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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Comparison Of Bioactivities And Composition Of Curcumin-Free Turmeric (Curcuma Longa L.) Oils From Different Sources, Yongxiang Yu Dec 2006

Comparison Of Bioactivities And Composition Of Curcumin-Free Turmeric (Curcuma Longa L.) Oils From Different Sources, Yongxiang Yu

All Theses

Composition, antioxidant capacities and cell inhibition properties of curcumin-free turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) oils from different sources were evaluated by chromatographic method, two different in vitro antioxidative activity assays (DPPH* free radical scavenging assay and reducing power assay) and two different cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and MCF-7). Turmeric oil A (TOA) contains zingiberene, turmerone, and ar-turmerone, while turmeric oil B (TOB) contains 1-phellandrene and α-terpinolene as the major compounds. The antioxidant tests showed that both turmeric oils possessed strong free radical scavenging activities and high reducing powers compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT and commercial rosemary oil (RO). Among ...


Application Of Nanotechnology To Pathogen Detection And Inactivation, Hua Yang Dec 2006

Application Of Nanotechnology To Pathogen Detection And Inactivation, Hua Yang

All Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotrophic, gram-positive pathogen frequently involved in outbreaks of food-borne disease in which milk, cheese, meat, and vegetables represent the incriminated foodstuffs. L. monocytogenes biofilms formed on food contact surfaces and processing environments are the major sources of contamination to ready-to-eat food products. Nanotechnology as an emerging new technology has many biological applications. The objectives of this study were to apply immunonanoparticles, carboxyl modified nanoparticles covalently bound with anti-L. monocytogenes, for L. monocytogenes detection and inactivation. Immunonanopaticles and fluorescent immunonanoparticles were applied to indirect fluorescent immunoassay and direct fluorescent immunoassay, respectively, for sensitive detection of L. monocytogenes ...


Eliminating Listeria Monocytogenes In Packed Ready-To-Eat Poultry Products By Combining In-Package Pasteurization With Nisin And/Or Lysozyme, Sunil Mangalassary Dec 2006

Eliminating Listeria Monocytogenes In Packed Ready-To-Eat Poultry Products By Combining In-Package Pasteurization With Nisin And/Or Lysozyme, Sunil Mangalassary

All Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes is a significant food-borne pathogen particularly associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products which can grow and multiply at refrigeration temperatures. In-package pasteurization is an effective post-lethality intervention to reduce microbial contamination of RTE meat products. Enhancing the efficiency of in-package pasteurization is vital in reducing the L. monocytogenes population as well as in preserving the quality of the meat product. The first section of the dissertation research evaluated the effect of product thickness on the surface heating rate and final surface temperature during in-package pasteurization of vacuum-packaged bologna. Three thicknesses (4, 12, and 20 mm), corresponding ...


The Effects Of Processing On Hydrophilic Antioxidant Capacity Of Black Beans, Elizabeth Roberson Mcgee Dec 2006

The Effects Of Processing On Hydrophilic Antioxidant Capacity Of Black Beans, Elizabeth Roberson Mcgee

Masters Theses

Dry, uncooked black beans have been found to contain a significantly high amount of antioxidants compared to many other foods. There is little information available on the influence of thermal processing on antioxidant capacity of foods. The antioxidant capacity, reported in μmol Trolox Equivalents per gram of uncooked, blanched, or retorted black beans was evaluated using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A boiling water blanch of black beans for 30, 60 or 90 sec resulted in a 33% reduction in antioxidant capacity compared to uncooked beans. There was no significant difference among antioxidant capacity of beans blanched for ...


Physicochemical Characterization And Antibacterial Potential Of Naturally-Occurring Antimicrobial Polypeptide-Bearing Phospholipid Liposomes Against The Foodborne Pathogens Listeria Monocytogenes And Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Thomas Matthew Taylor Dec 2006

Physicochemical Characterization And Antibacterial Potential Of Naturally-Occurring Antimicrobial Polypeptide-Bearing Phospholipid Liposomes Against The Foodborne Pathogens Listeria Monocytogenes And Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Thomas Matthew Taylor

Doctoral Dissertations

Liposomes are spherical bilayer vesicles formed from dispersion of polar lipids in aqueous solvents and have been studied for their ability to act as drug delivery vehicles by shielding reactive or sensitive compounds prior to release. In the food industry, liposomes have been used to deliver food flavors and nutrients; more recently they have been investigated for their ability to incorporate food antimicrobials.

Thermal stability of liposomes, in the presence and absence of nisin, was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and low-intensity ultrasonic spectroscopy (US). Observed phase transition temperatures for liposomes measured via DSC and US were in close ...


