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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effect Of Processing And Formulation Conditions On Physicochemical Characteristics Of Food Emulsions, Megan Tippetts Dec 2008

Effect Of Processing And Formulation Conditions On Physicochemical Characteristics Of Food Emulsions, Megan Tippetts

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research was to systematically study the effect of processing conditions on crystallization behavior and destabilization mechanisms of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The effects of oil content (20 and 40 wt %); crystallization temperature (Tc = 10, 5, 0, -5, -10 °C); homogenization conditions, such as high shear (HS), very low pressure homogenization (VLPH), and high pressure homogenization (HPH); and cooling rate (0.2 and 30 °C/min) on both thermal behavior and destabilization mechanisms were analyzed. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was added to VLPH emulsions and its effect on the physicochemical and oxidative stabilities and flavor was studied. Emulsions ...


Cause And Prevention Of Liver Off-Flavor In Five Beef Chuck Muscles, Ranjeeta Wadhwani Dec 2008

Cause And Prevention Of Liver Off-Flavor In Five Beef Chuck Muscles, Ranjeeta Wadhwani

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Liver off-flavor is a sporadic problem that limits the consumer acceptance of several beef chuck muscles, including the infraspinatus (flat iron steak). Residual blood hemoglobin is known to contribute to liver off-flavor development. This study was conducted to evaluate factors affecting development of liver off-flavor after cooking of beef chuck (shoulder) muscles. The study was conducted in three parts. The objective of part 1 was to determine effects of muscle (infraspinatus, longissimus dorsi, serratus ventralis, supraspinatus, teres major) and processing (with or w/o carcass electrical stimulation) on residual blood hemoglobin content and total pigment content of raw muscle and ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Lactose-Amines With Respect To Oil-In-Water Emulsion Stability, Nidhi Garg Dec 2008

Synthesis And Characterization Of Lactose-Amines With Respect To Oil-In-Water Emulsion Stability, Nidhi Garg

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fatty amines (hexadecyl-amine) can be esterified to lactose via Schiff-base formation at temperatures of 60° C. Extending the time of the reaction results in a darker colored product due to the Maillard reaction. Due to the amphiphilic properties of the lactose-amines, the emulsion stabilization characteristics were investigated.

In this study, synthesis of lactose-amines was done at four different heating and cooling cycles from 4 to 24 hours. Lactose-amines processed for 24 hours and 12 hours of constant heating and cooling cycles are named as 24H and 12H, respectively. Lactose-amines 4H and 8H were processed for 4 and 8 hours of ...


Novel Method For Recovery Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 From Beef Surfaces, Matthew Adam Becher Dec 2008

Novel Method For Recovery Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 From Beef Surfaces, Matthew Adam Becher

Masters Theses

A study was conducted to compare the efficiency of detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933 on external beef trim by commercial recovery systems based upon of the Microbial-Vac System (M-Vac) and excision sampling. Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933 was cultured in tryptic soy broth for 24 hr at 37°C and transferred for three consecutive days before diluting and spot inoculating onto a 684 cm2 piece of beef trim (10 CFU/684 cm2). Beef trim was sampled with the M-Vac by passing the sampling head over the entire surface area in a vertical sampling pattern ...


Characterization Of Bioactive Phytochemicals From The Stem Bark Of African Mahogany Khaya Senegalensis (Meliaceae), Huaping Zhang Dec 2008

Characterization Of Bioactive Phytochemicals From The Stem Bark Of African Mahogany Khaya Senegalensis (Meliaceae), Huaping Zhang

All Dissertations

ABSTRACT
African mahogany Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (Meliaceae) is a large tree growing mainly in the sub-Saharan savannah forests from Senegal to Uganda. This plant is one of the most popular medicinal meliaceous plants in traditional African remedies, used as a bitter tonic, folk and popular medicine against malaria, fever, mucous diarrhea, and venereal diseases as well as an anthelmintic and a taeniacide remedy. Its extracts and chemical constituents have been the subject of extensive phytochemical and pharmacological investigations since 1960s. Anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anthelmintic, and antiplasmodial activities of plant extracts have been reported. Limonoids with anti-feeding, feeding deterrent and ...


