (HIS) proteins;Additional research is warranted to determine if texture and % WRC are significantly improved by the addition of MSC to mixtures of pork and poultry by-products in combination with inorganic salts.


Sensitivity And Survival Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Isolates After X-Ray And Electron Beam Irradiation In Raw Ground Meat, Adelle Denise Chan Jan 1997

Sensitivity And Survival Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Isolates After X-Ray And Electron Beam Irradiation In Raw Ground Meat, Adelle Denise Chan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Use Of Real-Time Ultrasound And Live Animal Measurements To Predict Carcass Composition In Beef Cattle , Scott Patrick Greiner Jan 1997

The Use Of Real-Time Ultrasound And Live Animal Measurements To Predict Carcass Composition In Beef Cattle , Scott Patrick Greiner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Five hundred thirty-four steers representing 6 sire breed groups were evaluated in 1994 (n = 282) and 1995 (n = 252) to determine the efficacy of using real-time ultrasound and other live animal measures to predict beef carcass composition. Within 5 days prior to slaughter, steers were ultrasonically measured for 12-13th rib fat (UFAT), longissimus muscle area (UREA), rump fat thickness (URPFAT), and body wall thickness (UBDWALL). Carcasses were fabricated to determine boneless, totally trimmed retail product weight (KGRPRD) and percentage (PRPRD). Correlation coefficients between UFAT and UREA with carcass 12-13th rib fat (CFAT) and carcass longissimus muscle area (CREA) were.89 ...


The Use Of Real-Time-Ultrasound To Predict Genetic Attributes Of Body Composition Traits In Live Beef Cattle , Mercedes M. Izquierdo Cebrián Jan 1996

The Use Of Real-Time-Ultrasound To Predict Genetic Attributes Of Body Composition Traits In Live Beef Cattle , Mercedes M. Izquierdo Cebrián

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Body composition traits (BCT) records from 1003 beef cattle were collected from 1991-1995. Data collected in the longissimus dorsi (ld) muscle included, 12th-13th rib carcass fat thickness (FAT), USDA marbling score (MS) and chemical percentage of intramuscular fat (PIFAT). Before slaughter, a cross-sectional ultrasound ld image between the 12th-13th ribs was collected to calculate ultrasound fat thickness (UFAT). A longitudinal ld image across 11th-12th-13th ribs was used to calculate image analysis parameter including: histogram, Fourier and texture. Multiple regression and cluster analysis were used to develop prediction models for ultrasound percentage intramuscular fat (UPIFAT) from the image parameters. An independent ...


Hydrocolloids In Processed Meat , Gitanjali Acharya Prabhu Jan 1996

Hydrocolloids In Processed Meat , Gitanjali Acharya Prabhu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Hydrocolloids function as water binders and texture modifying agents in meat products. They may also be have potential as cryoprotectants to ensure long term stability of proteins during frozen storage. The three primary objectives of this research were: first, to evaluate the effects of hydrocolloids such as starch and carrageenan on the quality characteristics of hams containing high levels of added water. Second, to investigate the cryoprotectant effects of hydrocolloids such as maltodextrins and corn syrup solids for freeze-thaw stability in mechanically deboned pork. Finally, to study the quality and sensory characteristics of pork sausage made from mechanically deboned pork ...


Interaction Of Growth Hormone With Androgen/Estrogen On Beef Carcass Characteristics, And Chemical, Physical And Palatability Properties Of Longissimus Muscle Of Steers , Abdullah Nasser Al-Owaimer Jan 1996

Interaction Of Growth Hormone With Androgen/Estrogen On Beef Carcass Characteristics, And Chemical, Physical And Palatability Properties Of Longissimus Muscle Of Steers , Abdullah Nasser Al-Owaimer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST), Revalor and the combination of the two on beef carcass characteristics, quality and physical, chemical and palatability attributes of bovine longissimus (loin eye) muscle. Crossbred steers (n = 20) were blocked by body weight and allotted in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: control, Revalor-S°ler (Trenbolone acetate 120 mg+estraiol 24 mg) implanted in ear on day 1 and 97, bST (160 mg/wk), and Revalor-S°ler + bST and fed for 140 days. Loin eye was removed from left side, cut into 2 ...