Determination Of Cholesterol In Foods By Flow Injection Analysis With Perroxyoxalate Chemiluminescence., Abisake Feleke Aug 2006

Determination Of Cholesterol In Foods By Flow Injection Analysis With Perroxyoxalate Chemiluminescence., Abisake Feleke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cholesterol is an important biological molecule with many important functions. However, high serum cholesterol is a health hazard. Thus analysis of cholesterol is important and many analytical techniques have been developed. The objectives of the proposed research are to develop an economical, rapid method for the determination of total cholesterol with good selectivity and enhanced sensitivity. For evaluation of proposed flow injection analysis with peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (FIA-POCL) method, figures of merit such as accuracy, precision, and linear dynamic range will be assessed. The proposed procedure was then applied to the determination of total cholesterol in foods. The procedure was linear ...


Potential Development Of Resistance To Food Antimicrobials By Foodborne Pathogens, Lilia Milagros Santiago Santiago May 2006

Potential Development Of Resistance To Food Antimicrobials By Foodborne Pathogens, Lilia Milagros Santiago Santiago

Doctoral Dissertations

The potential for development of resistance of four strains of Listeria monocytogenes (101, 108, 310 and Scott A) and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 (2380, 2576, 2582, 2486) to food antimicrobials sodium benzoate (SB), potassium sorbate (PS), sodium diacetate (SD) and sodium lactate (SL) at pH 6.0 was studied. Cells were not subjected to any pre-stress condition. An agar dilution assay was performed to determine susceptibility and adaptation to different and increasing antimicrobial concentrations. A microbroth dilution assay was used to determine tolerance development after two consecutives exposures to same antimicrobial concentrations, and one further exposure to a step higher ...


Milk Intake In Early And Late Adulthood And Risk Of Osteoporotic Hip Fractures In Utah, Melanie Jean Slavens May 2006

Milk Intake In Early And Late Adulthood And Risk Of Osteoporotic Hip Fractures In Utah, Melanie Jean Slavens

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The relationship between milk intake and risk of osteoporotic fractures is uncertain. Associations between milk intake and milk avoidance in relation to osteoporotic hip fracture were examined in the Utah Study of Nutrition and Bone Health (USNBH), a statewide case-control study. Cases were ascertained at Utah hospitals treating 98 percent of hip fractures during 1997-2001 and included 1188 men and women aged 50-89 years. Age- and gender-matched controls were randomly selected from Utah driver's license and Medicare databases (N= 1324). In-person interviews were conducted and participants reported frequency of milk intake per week at age 18 and during pregnancy ...


Antimicrobial Properties Of Syringopeptin 25a And Rhamnolipids, Prerak T. Desai May 2006

Antimicrobial Properties Of Syringopeptin 25a And Rhamnolipids, Prerak T. Desai

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The increasing bacterial resistance to available antibiotics requires the search for new antibacterial compounds to be broadened. This study investigated the antimicrobial properties of two secondary metabolites from fluorescent pseudo monads -- syringopeptin 25A, a lipodepsipeptide produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, and a rhamnolipid mixture produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The rate of antimicrobial action was determined by monitoring the rate of uptake of propidium iodide during exposure to the compounds. Inhibition was also confirmed by the microbroth dilution method to determine the MI Cs. Both the compounds inhibited growth of Gram-positive organisms, including Mycobacterium smegmatis, staphylococci, and listeria. Inhibition of ...


The Integration Of The Nutrition Screening Tool With The Interdisciplinary Plan Of Care Form, Beth Hyatt May 2006

The Integration Of The Nutrition Screening Tool With The Interdisciplinary Plan Of Care Form, Beth Hyatt

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Literature Review

Undernutrition in the hospital setting has been shown to cause adverse outcomes. Screening for nutritional risk assists in the detection of undernutrition with subsequent early intervention to prevent further decline. While many nutrition screening tools exist, none are proven to detect undernutrition. Furthermore, many barriers exist for utilizing nurses as primarily responsible for screening patients for nutritional risk.

Background

A hospital reviewed the nutrition screening process and found that the form used and screening factors were insufficient to adequately detect undernutrition and appropriate referrals for dietitians.

Objectives

1) Determine if nursing compliance improved when the nutrition screening form ...


Use Of Natural Antioxidants To Control Oxidative Rancidity In Cooked Meats, Mihir Vasavada May 2006

Use Of Natural Antioxidants To Control Oxidative Rancidity In Cooked Meats, Mihir Vasavada

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The research in this dissertation focused on determining antioxidant effects of various natural antioxidants in cooked meat systems. Milk mineral (MM), spices, and raisin paste were used in cooked meat systems to verify their potential antioxidant properties.

