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Theses/Dissertations

Food Science

2014

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Wild West Of Edible Insects, Kyle Ligman Dec 2014

The Wild West Of Edible Insects, Kyle Ligman

Capstones

After the UN came out with a report in 2013 recommending insects for human consumption, businesses and restaurants in the U.S. have been racing to grow a new industry. This project explores the psychological, regulatory and production challenges they face.


When You Can't Watch What You Eat: Examining The Fda’S Recall Process For Food Allergies, Jacob Passy Dec 2014

When You Can't Watch What You Eat: Examining The Fda’S Recall Process For Food Allergies, Jacob Passy

Capstones

Over a third of all recalls for food products in the United States occur due to an undeclared allergen. In these situations, a food product is often mislabeled or contaminated in some way, resulting in the unknown presence of allergen. For food-allergic consumers, a company's mistake can become life-threatening. By investigating data from the Food and Drug Administration, I found that supermarket chains are responsible for about a fifth of all recalls, and that many recalls occur past the product's expiration date. These factors point to the need to improve the FDA's handling of food allergies in ...


Studies On The Initial Stage Of Lipid Oxidation In Bulk Oils., Elizabeth Budilarto. Dec 2014

Studies On The Initial Stage Of Lipid Oxidation In Bulk Oils., Elizabeth Budilarto.

Theses

During the oxidation of bulk oils, oxidation products (i.e. peroxide values, conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) are formed gradually and increased sharply at the end of the induction period. Tocophero1s were consumed, some water was formed, and micelles increased in size during the induction period of vegetable oils oxidized in bulk. The evidence that the evolution of micellar size was in parallel with the end of induction period corroborates the recognition that micelles are the active site of oxidation. The interaction of α-tocophero1 and three synergists: ascorby1 palmitate, phosphatidy1choline and L-lysine were studied in cod liver oil ...


Absorption And Utilization Of Choline And Vitamin B12 In Lactating Dairy Cows Using Different Delivery Methods, Virginia Maria Artegoitia Etcheverry Dec 2014

Absorption And Utilization Of Choline And Vitamin B12 In Lactating Dairy Cows Using Different Delivery Methods, Virginia Maria Artegoitia Etcheverry

Doctoral Dissertations

Choline and vitamin B12 are essential nutrients for growth and performances of production animals. However, both nutrients are extensively degraded during digestion in the rumen. This thesis comprised three experiments. First, four cows equipped with a rumen cannula and catheters in the portal vein and a mesenteric artery received a post-ruminal bolus of: 1) cyanocobalamin (CN-CBL) alone (0.1 g) [gram], 2) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + casein (10 g) or 3) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + whey proteins (10 g). After the bolus, blood samples were taken until 24 h [hour] post-bolus. The intestinal absorption of CN-CBL was greater when the ...


The Elimination Of Listeria Monocytogenes Biofilms From Stainless Steel Deli Meat Slicer Components By The Use Of Hurdle Technologies, Alexandria Wynne Mertz Dec 2014

The Elimination Of Listeria Monocytogenes Biofilms From Stainless Steel Deli Meat Slicer Components By The Use Of Hurdle Technologies, Alexandria Wynne Mertz

Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes growth is of the greatest concern amongst ready-to-eat foods. The United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Services determined that deli luncheon meats pose the greatest risk of contamination from L. monocytogenes Industrial meat slicers have many removable parts that are connected with sealers and gaskets, which can become worn over time. These spaces cannot be cleaned adequately, therefore are susceptible to bacterial growth. Planktonic cells form biofilms in order to protect the cell from adverse conditions, like during routine cleaning and sanitation. Once a biofilm is formed, the bacteria are much more difficult to ...


