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A Sanitation Assessment Of Food Contact Surfaces In Child Care Centers Using Microbiological Analysis And Rapid Sanitation Assays, Catherine Moore Cosby Dec 2005

A Sanitation Assessment Of Food Contact Surfaces In Child Care Centers Using Microbiological Analysis And Rapid Sanitation Assays, Catherine Moore Cosby

Masters Theses

Food contact surfaces are a major concern for food service facilities in controlling the spread of foodborne pathogens. Food service areas within these facilities are considered critical to health, and therefore the microbiological quality of these surfaces within child care center food service areas must be surveyed and assessed. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to gather information as to the environmental microbiological quality of food service surfaces and a non-food contact surface in child care centers, and (2) to evaluate several rapid sanitation assays for determining the sanitation quality of food contact surfaces and to determine if ...


Effect Of Chitosan And Water Soluble Chitosan Coatings On Quality Of Small Fruits, Jason Ki-Myung Noh Dec 2005

Effect Of Chitosan And Water Soluble Chitosan Coatings On Quality Of Small Fruits, Jason Ki-Myung Noh

Masters Theses

Edible coating has been applied on the surface of fresh produce to extend shelf-life by suppressing respiration, transpiration, and microbial growth. The coatings, thus, can help decrease moisture and weight loss, and may offer a protective barrier against bacterial contamination and spoilage. Recent studies have indicated chitosan as an effective coating that extends shelf-life and improves a storability of fruits. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of natural biodegradable chitosan coatings in extending shelf-life and quality of fresh small fruits, such as blueberries and grapes. Fruits were dipped for 30 seconds in 1% chitosan in 1 ...


Significance Of Cell Surface Charge On Microbial Susceptibility To Chitosan, Laquita Mai Michael Aug 2005

Significance Of Cell Surface Charge On Microbial Susceptibility To Chitosan, Laquita Mai Michael

Masters Theses

A study was conducted to determine the importance of cellular surface charge on susceptibility of yeasts to the natural biopolymer chitosan. The test organisms utilized were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Surface charge was determined at various culture ages and under selected environmental conditions. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a protein standard to ensure an accurate method to measure microbial surface charge. Yeasts cells were grown to the early stationary phase, washed and suspended in potassium chloride with absorbance value (A600nm) of 0.1 to 0.2, and charge was measured using a phase analysis ...


The Effect Of Dietary Manganese On Arterial Functional Properties, Anastasia Z. Kalea Aug 2005

The Effect Of Dietary Manganese On Arterial Functional Properties, Anastasia Z. Kalea

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dietary manganese affects the structure and integrity of blood vessels, as well as vessel predisposition to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. In this thesis, we studied the role of manganese on the functional properties of rat aorta as defined by the endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell pathways for adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction and cholinergic-mediated vasodilation. Weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a manganese deficient (MnD), adequate (MnA-control group) or supplemented (MnS) diet (<1, 10-15 and 45-50ppm Mn respectively). After 14 weeks on the diet the aorta was excised and four aortic rings of three mm length were prepared from each animal. Alterations in vasoconstriction among diet groups were detected by dose-response curves to the ^-adrenergic agonist LPhenylephrine in endothelium-intact and endothelium-disrupted rings. Alterations in endothelium-dependent vasodilation among diet groups were determined by doseresponse curves to Acetylcholine. We studied the mechanism by which dietary manganese affects two different endothelium-dependent vasodilation pathways: the Larginine/ nitric oxide (NO) and the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways. Inhibition of the enzymes for NO synthesis (NOS) with L-NMMA, and of prostanoids (COX I and II) with Mefenamic acid, determination of NOS expression, and in vitro addition of L-Arginine (substrate for NO formation) to vessel rings revealed the effect of manganese on the regulation of endothelium-mediated vasodilation and vasoconstriction. Dose-response curves to sodium nitroprusside provided data for the dietary effect on endotheliumindependent vasodilation. Supplementary dietary manganese increased adrenoreceptor-mediated vascular smooth muscle contraction, which was significantly reduced in the presence of functional endothelium. Absence of dietary manganese increased endothelial cell sensitivity to the (Xi-adrenergic vasoconstrictor agent. Manganese had a small effect on the cGMP-pathway for dilation of vascular smooth muscle but affected vasodilation primarily through an endothelium-mediated pathway, probably by preserving NO bioavailability. Inhibition of vasodilation in Mn deficiency appears to occur through an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor, possibly thromboxane with a concomitant decrease in the synthesis of endothelium-mediated vasodilator prostanoids. Our results demonstrate that dietary manganese influences the contractile machinery of vascular smooth muscle cells and regulates the bioactivity of endothelium-mediated vasodilators to affect agonist-induced signaling pathways that participate in the regulation of vasomotor tone. This suggests possibilities for dietary intervention in blood pressure regulation.