The MM study determined the antioxidant activity of 1.5% MM added to uncured cooked beef meatballs, and possible additive effects of MM in combination with 20-ppm or 40-ppm sodium nitrate in cooked beef sausages . There was no additive inhibition of lipid oxidation in samples containing 20-ppm or 40-ppm sodium nitrite plus 1.5% MM. Cooked meat yield was not different between control ...


A Surveillance Of Luncheon Meats For The Occurrence Of Listeria Monocytogenes In Grocery Stores In Tennessee, Jacob Henry Stevens May 2006

A Surveillance Of Luncheon Meats For The Occurrence Of Listeria Monocytogenes In Grocery Stores In Tennessee, Jacob Henry Stevens

Masters Theses

The current United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration (FDA) policy of ‘zero tolerance’ for Listeria monocytogenes in ready to eat (RTE) foods has prompted the food industry to increase food safety and sanitation practices in order to reduce and inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes. In order to better understand the point of contamination of luncheon meats, a survey of its occurrence was performed in grocery stores throughout Tennessee. Approximately 1000 manufactured-packaged and 1000 deli-sliced luncheon meat samples were analyzed using the USDA-FSIS analytical method with minor modifications over ...


Addition Of Three Dietary Fibers In An Extruded Whey And Cornstarch Expanded Snack Food, Alisha M. Wood May 2006

Addition Of Three Dietary Fibers In An Extruded Whey And Cornstarch Expanded Snack Food, Alisha M. Wood

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Different fiber types were incorporated in an extruded expanded high-protein snack food. Three dietary fibers (powdered cellulose, wheat fiber, and oat fiber) were selected based on ease of extrusion, percent total dietary fiber, visible expansion, and commercial availability. A high-fiber, high-protein snack food containing whey protein, normal cornstarch, and pregelatinized waxy cornstarch was extruded using the three selected fibers. The fibers replaced the normal cornstarch at 30, 60, and 80% yielding extrudates with three fiber levels (18, 36, and 48%). Each treatment or combination of fiber type and extrudate fiber level was extruded in triplicate. A control with no fiber ...


Thermal Tolerance Of Acid Adapted And Non-Adapted Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella Enterica In Ground Beef , Manpreet Singh Jan 2006

Thermal Tolerance Of Acid Adapted And Non-Adapted Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella Enterica In Ground Beef , Manpreet Singh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

D-values of acid adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were determined in meat serum and ground beef stored at 4 and -20°C as an indicator of thermal tolerance. Pathogens were acid adapted by growing in Tryptic Soy Broth with 1% glucose (TSB+1%G). Five-strain cocktail of both bacteria were grown and inoculated meat serum was heated to 58, 62, and 65°C, while inoculated ground beef was heated to 62 and 65°C on day 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 (4°C), and on day 1, 30, 60, 90, and 120 (-20°C). Higher (P<0.05) D-values were observed for acid adapted E. coli O157:H7 in meat serum at 58, 62, and 65°C; and for acid adapted Salmonella at 58 and 62°C, but no difference (P>0 ...


Evaluation Of Extruded-Expelled Low-Fat Soybean Flour In Flour Blends And The Effects On Bread And Dough Development , Toshiba Lynne Traynham Jan 2006

Evaluation Of Extruded-Expelled Low-Fat Soybean Flour In Flour Blends And The Effects On Bread And Dough Development , Toshiba Lynne Traynham

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The research detailed in this document focuses on the performance of a partially defatted soybean flour called low-fat soybean flour (LSF). This soybean flour type has not received widespread application as a food ingredient. This has resulted from a lack of information available on the performance of LSF in a variety of food systems. Based upon its compositional and functional properties, LSF has shown potential for use in a flour blend. Past studies have focused on the usage of flour blends containing wheat flour partially replaced by an oilseed or legume flour. Wheat-soy flour blends have mostly been studied for ...