Changes In Monomeric And Polymeric Pigments During Chokeberry Juice Processing, Kail David Wilkes Dec 2014

Changes In Monomeric And Polymeric Pigments During Chokeberry Juice Processing, Kail David Wilkes

Theses and Dissertations

Chokeberry consumption has been increasing due to research exposing great potential of health-promoting compounds. However, chokeberries are highly astringent and are typically consumed in processed forms in which product heating is applied. Processing chokeberries has been reported to degrade bioactive compounds, thus limiting the potential for consumers to obtain their health-promoting benefits. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of chokeberry juice processing and storage on anthocyanin, flavonol, proanthocyanidin, hydroxycinamic acid, and polymeric pigment content, as well as percent polymeric color. In addition, new analytical methodologies were explored to better understand possible outcomes of polymeric pigments due ...


Oxidative Stability Of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Rich Soy Oil Obtained By Heterogeneous Ruthenium Catalysis, Saurabh Ravindra Lele Dec 2014

Oxidative Stability Of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Rich Soy Oil Obtained By Heterogeneous Ruthenium Catalysis, Saurabh Ravindra Lele

Theses and Dissertations

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has multiple health benefits but it is difficult to obtain sufficient CLA in a healthy diet to obtain the clinical effects. A CLA rich-soy oil (CLARSO) with up to 20% CLA has been produced by heterogenous catalysis but no studies of its oxidative stability have been reported. CLARSO and soy oil primary and secondary oxidation products were measured at 50oC in the dark. The CLARSO was less stable than soy oil but adsorption bleaching improved its oxidative stability. However, induction times were dependent on the analytical method used. Fatty acid oxidation kinetics was determined by measuring ...


Enhancement Of Antimicrobial Activity Of Naturally Occuring Phenolic Compounds By Nano-Particle Mediated Delivery Against Listeria Monocytogenes, Escherichia Coli O157:H7, And Salmonella Typhimurium, Madhuram Ravichandran Dec 2014

Enhancement Of Antimicrobial Activity Of Naturally Occuring Phenolic Compounds By Nano-Particle Mediated Delivery Against Listeria Monocytogenes, Escherichia Coli O157:H7, And Salmonella Typhimurium, Madhuram Ravichandran

Theses and Dissertations

Food-borne illnesses are of major concern in the U.S. and worldwide. Salmonella,Listeria,E. coli O157:H7 continue to be some of the major foodborne pathogens. Recurring recalls due to these pathogens demand critical antimicrobial strategies to decontaminate the food through its procession from farm to fork. In our study, we combined the effectiveness of naturally occurring phenolic compounds individually, with/ without ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and/or Nisin and nanoparticle delivery to improve the antimicrobial potential of the compounds against Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.), and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E.c.), in brain heart ...


An Epidemiological Study Of Campylobacter Populations Reveals A Selective Pressure By Roxarsone, Sean Jeffery Pendleton Dec 2014

An Epidemiological Study Of Campylobacter Populations Reveals A Selective Pressure By Roxarsone, Sean Jeffery Pendleton

Doctoral Dissertations

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is the most discriminatory of typing methods and can provide additional information including virulence, antigen targets for vaccine development, and antimicrobial resistance profiles. The first part of this study aimed to determine the application of WGS as a genotyping method for Campylobacter by comparing WGS to two commonly used genotyping methods, Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and flaA typing. Five Campylobacter strains isolated from conventional and organic poultry, and five additional isolates with published genomes were compared using the three methods. A total of 8 PFGE patterns and 8 flaA alleles were identified from the 10 strains ...


Cross-Cultural Comparison In The Emotional Responses Elicited By Wine Odors, Aimee Hasenbeck Dec 2014

Cross-Cultural Comparison In The Emotional Responses Elicited By Wine Odors, Aimee Hasenbeck

Theses and Dissertations

To remain competitive in the wine market, wine companies must strive for a deeper understanding of the factors that influence consumers at an emotional level in order to sustain consumer satisfaction. Evaluating the wine odor-induced emotional response, in addition to hedonic response and descriptive analysis, may provide valuable information into the perspective of the consumer and potentially insight to repeat purchases. The objectives of this research were to measure the emotional responses elicited by odor attributes in wine samples and determine whether these emotional responses vary as function of cultural and experiential backgrounds, as well as sensory characteristics of wine ...