Sensitivity Of Listeria To Irradiation In Raw Ground Meat, As Affected By Type Of Radiation, Product Temperature, Packaging Atmosphere, And Recovery Medium , Rodrigo Tarté Jan 1996

Sensitivity Of Listeria To Irradiation In Raw Ground Meat, As Affected By Type Of Radiation, Product Temperature, Packaging Atmosphere, And Recovery Medium , Rodrigo Tarté

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The sensitivity of five strains of Listeria to electron beam irradiation in ground pork were investigated. Ground pork was inoculated with one of five strains of Listeria and irradiated from 0 to 1.25 kGy in 0.25 kGy intervals. Listeria innocua NADC 2841 was more radiation-resistant (D10 = 0.638 kGy) than L. monocytogenes NADC 2045 Scott A (D10 = 0.447 kGy), L. monocytogenes NADC 2783 (a hamburger isolate) (D10 = 0.424 kGy), L. monocytogenes ATCC 15313 (D10 = 0.445 kGy) and L. ivanovii NADC 3518 (D10 = 0.372 kGy), when recovered on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.6 ...


Myofibrillar Protein Degradation Patterns And Structural Changes In Skeletal Muscle From Electrically Stimulated Bos Taurus And Bos Indicus Crossbred Cattle , Chiung-Ying Ho Jan 1995

Myofibrillar Protein Degradation Patterns And Structural Changes In Skeletal Muscle From Electrically Stimulated Bos Taurus And Bos Indicus Crossbred Cattle , Chiung-Ying Ho

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin and troponin-T, structural changes in nonstimulated (NS) and electrically stimulated (ES) bovine skeletal muscle and comparison of these changes in Angus x Jersey (AxJ) cattle (Bos taurus cross) with the changes in Brahman x Simmental (BxS) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and Western blots and intact muscle samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days postmortem (PM). In SDS-PAGE, ES slightly accelerated the degradation of intact titin (T1 band), nebulin, desmin and troponin-T in AxJ samples. In Western blots of AxJ samples, ES ...


The Relationship Between The Calpain Enzyme System And The Postmortem Degradation Of Selected Myofibrillar Proteins , Elisabeth Jane Huff Lonergan Jan 1995

The Relationship Between The Calpain Enzyme System And The Postmortem Degradation Of Selected Myofibrillar Proteins , Elisabeth Jane Huff Lonergan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The protease [mu]-calpain degrades the myofibrillar proteins titin, nebulin, filamin, desmin and troponin-T. Titin and nebulin have been reported to be affected by sample preparation. This study showed that there was little difference in the rate of degradation of the intact forms due to sample preparation (whole muscle preparations vs. purified myofibrils). The postmortem degradation of titin, nebulin, filamin, desmin, and troponin-T was monitored using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days postmortem. Postmortem aged samples with lower shear force values exhibited faster degradation of the five myofibrillar proteins. Similar degradation ...


Use Of Eubacterium Coprostanoligenes To Decrease Plasma Cholesterol Concentration In Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits And The Cholesterol Content Of Fermented Meats , Uford Augustus Madden Jan 1995

Use Of Eubacterium Coprostanoligenes To Decrease Plasma Cholesterol Concentration In Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits And The Cholesterol Content Of Fermented Meats , Uford Augustus Madden

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effects of Eubacterium coprostanoligenes, a cholesterol reducing bacteria, on plasma cholesterol homeostasis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits and on the cholesterol content of pork and mutton sausages were investigated. Daily oral doses of the bacteria were administered to hypercholesterolemic rabbits, and meat samples were inoculated with different amounts of bacteria and incubated for 12-15 hours at 37° C. These studies addressed the problem of human hypercholesterolemia by investigating the possibility of using E. coprostanoligenes as a model for the treatment of human hypercholesterolemia and to develop technology to decrease the cholesterol content of foods;Eighteen New Zealand White male adult rabbits ...


Effects Of Irradiation On Selected Pathogens In Meat And Meat Products , An-Hung Fu Jan 1994

Effects Of Irradiation On Selected Pathogens In Meat And Meat Products , An-Hung Fu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The ability of low and medium dose irradiation to reduce foodborne hazards in meat and meat products was investigated;Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium were inoculated on cooked pork chops (pumped with salt/polyphosphate brine or untreated) and cured ham. Low (0.75-0.90 kGy) or medium doses (1.8-2.0 kGy) of irradiation, each dose delivered at either a low (8.2 ft/sec) or high (17.9 ft/sec) dose-rate were applied. The meat products were processed, then stored at 7°C for 7 days, followed by 2 days at 25°C. Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Escherichia ...


Carrageenans In Meat Systems , Zoraida Defreitas Jan 1994

Carrageenans In Meat Systems , Zoraida Defreitas

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Meat model systems were used to evaluate the interactions between meat proteins and carrageenans and the nature of the forces involved in such as interactions. Experiments conducted with salt-soluble meat proteins (SSMP) and carrageenan (CGN) mixtures indicated that the force needed to compress muscle protein and CGN gels varied with the type of CGN used. Addition of [kappa]- and \iota-CGN increased the gel strength of SSMP gels, however, this effect was significantly greater when [kappa]-CGN was used. The force needed to compress [kappa]-CGN and SSMP gels independently did not add up to the total force required to compress ...