Investigating Uncured No Nitrate Or Nitrite Added Processed Meat Products , Jeffrey Joseph Sindelar Jan 2006

Investigating Uncured No Nitrate Or Nitrite Added Processed Meat Products , Jeffrey Joseph Sindelar

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Samples of different commercial brands (4 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added and one nitrite-added) of three product types (frankfurters, hams and bacons) were evaluated for color, pigment content, pH, lipid oxidation, residual nitrate and nitrite quantity, and consumer acceptance. All samples contained residual nitrate and residual nitrite except for Brands B and D bacons (<1 ppm nitrite). A large variation in severity of lipid oxidation existed between product types within brands with frankfurters reporting the highest levels. Color measurements indicated the majority of products and brands were similar to the control. Consumer sensory ratings determined that variation existed;The effects of varying levels of vegetable juice powder (VJP) and incubation times (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics and sensory properties of emulsified frankfurter-style cooked (EFSC) sausages and hams over a 90-day storage period were investigated. Four EFSC sausage treatments (TRT) (TRT1: 0.20% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT3: 0.40% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT4: 0.40% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added (156 mg/kg) control (C) were identified for this study. No differences for lipid oxidation between any TRTs and C or over time were identified. No differences (P>0.05) for Commission International D'Edairerage (CIE) L* values were found between TRTs. CIE a* and reflectance ratio values revealed TRTs 2, 4 and C were redder and had better cured color than TRTs 1 and 3 at Day 0. Trained sensory intensity ratings determined that all ...


Starch Biogenesis: Relationship Between Starch Structures And Starch Biosynthetic Enzymes , Li Li Jan 2006

Starch Biogenesis: Relationship Between Starch Structures And Starch Biosynthetic Enzymes , Li Li

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research is to gain understanding on starch biogenesis by studying starch granule formation and development. The objectives of this research were to modify the structure of cyanobacteria glycogen by replacing the endogenous glycogen synthase gene with a plant starch synthase and to study starch granule formation by creating a plant starch biosynthetic system in a cyanobacterium, and to investigate the development of starch granules in maize endosperm during maturation of the maize kernel;A potato starch synthase III (PSSIII) was expressed in Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutants without glycogen synthase I (M1) or glycogen synthase II ...


Antimicrobial Action Of Selected Plant-Derived Compounds Against Listeria Monocytogenes , Natalia A. Weinsetel Jan 2006

Antimicrobial Action Of Selected Plant-Derived Compounds Against Listeria Monocytogenes , Natalia A. Weinsetel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a disease that can be fatal to immunocompromised individuals. Due to the number of outbreaks, recalls, and deaths linked to the consumption of contaminated ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, the United States government issued a directive for the control of L. monocytogenes in the production of RTE meats including the use of a post-lethality treatment and/or the addition of a growth inhibitor. Several methods to inhibit pathogenic bacteria in RTE foods are currently utilized. One method actively being studied involves the use of natural plant products as food antimicrobials. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of plant-derived ...


Comparison Of Soy-Flour Hydrolysates For Wood Adhesive Systems , John F. Schmitz Jr. Jan 2006

Comparison Of Soy-Flour Hydrolysates For Wood Adhesive Systems , John F. Schmitz Jr.

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Soy-protein-based adhesives have not been used extensively in wood products since the 1960's because of poor performance, stability, and water-resistance issues compared to petroleum-based adhesives. The early soy-protein adhesives were made from defatted flours and were dispersed in alkaline solutions to denature proteins and make more polar amino acid groups available for adhesion bonding. Recent research has focused on soy flour adhesives due to increased phenol prices and environmental concerns related to the use and exposure to formaldehyde. Soy protein isolates can be modified in highly caustic alkaline solutions to reduce viscosity and improve adhesive properties, but the price ...


Frying Performance Of Soybean Oils With Reduced Linolenate Content And Methods To Monitor Deteriorative Changes , Jose Arnaldo Gerde Jan 2006

Frying Performance Of Soybean Oils With Reduced Linolenate Content And Methods To Monitor Deteriorative Changes , Jose Arnaldo Gerde

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The performance during frying of three expeller-pressed physically refined soybean oils with different contents of linolenic acid (ULL, 1.5%; LL, 2.6%; control, 5.2%) was tested. French fries were fried in a commercial-like setting for 6 hr/day during 23 consecutive days. There were no significant differences in color or in polar material content. The amount of conjugated dienoic acids was higher in the control than in both ULL and LL oils throughout the frying process. Free fatty acid levels were not different among the oils until day 14, after which ULL was higher than the control for ...


Application Of Different Levels Of Byproducts From Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) In The Preparation Of Rations For Guinea Pigs (Cavia Porcellus L.) In The Growing And Fattening Stages, Grover Antonio Aduviri Paredes Jan 2006

Application Of Different Levels Of Byproducts From Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) In The Preparation Of Rations For Guinea Pigs (Cavia Porcellus L.) In The Growing And Fattening Stages, Grover Antonio Aduviri Paredes

Theses and Dissertations

From quinua crop residue it is possible to obtain byproducts that can be used to feed small animals, especially guinea pigs. These byproducts can become an alternative feed to ameliorate food deficiencies generally present in the Altiplano. This study compared the effect of consumed quinua meal rations on guinea pig body weight increase and food and economic conversion. This project was developed in two phases: pre-experimental and experimental. In the first phase, genetic material appropriate for the project and the initial rations for consumption was acquired. The second phase included the experimental design where the treatments were developed. The study ...