Optimization Of Biodiesel Production From Crude Cottonseed Oil And Waste Vegetable Oil:Conventional And Ultrasonic Irradiation Methods, Xiaohu Fan Dec 2008

Optimization Of Biodiesel Production From Crude Cottonseed Oil And Waste Vegetable Oil:Conventional And Ultrasonic Irradiation Methods, Xiaohu Fan

All Dissertations

Biodiesel, derived from the transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with simple alcohols, has attracted more and more attention recently. As a cleaner burning diesel alternative, biodiesel has many attractive features including: biodegradability, nontoxicity, renewability and low emission profiles.
Although cottonseed oil was the first commercial cooking oil in the U.S, it has progressively lost its market share to some vegetable oils that have larger production and less cost. However, regarding the active researches on biodiesel production from vegetable oils, there is a promising prospective for the cottonseed oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production, which may enhance ...


Mechanisms Of Nutrition Bar Hardening: Effect Of Hydrolyzed Whey Protein And Carbohydrate Source, Shaun P. Adams Dec 2008

Mechanisms Of Nutrition Bar Hardening: Effect Of Hydrolyzed Whey Protein And Carbohydrate Source, Shaun P. Adams

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The influence of increasing hydrolyzed protein content on the microstructure and hardness of high protein nutrition bars was investigated to determine the mechanism of hardening during storage. Bars with various hydrolyzed protein levels were manufactured using differing ratios of 0, 25, 50, 75, 100% (wt. /wt.) of partially hydrolyzed whey protein isolate (HWPI) to an intact (non-hydrolyzed) whey protein isolate (WPI) which made up approximately 38% of the total bar composition. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (42%) and vegetable shortening (20%) constituted the rest of the ingredients. Accelerated aging was performed by storing bars at 32 ºC for 36 d ...


“Intervention Strategies To Enhance The Safety Of Ready-To-Eat Meat Products By Plant Essential Oils, Chayapa Techathuvanan Dec 2008

“Intervention Strategies To Enhance The Safety Of Ready-To-Eat Meat Products By Plant Essential Oils, Chayapa Techathuvanan

Masters Theses

Components of plant essential oil (PEO) extracts are known to have antimicrobial properties. However, their antimicrobial efficacy in food systems is low due to their hydrophobic nature and association with other food components. Incorporation of PEO components into an appropriate carrier may offer a potential solution to improve their activity in food systems. This study was conducted to determine the effect of PEO components (thymol, eugenol, linalool, carvacrol, and cinnamaldehyde) incorporated into zein coating on inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on a ready-to-eat meat model, frankfurters (hot dogs). Hot dogs were inoculated with 7 log CFU/sample and dipped into prepared ...


Effects Of Filtration Temperature And Heat Treatment On Composition And Rheological Properties Of Whole Milk Ultrafiltration Retentates, John W. Montella Oct 2008

Effects Of Filtration Temperature And Heat Treatment On Composition And Rheological Properties Of Whole Milk Ultrafiltration Retentates, John W. Montella

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ABSTRACT

Effects of Filtration Temperature and Heat Treatment on Composition and Rheological Properties of Whole Milk Ultrafiltration Retentates

John William Montella

For the first part of my thesis, the effects of filtration temperature and heat treatment on the compositional properties of whole milk Ultrafiltration retentate (UF) were studied. Ultrafiltration is primarily run at temperatures in the range of 50-55°C but more and more plants are starting to filter at refrigeration temperatures. In the ultrafiltration of milk, filtration temperature can affect the composition of the retentate by affecting the chemistry of milk components. The application of a pasteurization step can ...


Characterization And Performance Improvement Of Chitosan Films As Affected By Preparation Method, Synthetic Polymers, And Blend Ratios, Jiajie Li Aug 2008

Characterization And Performance Improvement Of Chitosan Films As Affected By Preparation Method, Synthetic Polymers, And Blend Ratios, Jiajie Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Chitosan films prepared with addition of other polymers have been widely studied for their modified properties. In this dissertation, poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly (N-vinyl-2- pyrrolidone) (PVP) were blended with chitosan. The objectives of the study were (1) to investigate the the effects of film thickness, blend ratios, and preparation methods on the physical, and mechanical properties and functional performance of chitosan/PEO films, and (2) to compare characteristics and functional properties of chitosan/PVP and chitosan/PEO films.