Dietary Patterns Of Mediterranean Adolescents, Sandra Ellan Brussee Aug 2005

Dietary Patterns Of Mediterranean Adolescents, Sandra Ellan Brussee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Mediterranean Diet (MD) is renowned for its health benefits. However, adherence appears to be lessening in the Mediterranean region as rates of overweight, obesity, and chronic disease are increasing. The adoption of a "western diet" (high amounts of meats, refined grains, snacks, and fast-food products) has been termed the "Nutrition Transition". Adolescents appear to be the most affected; therefore their diets and eating patterns were examined in this study. The objectives were to study food group-based consumption of adolescents, compare average servings with recommendations from the USDA Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) and the MD Pyramid, identify and compare eating ...


Hunger And Satiety In Recovering Eating Disorder Patients, Jenelle T. West May 2005

Hunger And Satiety In Recovering Eating Disorder Patients, Jenelle T. West

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Desire to eat, hunger, feeling of having enough to eat, and fullness were measured in 11 eating disorder patients in treatment for less than two months, 7 eating disorder patients in treatment for more than two months, and 11 controls. The experimental group was female patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, or eating disorder not-otherwise-specified. The experimental and control groups ate a test meal two hours after a preload. The groups answered four questions about desire to eat, hunger, feeling of having enough to eat, and fullness, before they ate, halfway through their meal, immediately upon ...


Nutritional Status And Growth In Infants With Cystic Fibrosis At Diagnosis And At Age Two Years And Six Years, Marianne Rich May 2005

Nutritional Status And Growth In Infants With Cystic Fibrosis At Diagnosis And At Age Two Years And Six Years, Marianne Rich

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

PURPOSE: A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine if nutritional source of feeding and/or infant age at diagnosis of cystic fibrosis had any effect on nutritional status and subsequent growth accretion. Additionally, an attempt was made to identify predictors for poor growth in patients with undiagnosed cystic fibrosis.

METHODS: Data was collected from medical and clinic charts at Primary Children's Medical Center (PCMC), Salt Lake City, Utah, for subjects born between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 200 I, who were diagnosed with cystic fibrosis before 1 year of age. Thirty-one subjects met inclusion parameters. These subjects ...


Diabetes, Cognitive Decline, And Alzheimer's Disease: The Cache County Study On Memory, Health, And Aging, Gene Charoonruk May 2005

Diabetes, Cognitive Decline, And Alzheimer's Disease: The Cache County Study On Memory, Health, And Aging, Gene Charoonruk

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Studies have reported mixed results for people with or without diabetes with cognitive decline or Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cognitive decline and AD among people with diabetes will be the focus of much discussion since results have been controversial.

The study examined whether diabetes is associated with cognitive decline and whether it is an independent risk factor for the development of AD among elderly residents of Cache County, Utah.

Results revealed an association between diabetes and a lower average Modified Mini Mental State Examination (3MS) score of nearly a point lower at baseline. Results also showed an association between diabetes ...


Identification Of Factors Affecting Susceptibility To Depression And Influencing Quality Of Life In Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients Based On Age-At-Diagnosis, Marlene Israelsen May 2005

Identification Of Factors Affecting Susceptibility To Depression And Influencing Quality Of Life In Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients Based On Age-At-Diagnosis, Marlene Israelsen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Approximately 10% of cystic fibrosis (CF) cases remain undiagnosed until age 18 or later and medical professionals are still unclear about the needs of these individuals. Adults with CF iii must either adapt to life with a chronic disease or transition into adulthood with CF. The purpose of this study was to address the impact of age-at-diagnosis on quality of life in a CF adult population.

The psychological functioning of 21 adult CF patients (seven adult-diagnosed (AD) and 14 pediatric-diagnosed (PD)) was assessed using the Beck Depression Index (BDI)-II. A descriptive review of demographic and clinical data, which included ...


Nutrition Education For Parents Of Children With Cystic Fibrosis : Assessment Of Needs And Strategies For Improved Knowledge And Confidence In Self Care, Catherine M. Mcdonald May 2005

Nutrition Education For Parents Of Children With Cystic Fibrosis : Assessment Of Needs And Strategies For Improved Knowledge And Confidence In Self Care, Catherine M. Mcdonald

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Suboptimal growth and nutritional status are problematic for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Optimal nutrition predicts better lung function and longevity. Daily nutrition therapy for children with CF requires adequate food resources, knowledge of appropriate nutrition and behavior management skills, and confidence in one's ability to correctly apply the necessary skills. The Mountain West Cystic Fibrosis Consortium Questionnaire (MWCFC-Q) was designed as an educational needs assessment for parents of children with CF. The goal was to identify areas of concern that could be targeted for educational intervention to ultimately improve children's growth and nutritional status.

