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A Study Of The Interactions Between Milk Proteins And Soy Proteins, Venkatachalam Narayanaswamy May 1997

A Study Of The Interactions Between Milk Proteins And Soy Proteins, Venkatachalam Narayanaswamy

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research investigates the protein interactions that occur when soy protein is added to milk and subjected to renneting or heating. Milk was fortified with 20% soy protein and enzymic coagulation studied at 35°C at various pH's and CaCl2 levels. The first part deals with the interaction between milk and soy proteins during rennet-induced milk coagulation. The first goal was to determine how soy proteins affected milk coagulation. The effects of native versus heat-denatured soy proteins on rennet coagulation time and curd firmness were compared. lmmunogold labeling along with transmission electron microscopy was used to identify and ...


Isolation And Biochemical Characterization Of Acid- And Bile- Tolerant Strains Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus And Bifidobacterium Bifidum, Lan-Szu Chou May 1997

Isolation And Biochemical Characterization Of Acid- And Bile- Tolerant Strains Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus And Bifidobacterium Bifidum, Lan-Szu Chou

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to be used as a health adjunct in food for u many years. However, these health benefits have not been proven. and how these bacteria pass through the digestion process and remain viable in the human intestinal tract is still not clear. The aim of this work was to isolate mutants from Lactobacillus acidophilus or Bifidobacterium bifidum that could tolerate the conditions of the digestion process (low pH and bile conduction) and to characterize these isolated mutants.

Acid- and bile-tolerant mutants of L. acidophilus were isolated from parental strains successfully using natural selection techniques ...


Quantitation Of Bovine Serum Albumin In Cow's-Milk-Based Infant Formulas And Removal Of Bovine Serum Albumin From Cow's Milk And Whey Protein Isolates, Patricia Z. Marincic May 1997

Quantitation Of Bovine Serum Albumin In Cow's-Milk-Based Infant Formulas And Removal Of Bovine Serum Albumin From Cow's Milk And Whey Protein Isolates, Patricia Z. Marincic

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Early introduction of cow's-milk-based infant formulas, in particular the ABBOS epitope of bovine serum albumin (BSA), has been implicated as an autoimmune trigger in the pathogenesis of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). A direct enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), using polyclonal anti-BSA antibodies, was developed to determine the BSA content of cow's milk and 15 infant formulas. Powdered high-whey (60%) formulas averaged 41 mg BSA/100 ml; 2% milk contained 52 mg BSA/100 ml; and the high-casein formulas averaged 13 mg/100 ml. BSA content of powdered polymeric formulas and cow's milk varied directly with the whey ...


Effect Of Ph, Fat Level, And Various Browning Agents On Composition, Color, Texture, And Sensory Characteristics Of Dark-Cutting Beef Patties, Igor V. Moiseev May 1997

Effect Of Ph, Fat Level, And Various Browning Agents On Composition, Color, Texture, And Sensory Characteristics Of Dark-Cutting Beef Patties, Igor V. Moiseev

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Extra lean (3.3% fat) and lean (20.0% fat) hamburgers in three pH groups (≤ 6.0; 6.01-6.49; 6.50-6.92) were evaluated for cooking-temperature profile, total process lethality, and physical properties after cooking to 71°C by double-side frying on an electric grill. Neither cooking-temperature profile nor cooking time was affected by hamburger fat content or pH. Double-side frying to 71.1°C internal temperature was adequate for more than 6-log destruction of viable E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella at the geometrical center of extra lean and lean hamburgers. The coldest spot was on the circumferential ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of Potassium Loss As A Result Of Different Processing Methods, Patricia M. Klefbeck May 1997

A Quantitative Analysis Of Potassium Loss As A Result Of Different Processing Methods, Patricia M. Klefbeck

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Compliance with the strict dietary regimen for the dialysis patient can be very challenging. Many foods are limited from the diet of a renal patient because of the high potassium content. The physiological consequences of failure to follow a diet prescription can be fatal for the dialysis patient. In an effort to improve patient compliance with nutritional protocols, several potato cooking methods and centrifugation of tomato sauce were investigated for their effects in reducing potassium content.