The results demonstrated that regular cast chitosan/PEO films have altered properties than films produced from either polymer alone. Regardless ...


Mechanisms Of Calcium-Induced Firmness In Fruits, Vegetables, And Mushrooms, Xiaoyun Deng Aug 2008

Mechanisms Of Calcium-Induced Firmness In Fruits, Vegetables, And Mushrooms, Xiaoyun Deng

Masters Theses

Six fractions from mushrooms (MFs), as cytoplasmic proteins (F1), cell membrane proteins (F2), alkali-soluble cell wall glucans (F3a), cell wall proteins (F3b), cell wall beta-glucans (F4a), and chitin (F4b) and five fractions from both apples (AFs) and cucumbers (CFs), as cytoplasmic proteins (F1), cell membrane proteins (F2), cell wall proteins (F3), pectic substances (F4), and cellulose (F5) were extracted and analyzed for their neutral carbohydrates, proteins, aminosugar material, soluble phenolics, and pectic substances. The dominant compounds consisted of the following: proteins in MF1, proteins and neutral polysaccharides in MF2, neutral polysaccharides in MF3a, neutral polysaccharides in MF3b, neutral polysaccharides and ...


Sustained Release Of Lysozyme Encapsulated In Zein Micro- And Nanocapsules, Minfeng Jin Aug 2008

Sustained Release Of Lysozyme Encapsulated In Zein Micro- And Nanocapsules, Minfeng Jin

Masters Theses

A hydrophobic biopolymer, corn zein, was studied as a carrier for manufacturing particulate delivery systems of antimicrobials with sustained release. Three techniques, i.e., solvent attrition, supercritical anti-solvent and spray drying, were investigated to produce lysozyme-loaded zein micro- or nanocapsules. The work was focused on particle synthesis and in vitro release kinetics as affected by formulations and processes.

The size (100-200 nm) and morphology (separated or connected) of the zein nanoparticles produced using solvent attrition were significantly affected by shear force, ethanol and zein concentrations in stock solutions during synthesis. Zein nanoparticles showed gradual release of lysozyme at pH 7 ...


Application Of High Pressure Homogenization And Ultrafiltration For The Manufacture Of Skim Milk Acid Gels And Isolation Of Casein, Aarón Hernández Aug 2008

Application Of High Pressure Homogenization And Ultrafiltration For The Manufacture Of Skim Milk Acid Gels And Isolation Of Casein, Aarón Hernández

Masters Theses

The dairy industry has experienced an important growth around the world in the last decades. Along with this growth, advances in scientific research and technology have opened the possibility for new applications of dairy products. These topics are discussed in Chapter I as a literature review and introduction.

Emerging non-thermal technologies can offer many advantages when compared to thermal technologies. High Pressure Homogenization (HPH) is an emerging technology applied in the study of dairy science. Chapter II of this thesis describes the study of HPH (0-350 MPa) in combination with thermal processing (90°C, 5 min) to improve the rheological ...


The Effect Of Wild Blueberries On Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation In Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, Aleksandra S. Kristo Aug 2008

The Effect Of Wild Blueberries On Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation In Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, Aleksandra S. Kristo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The effect of wild blueberries on major endothelium-dependent vasodilation pathways and arterial blood pressure (BP) was examined in the young adult Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR), used as a model of endothelial dysfunction, and the Wistar Kyoto (WK) rat, with functional endothelium, used as the control. Male SHR and WK rats were fed a control (SHR-C and WK-C), or a wild blueberry-enriched (SHR-B and WK-B) diet for nine weeks. By the age of 21 weeks, thoracic aortae were excised and 3mm arterial rings were prepared and immersed in Radnoti tissue baths. Rings were precontractred with phenylephrine (Phe) (10"6M), followed by ...