Determining The Fate Of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli In Dairy Compost During Storage Using The Optimized Detection Method, Hongye Wang Dec 2014

Determining The Fate Of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli In Dairy Compost During Storage Using The Optimized Detection Method, Hongye Wang

All Theses

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), a member of Enterobacteriaceae family, has been recognized as emerging pathogens. Dairy compost is commonly applied to farmland as a soil amendment. Despite the agricultural benefit of manure-based soil amendment, the inadequately treated compost can contribute to fresh produce contamination on the farm. Moreover, the epidemiological results showed that the non-O157 STEC cases have surpassed those of E. coli O157. Therefore, it is critical to evaluate the behavior of non-O157 STEC strains in the dairy manure-based compost. The objectives of this study were to: 1) optimize a culturing method for detecting non-O157 STEC from dairy ...


Pilot Study Of A Budget-Tailored Culinary Nutrition Education Program For Undergraduate Food Science Students, Dorothy Kerrison Dec 2014

Pilot Study Of A Budget-Tailored Culinary Nutrition Education Program For Undergraduate Food Science Students, Dorothy Kerrison

All Theses

The primary objective of this pilot study is to provide evidence that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program is both appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students both in everyday life as well as their future health careers. Two validated programs were combined into one program in order to evaluate their combined effects: Cooking With a Chef and Cooking Matters at the Store. The secondary objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the components and reliability of a questionnaire created specifically for this pilot study. A review of past literature was written, which included culinary nutrition as a source ...


Combining Modified Atmosphere Packaging And Nisin To Extend The Shelf Life Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Dong Han Dec 2014

Combining Modified Atmosphere Packaging And Nisin To Extend The Shelf Life Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Dong Han

All Theses

Atlantic salmon is often used in laboratory experiments to represent marine fishes. Many researchers try to optimize the levels and dosage of preservatives to maintain the freshness and extend the shelf-life of Atlantic salmon. Little information has been provided about the effectiveness of combined method between MAP and nisin, especially on the preservation of Atlantic salmon. Strong evidences suggest that MAP associated with nisin may have a potential to improve Atlantic salmon storage quality. Preservation effectiveness of combining modified atmosphere package (MAP) and nisin on fresh Atlantic salmon was determined using various methods. Six groups of farmed Atlantic salmon were ...


Prevalence Of Human Noroviruses In Commercial Retail Food Establishment Without A Recently Reported Outbreak Of Gastroenteritis, Chaoyi Tang Dec 2014

Prevalence Of Human Noroviruses In Commercial Retail Food Establishment Without A Recently Reported Outbreak Of Gastroenteritis, Chaoyi Tang

All Theses

Human noroviruses (NoV) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, causing nearly 58% of foodborne disease in the USA. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of NoV on select bathroom surfaces in food establishments in South Carolina (SC). All SC counties (N=46) were sorted by population density into high-, medium-, and low-density categories. Three counties were randomly selected from each population category. Lists of all foodservice establishments in each selected county (N=9) were obtained from the Department of Health and Environmental Control and a total of 120 foodservice establishments were randomly selected. Swabs were ...


Hand Hygiene Promotion: An Essential Strategy For Preventing Foodborne Disease In Elementary Schools, Zhangqi Wang Dec 2014

Hand Hygiene Promotion: An Essential Strategy For Preventing Foodborne Disease In Elementary Schools, Zhangqi Wang

All Theses

Student absenteeism is a pervasive problem in the United States, causing a number of educational, economic, and institutional problems. Hand-hygiene interventions have been reported to be a method for reducing illness-associated student absenteeism. As an increasing number of schools offer self-service, including salad bars and bowls of whole fresh fruit, opportunities for the transmission of foodborne pathogens via hands could possibly increase illness-associated student absenteeism. To address this problem, we conducted a two-phase study. First, we conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate peer-reviewed studies (N=24) that reported an association between hand hygiene interventions and illness-associated absenteeism reduction in ...