All methods with a 24-hour soak were found to be significant in reducing potassium content of potatoes (P<0.05). However, some of the methods in which the potatoes were not soaked were also found to be effective in reducing potassium content. Slice thickness and volume of cooking water used were found to be two important factors in determining potassium loss. The 4-mm sliced potatoes, which had a mean potassium value of 84 mg/100 g, lost more potassium than the 8-mm ·sliced potatoes with a mean potassium value of 182 mg/100 g (P<0.05). Furthermore, the potatoes cooked in 10 times the amount of water lost more potassium (124 mg/100 g) than those cooked in only 5 times the amount of water (148 mg/100 g) (P<0.05). Soaking in cold versus hot water, agitation of the soak water, or the addition of chemical chelators to the soak water were not shown to be any more effective in reducing the potassium content than the other methods. Sensory data indicated that participants did not have a strong taste preference for potatoes cooked by any one particular method (P<0.05).

Centrifugation of tomato ...


The National School Lunch Program, Katherine M. Hadley May 1997

The National School Lunch Program, Katherine M. Hadley

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

In 1946, President Harry Truman signed the National School Lunch Act which recently celebrated its 50th anniversary (1). It was established by congress "to safeguard the health and well-being of the nation's children" (2). The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is a federally assisted meal program that is functioning in more than 94,000 public and nonprofit private schools. Lunches through the NSLP are served to more than 25 million school children each day.


Evaluation Of Methods Used In Meat Iron Analyses And Iron Content Of Raw, Cooked, And Cured Meats, Eldred Merlyn Clark May 1997

Evaluation Of Methods Used In Meat Iron Analyses And Iron Content Of Raw, Cooked, And Cured Meats, Eldred Merlyn Clark

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research project was divided into three parts. In the first part, heme, nonheme, and total iron methodologies for meats were evaluated. The accuracy, precision, and specificity of each method were determined by spike recoveries of heme and nonheme iron, and by analysis of National Institute of Science and Technology standard reference materials. The most reliable and practical methods were then used to determine the total, nonheme, and heme iron contents of various meats before and after cooking. The meats analyzed were beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and turkey. The wet-ashing technique was a novel procedure in which nitric acid was ...


The Role Of Domain E In The Activity Of Bacillus Macerans Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase , Hai-Yin Chang Jan 1997

The Role Of Domain E In The Activity Of Bacillus Macerans Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase , Hai-Yin Chang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGT) folds into five domains A, B, C, D and E. Domain E has the ability to bind starch and cyclodextrins (CDs) and is considered the starch-binding domain of CGT. The role of domain E in the catalysis of Bacillus macerans cyclodextrin glucanotransferase was investigated by constructing five CGT mutants. The truncated CGT (CGT[delta]E) mutant was constructed by deleting domain E, and the chimeric CGT (CGT-SBD) by replacing domain E with the starch-binding domain (SBD) of Aspergillus glucoamylase I. The modified CGT (CGT+6) was constructed by inserting a six-amino-acid pseudo linker between domains D and ...


Influence Of Solvent Extraction, Maturity Stage, And Thermal Treatment On The Determination Of Capsaicin In Capsicums (Capsicum Annuum Spp.) And Their Products , Alfonso Rafael Rocha-Herrera Jan 1997

Influence Of Solvent Extraction, Maturity Stage, And Thermal Treatment On The Determination Of Capsaicin In Capsicums (Capsicum Annuum Spp.) And Their Products , Alfonso Rafael Rocha-Herrera

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The rapid increase and consumption of ethnic foods has motivated the search for improved methods to evaluate the quality and pungent characteristics of capsicum products. In addition, little information is available about pungency changes during the ripening stage of capsicums, as well as changes during their heating. Accordingly, the objectives were: (a) to evaluate different organic solvents on the extraction efficiency of capsaicinoids in hot salsas; (b) to evaluate the composition, aroma, and pungency in commercial serrano peppers (Capsicum annuum) at three maturity stages: green, yellow, and red; and (c) to evaluate the thermal degradation of capsaicin in different matrixes ...