Assessment Of A Pilot Nutrition Education Program For Hispanic Youth And Their Parents, Maria Rossi Jul 2008

Assessment Of A Pilot Nutrition Education Program For Hispanic Youth And Their Parents, Maria Rossi

All Theses

Obesity and overweight are increasing at epidemic proportions in South Carolina for both adults and children, particularly affecting minority groups. Hispanic populations residing in South Carolina are not the exception. It is important to provide nutrition education, exercise, and behavior interventions as they are the foundations to treat parents and children who are overweight, obese, or are at risk for overweight and obesity. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the effectiveness of a nutrition and physical activity program, 'Jump into Food and Fitness' with the Hispanic population and to determine the effectiveness of the program on knowledge ...


Characteristics Of Volunteer Leaders In The American Dietetic Association Compared To Non-Volunteer Registered Dietitians, Samantha Payne Rasmussen Jul 2008

Characteristics Of Volunteer Leaders In The American Dietetic Association Compared To Non-Volunteer Registered Dietitians, Samantha Payne Rasmussen

Theses and Dissertations

Objective To identify characteristics of dietitians who serve as leaders in the American Dietetic Association (ADA) and their managers, and to compare them to registered dietitians not in volunteer leadership roles and their managers.
Design A cross-sectional survey of volunteer leaders and those who have never volunteered as leaders in ADA.
Subjects/setting The study sample included elected officers in ADA and executive board members of ADA state affiliates (volunteer leaders) (n=259) and their managers (n=115), as well as a sample of registered dietitians not in ADA leadership roles (control) (n=273) and their managers (n=221).
Statistical ...


Analysis And Application Of Key Modeling Concepts Utilized In Predictive Microbiology For Food Processing, Darryl G. Black May 2008

Analysis And Application Of Key Modeling Concepts Utilized In Predictive Microbiology For Food Processing, Darryl G. Black

Doctoral Dissertations

The use of modeling techniques for safety and risk prediction in the food supply is a common practice. Factors affecting microbial heat resistance include those inherent to the organism, environmental conditions and the intrinsic properties of the heating menstruum. Varying physiological states of microorganisms could affect the measured response and add uncertainty to results from predictive models. Inactivation tests were performed using Escherichia coli strain K12 and E. coli O157:H7 for various growth conditions: traditionally or statically grown cells, chemostat‐grown cells, and chemostatgrown cells with buffered feed media. Heating menstruum was non‐buffered 0.1% peptone, 0.1 ...


Characterization Of Food Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, And Behaviors Of Adolescents In East Tennessee, Ashley S. Pedigo May 2008

Characterization Of Food Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, And Behaviors Of Adolescents In East Tennessee, Ashley S. Pedigo

Masters Theses

Educational research suggests that middle school is an ideal time to teach food safety since adolescents are in the process of setting life-long behaviors and are, therefore, more likely to synthesize new food safety knowledge into positive behaviors.

The objectives of this study were to: 1) Describe the baseline food safety knowledge and attitudes/ behaviors of 7th grade students in East Tennessee 2) determine the relationship with geographic location, socioeconomic status, race, and gender; and 3) compare the current data (Study 2) to a previous study (Study 1) that pre-tested 7th grade students prior to an education intervention ...


In Vitro And In Vivo Techniques For Screening New Natural Product-Based Fungicides For Control Of Strawberry Anthracnose, Maritza Abril May 2008

In Vitro And In Vivo Techniques For Screening New Natural Product-Based Fungicides For Control Of Strawberry Anthracnose, Maritza Abril

Dissertations

Seven plant pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, C. gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Phomopsis obscurans, and P. viticola) valuable in screening fungicide efficacy were tested. Optimal and reproducible conditions for germination of these selected fungi were established by incorporating Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 (RPMI) as a medium of known composition and washing conidia to remove innate germination inhibitors. This step reduced average fungal germination times between 3.5 h and 21.2 h. The natural product-based fungicide, sampangine, seven sampangine analogs (4-bromo-sampangine, 4-methoxysampangine, benzo[4,5]sampangine, liriodenine Mel AMC-XIII-103, onychine, cryptolepine, and liriodenine CDH-II-37), plus seven conventional ...