Dietary Behaviors And Nutrition Intervention Preferences Of Breast Cancer Survivors, Sherry A. Stokes Dec 2014

Dietary Behaviors And Nutrition Intervention Preferences Of Breast Cancer Survivors, Sherry A. Stokes

All Theses

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women and there are expected to be 1,665,540 new cases diagnosed in 2014. Advancements in early detection, have greatly improved treatment outcomes for the majority of these patients and the 5-year survival rate is 89.2%. The newly emerging field of survivorship care is an attempt to meet the unique needs of this expanding population. Research has demonstrated that an unhealthy body weight is an important modifiable risk factor for the recurrence of breast cancer. This study used an electronic version of the Block 2005 to collect dietary information ...


Seasonal Variation Of Milk In Central Valley California And The Association Of Milk Variation With The Composition And Texture Of Low Mositure Part Skim Mozzarella, Vaideki Jai Dec 2014

Seasonal Variation Of Milk In Central Valley California And The Association Of Milk Variation With The Composition And Texture Of Low Mositure Part Skim Mozzarella, Vaideki Jai

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The chemical composition of milk (specifically casein, fat, and calcium) is known to affect the quality and functional properties of Mozzarella cheese. Therefore, concentrations of total nitrogen, casein nitrogen, non-casein nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, true nitrogen, casein nitrogen to total nitrogen ratio, casein nitrogen to true nitrogen ratio, fat, total calcium, total solids, somatic cells, and pH were measured in silo milk samples collected weekly over 18-months from a large dairy plant in Central Valley, California from July 2008 to December 2009 to verify changes and correlate to low moisture part skim Mozzarella (LMPS) characteristics. LMPS mozzarella cheese from the same ...


Control Of Emerging Foodborne Viruses Using Cranberry Extracts And Chemical Sanitizers, Snigdha Nitin Sewlikar Dec 2014

Control Of Emerging Foodborne Viruses Using Cranberry Extracts And Chemical Sanitizers, Snigdha Nitin Sewlikar

Masters Theses

Human norovirus (HNoV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Aichi virus (AiV) outbreaks that cause severe foodborne disease are on the rise globally. Strategies to prevent and mitigate the spread of these viral infections need to be investigated. HNoV, HAV and AiV are known to be resistant to most of the conventionally used chemical inactivation methods. Cranberry juice (CJ) and cranberry proanthocyanidins (C-PAC) have demonstrated antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. CJ and C-PAC have been shown to exhibit antiviral activities against HNoV surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1) at room temperature. Hence, the objectives of this research were (1) To ...


The Effect Of Soluble Soybean Polysaccharide On Crystallization Behavior Of Lactose, Xueqian Shi Dec 2014

The Effect Of Soluble Soybean Polysaccharide On Crystallization Behavior Of Lactose, Xueqian Shi

Masters Theses

Lactose can be recovered from cheese whey permeate concentrate by crystallization, and improving the recovery efficiency and purity of lactose crystals is significant to the profitability of the dairy industry. Lactose is also the major component in spray-dried dairy ingredients such as milk and whey powder. Lactose in spray-dried powder is amorphous and causes quality problems such as caking due to the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage. Technologies are thus needed to improve the crystallinity of spray-dried lactose. In this study, soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) was studied for the effects on lactose crystallization in aqueous solutions and during spray ...


Effects Of Transportation Hazards On Package Performance And Food Product Shelf Life, Kyle Dunno Dec 2014

Effects Of Transportation Hazards On Package Performance And Food Product Shelf Life, Kyle Dunno

All Dissertations

This research studied the effect of transportation hazards on food product shelf life and package performance. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of package headspace volume, product viscosity and storage temperature on package integrity. Finally, accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) was utilized to determine how simulated transportation hazards affected the shelf life of a specific food product. Institutional retort pouches containing either water or 5% starch solution were filled with varying amounts of headspace volume to determine if package headspace volume could aid in package performance during simulated engineering tests for packaged products. Fixed displacement vibration testing and compression ...