Development Of A Biofilm Bioreactor For Enhanced Propionic And Acetic Acid Production , Ferhan Ozadali Jan 1997

Development Of A Biofilm Bioreactor For Enhanced Propionic And Acetic Acid Production , Ferhan Ozadali

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Ten support materials including plastic-composite supports and six strains of propionibacteria were tested for their possible use in biofilm systems for enhanced production of propionic and acetic acid by fermentation. From screening experiments Propionibacterium thoenii strain P20 and fire bricks were chosen for further investigations;Propionibacterium thoenii P20 resists low-pH conditions, produces acid rapidly, forms luxuriant biofilms, and resists solvent inhibition better than other strains. Fire bricks are inexpensive, reusable, and compare favorably to commercial supports in ease of use and structural stability. A modified ilifesaveri shape for the individual fire brick particles was found to provide increased available surface ...


The Physical, Chemical And Sensory Properties Of Soymilk, Tofu And Doughnut Made From Specialty Full-Fat Soy Flours, Yuen-Ching Low Jan 1997

The Physical, Chemical And Sensory Properties Of Soymilk, Tofu And Doughnut Made From Specialty Full-Fat Soy Flours, Yuen-Ching Low

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Several specialty soy flours were used to make soymilk, tofu and doughnuts. Low lipoxygenase and low stachyose (LPLS)-, low lipoxygenase- and regular soy flours yielded 10-30% more soymilk and produced 50% less waste (okara) than soy chips, soy flakes, and soybeans, using the Takai Automated Soymilk and Tofu System (steam injection cooking). Use of soy flour reduced the soymilk processing time while producing good quality soymilk with 83.6-86.8% and 84.3-86.1 % solids and protein recoveries, respectively. Soymilk made from soy flours, chips and flakes had significantly less fat (0.54-1.04%) than soymilk made from the whole ...


Genetic Studies Of Agastache , Roger Guillermo Fuentes-Granados Jan 1997

Genetic Studies Of Agastache , Roger Guillermo Fuentes-Granados

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Agastache is a genus of perennial plants in the mint family primarily native to North America. This genus produces aromatic oils that are used in foods, drugs, and perfumes. Agastache has also been reported to be a valuable source of nectar for honey bee forage. The genus has gained importance in America, Asia, and Europe as a component of tea mixtures and as a flavoring in confections. Because of the increasing popularity of this genus and our limited base of knowledge about it, this dissertation project was conducted to address questions of how aromatic compounds and isozymes are inherited in ...


Protein Engineering Of The Ph Dependence And Substrate Specificity Of Glucoamylase From Aspergillus Awamori , Tsuei-Yun Fang Jan 1997

Protein Engineering Of The Ph Dependence And Substrate Specificity Of Glucoamylase From Aspergillus Awamori , Tsuei-Yun Fang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.3) (GA), an enzyme that catalyzes the release of [beta]-D-glucose from the nonreducing ends of starch and related oligo- and polysaccharides, is widely used in industry to produce high-glucose syrups. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to construct mutations to obtain mutant enzymes with industrially desired alterations in pH dependence and substrate specificity;An increased pH optimum for GA would be industrially desirable so that it could be used in process conditions more similar to that of other enzymatic steps in starch processing. Five mutations were designed to remove or weaken the hydrogen bond between Ser411 ...


Production, Purification, 14c Labeling, And Bioavailability Of Fumonisin B1 Produced By Fusarium Proliferatum Strain M-5991 , William Raymond Dantzer Jan 1997

Production, Purification, 14c Labeling, And Bioavailability Of Fumonisin B1 Produced By Fusarium Proliferatum Strain M-5991 , William Raymond Dantzer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The production of FB1 by Fusarium proliferatum M-5991 was enhanced from 300 to 1400 [mu]moles/L by the addition of 0.75% corn hull extract (CHE) to modified Myro liquid medium (LM). Three continuous batch fermentations of F. proliferatum M-5991 in 10, 12, and 12 L modified Myro LM produced 28 mmoles of FB1 which were purified to >95% by a combination of XAD-16, C8, DEAE-Sepharose, and C18 chromatography. At day 12 of culture, (14C) -acetate was incorporated into 29 [mu]moles of FB1 in 50 ml modified Myro LM containing F. proliferatum which produced, after purification, 24 [mu ...