Data analyzed from ...


Development And Evaluation Of An Electronic Food Frequency Questionnaire For Estimating Calcium Intake Among Multiethnic Youth, Siew Sun Wong May 2005

Development And Evaluation Of An Electronic Food Frequency Questionnaire For Estimating Calcium Intake Among Multiethnic Youth, Siew Sun Wong

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Youth consuming inadequate amounts of calcium are at risk of developing osteoporosis later in life. To better assess dietary calcium intakes and the efficacy of dietary intervention strategies to improve bone health among youth, it is important to develop calcium intake assessment tools that are reliable, accurate, and interactively engaging for a new generation of youth who have a higher computer literacy and are more technologically knowledgeable than preceding generations. The goal of this dissertation was to develop and evaluate an electronic food frequency questionnaire ( eFFQ) that measures calcium intake among 11-to 18-year-old Asian, Hispanic, and White youth. Enhancing this ...


Evaluation Of Antioxidant Effectiveness And Sensory Attributes Of Chinese 5-Spice Ingredients In Cooked Ground Beef, Saumya Dwivedi May 2005

Evaluation Of Antioxidant Effectiveness And Sensory Attributes Of Chinese 5-Spice Ingredients In Cooked Ground Beef, Saumya Dwivedi

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study determined antioxidant and sensory effects of cinnamon, cloves, fennel, pepper, and star anise (Chinese 5-spice ingredients) in cooked ground beef. In experiment 1, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of cooked samples were measured during refrigerated storage. In experiment 2, trained panelists evaluated cooked samples for rancid, beef, and spice flavor intensity. Total aerobic plate counts were also measured.

Mean TBA values were high (3.4) for control samples. In previous studies, TBA values >1.0 were associated with unacceptably rancid cooked meats. At the lowest spice level of 0.1% of meat weight, all spices except pepper had lower ...


Weight Maintenance: Determinants Of Success, Cynthia Mitchell May 2005

Weight Maintenance: Determinants Of Success, Cynthia Mitchell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This literature review was a selective examination of current obesity and physical activity research and opinions. Its purpose was more to evoke thought and discussion regarding the United States' obesity epidemic, rather than serve as an exhaustive account of prospective causes and solutions. Obesity and physical inactivity are major preventable health problems in the United States, but despite overwhelming evidence regarding the benefits of a healthy weight and regular physical activity, adult, childhood and adolescent obesity rates continue to escalate, creating significant health, medical and economic consequences.

While obesity rates soar, a small population percentage has proven successful in long-term ...


Prevention Of Childhood Obesity Among Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children, Ann Romero May 2005

Prevention Of Childhood Obesity Among Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children, Ann Romero

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To determine the effects of a targeted curriculum and dual program involvement on childhood overweight status among low-income preschool children, a nutrition curriculum was developed. Three Special Supplemental Food Program for Women Infants and Children (WIC) clinics participated in the study: the control clinic, a clinic which received the targeted curriculum, and a third clinic which received the targeted curriculum and referred participant families to the Expanded Food and Nutrition lll Education Program (EFNEP). Participants were followed for six months. Data collected included anthropometrics, dietary intake, and parental behaviors.

Results showed a decrease in body-mass index percentile, slight improvements in ...


The Effect Of Religiosity And Spirituality On Transformatinal Leadership Characteristics Of Hospital Food And Nutrition Managers, Anna Naegle Sarver Mar 2005

The Effect Of Religiosity And Spirituality On Transformatinal Leadership Characteristics Of Hospital Food And Nutrition Managers, Anna Naegle Sarver

Theses and Dissertations

Effective leadership in the field of dietetics is becoming increasingly vital in a rapidly changing world. A determination of factors which impact leaders and their followers is essential. This study was designed to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and transformational leadership characteristics of hospital food and nutrition managers as rated by self as well as by those directly supervised by the managers. The influence of religious and spiritual beliefs on the workplace and workplace practices was also examined. Respondents were selected from the American Hospital Association database. Hospitals from 250 to 499 beds were included. Directors of Foodservice ...


Effects Of Oxidation, Ph, And Ionic Strength On Inhibition Of [Mu]- And M-Calpain By Calpastatin , Kasey Rae Maddock Jan 2005

Effects Of Oxidation, Ph, And Ionic Strength On Inhibition Of [Mu]- And M-Calpain By Calpastatin , Kasey Rae Maddock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objective was to determine the effects of pH, ionic strength, and oxidation on inhibition of mu- and m-calpain by calpastatin. Calcium activated cysteine proteinases, mu- and m-calpain, were evaluated for activity under pH (7.5, 6.5, and 6.0), ionic strength (165 and 295 mM NaCl), and oxidizing (with or without H2O2) conditions in the presence of calpastatin, their inhibitor. Using a fluorogenic peptide, mu-calpain is most active at pH 6.5 and m-calpain is most active at pH 7.5 and 165 mM NaCl. Oxidation with 0.16 muM H2O2 decreased mu- and m-calpain activity. It was ...