Metabolic Profile And Nitrogen Balance In Llamas (Lama Glama) Fed With Jipi Quinua And Barley Hay, Viacha Municipality - Department Of La Paz, Meliton Ajata Avircata Jan 2006

Metabolic Profile And Nitrogen Balance In Llamas (Lama Glama) Fed With Jipi Quinua And Barley Hay, Viacha Municipality - Department Of La Paz, Meliton Ajata Avircata

Theses and Dissertations

This research was completed in Letanías, Viacha, La Paz, Bolivia, to determine the metabolic profile in blood plasma (total protein, glucose, urea, albumin, total lipids, creatinine, triglycerides, and cholesterol concentrations), live weight gain, and Nitrogen balance in adult llamas fed with 4 rations of barley and quinoa residue. Eight adult (4-5 year old) Q’ara type llamas were used in this study. Study llamas were trained to stay in metabolic cages with feces collection harnesses. Llamas were given one of the following feed rations: ration A (20% quinoa residue, 80% barley), ration B (40% quinoa residue, 60% barley), ration C ...


School Foodservice Directors' Perceptions Of Value And Cost Of Using Agriculture Commodities In Child Nutrition Programs , Barbara Ann Jirka Jan 2006

School Foodservice Directors' Perceptions Of Value And Cost Of Using Agriculture Commodities In Child Nutrition Programs , Barbara Ann Jirka

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Commodity foods are available to child nutrition programs (CNP) through the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Distribution Program. Using USDA commodity foods creates costs for CNP due to non-value-added expenses such as storage and delivery. Programs such as net off invoice (NOI) have been implemented in the past five years to remove non-value costs. Use of these programs is voluntary by the state distribution agency, manufacturers, and distributors. The purpose of this research was to compare CNP director perceptions on cost and value of commodity foods in states that use NOI and perceptions of CNP directors in states ...


Methanobactin: A Potential Novel Biopreservative For Use Against The Foodborne Pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes , Clinton Lewis Johnson Jan 2006

Methanobactin: A Potential Novel Biopreservative For Use Against The Foodborne Pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes , Clinton Lewis Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, pathogenic foodborne bacterium, typically associated with post-processing contamination of ready-to-eat meats. Control of this pathogen has been a research topic for years, with more recent work investigating the use of novel naturally-produced antimicrobials. Methanobactin is a novel, chromopeptide recently isolated from the methanotroph, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Its recent characterization has placed it in a new class of compounds now known as chalkophores, which are analogous to iron-binding siderophores. While it is thought to possibly serve multiple physiological roles involving copper metabolism in this bacterium, nothing is known regarding its potential as an antimicrobial. Our research ...


Tourism Stakeholders Envision A Sustainable Path: Strengthening Maine's No. 1 Industry Through The Blaine House Conference Recommendations, Elizabeth Munding Jan 2006

Tourism Stakeholders Envision A Sustainable Path: Strengthening Maine's No. 1 Industry Through The Blaine House Conference Recommendations, Elizabeth Munding

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tourism, as Maine’s No. 1 industry, draws approximately 44 million visitors annually who spend $6 billion and contribute $340 million in sales tax. Despite these figures, annual statistics show zero growth or, often, loss, with the exception of the outdoor recreation sector. The tourism industry, made of government bodies, recreation associations and individual businesses, depends on the health of the natural resources and the compliance of related players, such as landowners. Discontent exists with the state and the industry’s leadership. The quandary comes in determining which actions to take to improve the state’s existing nature-based tourism into ...


Mechanisms Of Lipid Peroxidation In Meats From Different Animal Species , Byungrok Min Jan 2006

Mechanisms Of Lipid Peroxidation In Meats From Different Animal Species , Byungrok Min

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the elements that make differences in the oxidative stability of meats from different animal species and (2) to determine the major catalysts of lipid peroxidation in meat and meat products. The most important difference in the susceptibility of meat from different animal species to lipid peroxidation was the balance between anti- and pro-oxidative factors in meat. Raw and cooked ground beef were the most susceptible to lipid peroxidation, followed by chicken thigh meat, pork, and chicken breast meat. The high storage stability of chicken breast meat was attributed to a very ...