Sensitivity And Survival Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Isolates After X-Ray And Electron Beam Irradiation In Raw Ground Meat, Adelle Denise Chan Jan 1997

Sensitivity And Survival Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Isolates After X-Ray And Electron Beam Irradiation In Raw Ground Meat, Adelle Denise Chan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Nutritional Characteristics Of Hydrothermally Cooked Soymilk , Makuba Aime Lihono Jan 1997

Nutritional Characteristics Of Hydrothermally Cooked Soymilk , Makuba Aime Lihono

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Hydrothermally cooked (HTC) soymilk (cooked at 154°C for 20-40 seconds) was reported to have more desirable physico-chemical properties than soymilk prepared in the conventional manner (100°C for 60 minutes) and to present acceptable decreases in activities of antinutritional factors;HTC and conventionally processed soymilks were compared with respect to protein efficiency ratio (PER) and zinc bioavailability in Sprague-Dawley rats fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets. When dietary zinc was 50 mg/kg, PER (mean ± SD, n = 12) was greater for HTC (processed for 20 sec) (2.69 ± 0.34) than for conventional soymilk (2.39 ± 0.17). When dietary zinc ...


Genetic And Biochemical Analysis Of Aspergillus Awamori Glucoamylase Thermostability , Martin John Allen Jan 1997

Genetic And Biochemical Analysis Of Aspergillus Awamori Glucoamylase Thermostability , Martin John Allen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Aspergillus awamori glucoamylase (GA) is an enzyme involved in industrial corn starch processing. Genetic and biochemical approaches were used to study the mechanisms governing GA thermostability. Three proline substitution (Xaa → Pro) mutations were constructed that were predicted to increase the enzyme's stability by decreasing its conformational entropy of unfolding. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ser30 → Pro increased, Asp345 → Pro did not alter and Glu408 → Pro greatly decreased GA stability as measured by resistance to irreversible thermoinactivation relative to the wild-type enzyme. The Ser30 → Pro mutation was combined with other previously identified stabilizing mutations to examine whether combining such mutations ...


The Use Of Real-Time Ultrasound And Live Animal Measurements To Predict Carcass Composition In Beef Cattle , Scott Patrick Greiner Jan 1997

The Use Of Real-Time Ultrasound And Live Animal Measurements To Predict Carcass Composition In Beef Cattle , Scott Patrick Greiner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Five hundred thirty-four steers representing 6 sire breed groups were evaluated in 1994 (n = 282) and 1995 (n = 252) to determine the efficacy of using real-time ultrasound and other live animal measures to predict beef carcass composition. Within 5 days prior to slaughter, steers were ultrasonically measured for 12-13th rib fat (UFAT), longissimus muscle area (UREA), rump fat thickness (URPFAT), and body wall thickness (UBDWALL). Carcasses were fabricated to determine boneless, totally trimmed retail product weight (KGRPRD) and percentage (PRPRD). Correlation coefficients between UFAT and UREA with carcass 12-13th rib fat (CFAT) and carcass longissimus muscle area (CREA) were.89 ...


Antibiotic Resistance Of Salmonella In Swine, Heidi Lea Holcomb Jan 1997

Antibiotic Resistance Of Salmonella In Swine, Heidi Lea Holcomb

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Soybean Quality Loss During Constant Storage Conditions , Ibni Hajar Rukunudin Jan 1997

Soybean Quality Loss During Constant Storage Conditions , Ibni Hajar Rukunudin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A modified method for determining free fatty acid (FFA) in crude and refined soybean oils from 0.3 to 6.0 g oil sample size was developed. Good correlation between the modified and official methods was established for crude and refined soybean oils with R2 of 0.9995 and 0.997, respectively. The slopes were 1.01 and 0.99 for the crude and refined oil, respectively.;The number of days soybean lost 0.5 and 1.0% dry matter, for low and high harvest moisture content (MC) soybeans both mechanically and manually harvested, were determined. Soybeans manually harvested at ...


Survival And Growth Characteristics Of Bacteria In Irradiated Meat , Raveendran Jolarpettai Venugopal Jan 1997

Survival And Growth Characteristics Of Bacteria In Irradiated Meat , Raveendran Jolarpettai Venugopal

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Several key factors we investigated in order to improve the safety of foods and to better understand the survival of microorganisms when exposed to stress. Pork patties were irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2KGy, and stored at 0°C. The shelf life of these irradiated pork patties (aerobically packaged and vacuum packaged; fresh and temperature abused) were studied and predictive models were developed based on generation time and lag phase extension. Next, the physiological response of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 to media composition and pH was investigated by studying the changes in the cell membrane fatty acids, cell ...