Relationship Between Peel Force, Opening Force, And Burst Force For A Semi-Rigid Cup And Lid, Pre- And Post-Retort, Raj Navalakha Dec 2014

Relationship Between Peel Force, Opening Force, And Burst Force For A Semi-Rigid Cup And Lid, Pre- And Post-Retort, Raj Navalakha

All Theses

This research determines if there is any relationship between the peel force, the opening force and the burst force for a semi-rigid cup and lid system, for pre- and post-retort conditions. It also compares the relationship (regression lines) between these forces pre- and post-retort. These seal results were studied by varying the sealing parameters of dwell time and temperature while keeping the pressure constant. Polypropylene cups and a peelable barrier retort lidding were used in this study. As compared to past research, a different peel testing technique was used to measure the peel and the opening force. The entire lid ...


Antibacterial Activity Of Commercially Available Plant Extracts On Selected Campylobacter Jejuni Strains, Divya Oppath Sivasankaran Dec 2014

Antibacterial Activity Of Commercially Available Plant Extracts On Selected Campylobacter Jejuni Strains, Divya Oppath Sivasankaran

Theses and Dissertations

Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide with approximately 850,000 cases per year in the United Sates. A total of 18 species of Campylobacter have been identified worldwide to date. Foodborne transmission of C. jejuni is mainly through the consumption of unpasteurized milk, contaminated poultry meat and water. C. jejuni can survive in very diverse environments under stressful conditions in human and animals which is different from the specific conditions and media required in laboratory experiments. There has been increased research in recent years to identify naturally occurring antibacterial agents to control and eliminate ...


Acanthamoeba Spp. As Reservoirs For Transmission Of Norovirus, Tun-Yun Hsueh Dec 2014

Acanthamoeba Spp. As Reservoirs For Transmission Of Norovirus, Tun-Yun Hsueh

Theses and Dissertations

Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the most common cause of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States and the most common food commodities implicated in HuNoV outbreaks are leafy greens; however, the vehicle of transmission and point of contamination are often unknown. Here, we hypothesize that common free-living amoebae (FLA) ubiquitous in the environment may act as reservoirs of HuNoV and facilitate the transmission of these pathogens to fresh produce. The objective of this research was to first evaluate the interaction/association between HuNoV surrogates and Acanthamoeba by incubating them together and analyzing virus titer associated with amoeba through an 8 ...


Development And Application Of Scalable Two-Dimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography For Aromatic Selective Separations Of Biologically Active Phytochemicals From Oplopanax Horridus, Gregory Jones Dec 2014

Development And Application Of Scalable Two-Dimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography For Aromatic Selective Separations Of Biologically Active Phytochemicals From Oplopanax Horridus, Gregory Jones

All Dissertations

The high demand for more efficient purification processes with increased automation and throughput pushes the development of more advanced preparative, pilot, and process scale HPLC instrumentation that is capable of achieving higher purities in a shorter amount of time than are currently achieved using one dimensional separations. A preparative scale 2D HPLC system was designed and reduced to practice in order to demonstrate the capacity for scalability of on-line comprehensive 2D HPLC separations of basic compounds from a challenging natural product extract of Oplopanax horridus. The methodology and instrumentation design herein permits direct method transfer from analytical to preparative scale ...


Protein Turnover In Broiler, Layers, And Broiler Breeders, Karen Vignale Lake Dec 2014

Protein Turnover In Broiler, Layers, And Broiler Breeders, Karen Vignale Lake

Theses and Dissertations

Protein turnover in skeletal tissue for broiler breeders has shown to increase at sexual maturity and then decline with increased egg production. Regarding broiler chickens the industry is facing two situations that need to be clarified: the appearance of white stripes in birds over 56 days of age and the positive effect in breast meat yield that supplementation of 25OH-D3 is causing. A series of studies were conducted to determine the effect of sexual maturity in protein turnover in broiler breeders and laying hens and to understand the effect of 25OHD3 in breast meat yield in broiler chickens and why ...