Enterobacter Sakazakii Growth Profile And Tolerance To Chlorine Sanitizers, Diana Carolina Naar Cifuentes May 2008

Enterobacter Sakazakii Growth Profile And Tolerance To Chlorine Sanitizers, Diana Carolina Naar Cifuentes

Doctoral Dissertations

Enterobacter sakazakii is considered an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with sporadic life-threatening bacterial infections in neonates linked to the compsumption of contaminated infant formula [Stoll et al., 2004]. In 2001 a neonate fatal infection associated with the presence of E. sakazakii in infant formula occurred in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the University of Tennessee Hospital [Himelright et al., 2002], as a result of this outbreak, the hospital made several policy changes and requested the Food Safety Center of Excellence of University of Tennessee to analyze the growth pattern of this microorganism at the conditions maintained in the ...


Effect Of Food Deprivation On The Metabolic Profile Of Llamas (Lama Glama) In The Letanias Experimental Station - Viacha, Edwin Eddy Ali Quisbert Jan 2008

Effect Of Food Deprivation On The Metabolic Profile Of Llamas (Lama Glama) In The Letanias Experimental Station - Viacha, Edwin Eddy Ali Quisbert

Theses and Dissertations

In the highlands, where regular agriculture and livestock are not viable, raising camelids is the only means of subsistence for rural families. While grazing during the dry season in the high Andean region, llamas face serious nutritional deficiencies due to limited forage availability. This study was done at the experimental station of the Benson Agriculture and Food Institute located in the community of Letanias which is in the municipality of Viacha. The objective was to determine the effect of food deprivation on the metabolic profile of blood plasma (concentration of urea-nitrogen, total protein, albumin, and creatinine) as well as the ...


Identity Preservation & Traceability: The State Of The Art - From A Grain Perspective (Status Of Agricultural Quality Systems / Traceability / Certification Systems), Gregory Scott Bennet Jan 2008

Identity Preservation & Traceability: The State Of The Art - From A Grain Perspective (Status Of Agricultural Quality Systems / Traceability / Certification Systems), Gregory Scott Bennet

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A descriptive paper on the state of identity preservation and traceability (IPT) as it relates domestically and internationally to food safety and economics. While not exhaustive, it is illustrative of trends. Identity preservation and traceability (IPT) are not new concepts; however, the growth of public and business interest and concerns regarding them has grown tremendously during the past decade due to many events, which has resulted in these concepts joining together within a single concept (with the same title). This paper, while attempting to be thorough, will highlight the major systems of IPT from a US business perspective. Before and ...


Immunomodulatory, Anti-Inflammatory And Wound Healing Properties Of Echinacea Species, Zili Zhai Jan 2008

Immunomodulatory, Anti-Inflammatory And Wound Healing Properties Of Echinacea Species, Zili Zhai

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Herbal or botanical supplements have multiple health benefits. Public interest in these supplements has increased greatly in recent years aimed at modulation of the immune system to combat immune-related diseases. Historically, Echinacea has long been used as phytotherapy for wound healing, pain relief and treatment of the common cold. Although the non-specific immunostimulating properties of Echinacea species have been widely investigated, academic knowledge of the adaptive immune-modulating activity, the anti-inflammatory activity and the mechanistic basis for these immunomodulatory properties remain elusive. In this dissertation, we focused our research interest in these less explored fields, with an emphasis on the herbal ...


The Effect Of The Food Allergen Labeling And Consumer Protection Act (Falcpa) On The Accidental Food Allergen Ingestion Rate In Adults With Self-Reported Food Allergies, Susan Liebert Jan 2008

The Effect Of The Food Allergen Labeling And Consumer Protection Act (Falcpa) On The Accidental Food Allergen Ingestion Rate In Adults With Self-Reported Food Allergies, Susan Liebert

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Background: The Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) recently required bolded allergens or “contains” statements on food product labels. Very few U.S. studies have looked at the accidental food allergen ingestion rate in adults. Since the emotional and medical costs of allergic reactions can be high, it is important to determine if the FALCPA is helping to reduce the accidental food allergen ingestion rate in adults with self-reported food allergies.

Background: The Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) recently required bolded allergens or “contains” statements on food product labels. Very few U.S. studies have ...