Dietary Functional Ingredients And Quality Of Irradiated Turkey Breast Meat , Haijie Yan Jan 2005

Dietary Functional Ingredients And Quality Of Irradiated Turkey Breast Meat , Haijie Yan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Four hundreds and eighty male turkeys (12-week-old, raised on a corn-soybean basal diet) were randomly fed 8 experimental diets supplemented with none (Control, Con), 200 IU/kg vitamin E (VE), 0.3 ppm Se (Se), 2.5%CLA (CLA), 200 IU/kg vitamin E+0.3 ppm Se (VE+Se), 200 IU/kg vitamin E+2.5%CLA (VE+CLA), 2.5%CLA+0.3ppm Se (Se+CLA), or 200 IU/kg vitamin E+0.3ppm Se+2.5%CLA (VE+Se+CLA). At 15 week breast meat was sampled and irradiated.;Irradiation increased (p < 0.05) lipid oxidation and Hunter color a* value. Dietary Vitamin E, Se, CLA alone and their combinations decreased (p < 0.05) lipid oxidation in meat caused by both irradiation and storage. Production of off-odor in turkey breast meat caused by storage and ionizing irradiation was reduced by treatment VE+Se, VE+CLA, and VE+Se+CLA.;Treatment VE+Se, VE+CLA, Se+CLA, and VE+Se+CLA reduced lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated turkey breast meat samples by 24%, 29%, 26%, and 40%, respectively after 7 days of storage under aerobic conditions. Dietary vitamin E and Se decreased the internal color a* value of vacuum packaged irradiated meats at day 0 and 7. Treatments VE+Se, VE+CLA, and VE+Se+CLA reduced the difference in sulfur-containing compounds between irradiated and non-irradiated meat, aerobic packaging was more effective in reducing sulfur-containing compounds in irradiated meat than vacuum packaging. Therefore, dietary treatments plus packaging methods are effective in reducing the quality defects induced by irradiation.;Raw and cooked samples from 32 treatments, 8 dietary treatments *2 irradiation doses* 2 package (aerobic and vacuum), were tested by eight trained panelists for turkey aroma and irradiation off-aroma. Irradiation off-aroma in turkey breast was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) by treatments containing vitamin E. Meat samples from four dietary treatments containing CLA had higher turkey aroma scores while two treatments containing vitamin E (VE and VE+Se) had lower scores.;Consumer acceptance tests on five selected treatments showed that consumers disliked the aroma of irradiated raw meat. Consumer preferred the appearance of cooked irradiated meat to non-irradiated meat.


Living Digestibility Of Alfalfa And Barley In Llamas (Lama Glama) In The Agricultural Experimental Center Condoriri, Adelaida Alarcon Chuquichambi Jan 2005

Living Digestibility Of Alfalfa And Barley In Llamas (Lama Glama) In The Agricultural Experimental Center Condoriri, Adelaida Alarcon Chuquichambi

Theses and Dissertations

The following investigation was carried out in the Agricultural Experimental Center Condoriri (CEAC), dependent on the Faculty of Agricultural Livestock Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, located to the North of the Province border of the Department of Oruro, a distance of 12 km from the town of Caracollo and 49 km from the city of Oruro. The production of llamas and alpacas in our country is an activity of ecological, social, and especially ecological importance for Andean inhabitants. In nutrition, the fundamental factor is the power of absorption; this is because the yield of animal production depends on the quantity and ...


Irradiation Processing Of Ready-To-Eat Meats, Wigberto Núñez Maisonet Jan 2005

Irradiation Processing Of Ready-To-Eat Meats, Wigberto Núñez Maisonet

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Commercially available ham and pork frankfurters were irradiated at 1.6 kGy and evaluated for color, lipid oxidation, odor, flavor and the production of volatiles over 8 weeks of storage. Corned beef, roast beef, beef frankfurters, chicken roll, chicken frankfurters, turkey roll, cured turkey roll and turkey frankfurters were manufactured at the Iowa State Meat Laboratory and irradiated at 1.6 kGy. These products were evaluated for color, odor, flavor, and volatile compounds. Hams were manufactured at the Iowa State Meat Laboratory to achieve three different pHs in the finished products. The hams were treated with 0.0 kGy, 1 ...