Influences Of Contexts On Consumers' Visual Attention Towards Food Images: Eye-Tracking Studies, Baoyue Zhang Dec 2014

Influences Of Contexts On Consumers' Visual Attention Towards Food Images: Eye-Tracking Studies, Baoyue Zhang

Theses and Dissertations

Food perception is influenced not only by sensory properties of the food itself, but also by individuals- or environment-related contexts. Visual cue appears to be the most dominant factor in modulating food perception. This research aimed to determine whether individuals' visual attention towards food images can vary as a function of contextual variables such as hunger/fullness (Chapter 3), chronic stress (Chapter 4), and culture (Chapter 5). In Chapter 3 and Chapter 4, participants were asked to freely view visual slides, including four different images per slide, shown on the monitor. Using eye-tracking techniques, participants' visual attention towards food images ...


Effects Of Grain Sorghum Muffin On Blood Glucose And Insulin Responses In Prediabetic Men, Xuan Gu Dec 2014

Effects Of Grain Sorghum Muffin On Blood Glucose And Insulin Responses In Prediabetic Men, Xuan Gu

Theses and Dissertations

Prediabetes is a sub-health condition in the development to type 2 diabetes, which has been long overlooked. Grain sorghum contains functional starch fractions, which have been widely reported for their potential on blood glucose control and diabetes prevention. A human study with prediabetic men was conducted to investigate the effects of sorghum starch on postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. Grain sorghum and wheat (control) muffins containing 50 g total starch were consumed by 15 prediabetic male subjects on two mornings with a 1-week washout period. Plasma samples were collected on -15 (baseline), 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 ...


Impact Of Surface Active Minor Components On Physicochemical Properties Of Association Colloids And Lipid Oxidation In Bulk Oil, Ketinun Kittipongpittaya Nov 2014

Impact Of Surface Active Minor Components On Physicochemical Properties Of Association Colloids And Lipid Oxidation In Bulk Oil, Ketinun Kittipongpittaya

Doctoral Dissertations

Lipid oxidation is a great concern for food manufacturers and consumers as it negatively impacts not only food quality and nutritive values of food lipids, but also consumer health. Lipid oxidation in bulk oil is impacted by chemical factors, such as, prooxidants and antioxidants, and is also related to the existence of physical structures. Bulk oils contain a variety of surface active minor components which are able to form physical structures known as association colloids. These physical structures create oil-water interfaces which seem to be an important site where lipid oxidation occurs in bulk oil. Thus, this research focused on ...


Influence Of Lipoteichoic Acid On Listeria Monocytogenes Biofilm Formation And Cellular Stress, Imelda T. Brooks Nov 2014

Influence Of Lipoteichoic Acid On Listeria Monocytogenes Biofilm Formation And Cellular Stress, Imelda T. Brooks

Doctoral Dissertations

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important polymer on the surface of Gram-positive organisms, including the foodborne, biofilm-forming pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, and is connected to the cell membrane through a glycolipid backbone. Previous results have shown the importance of LTA in cell viability and biofilm formation. The purpose of this research is to further investigate the influence of LTA in L. monocytogenes biofilm formation and how the bacterium responds to environmental stress caused by antimicrobial exposures, and a combination of low temperature and high osmolarity. We created in frame deletion mutants along the operon lmo-2555-lmo2554-lmo2553, which have been shown to reduce ...


Understanding Lipid Oxidation In Low-Moisture Food, Leann M. Barden Nov 2014

Understanding Lipid Oxidation In Low-Moisture Food, Leann M. Barden

Doctoral Dissertations

Low-moisture snacks account for much of the saturated fat in the diet, making them a key target for improving consumers’ health. However, it is not currently feasible to maintain the same shelf life when replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats in these products.

The first study characterized the microstructure of a low-moisture cracker model system and determined the impact of iron, chelators, and free fatty acids (FFA) on lipid oxidation kinetics. Confocal microscopy showed that lipids form a continuous layer surrounding the small and/or minimally gelatinized starch granules. Lipid-starch, lipid-air, and starch-lipid-protein interfaces all existed. Oxidation studies showed a ...