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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Factors Influencing The Oxidation Of Lipoproteins And Plasma Lipids, Yanshan Ma Dec 1994

Factors Influencing The Oxidation Of Lipoproteins And Plasma Lipids, Yanshan Ma

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The hypothesis that antioxidant vitamins (ascorbate and tocopherols) along with urate protect blood plasma lipids from oxidation was tested. Dietary fat is also an important factor influencing plasma lipid peroxidation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of plasma antioxidants and dietary fat on low density lipoprotein (LDL) and plasma lipid oxidation. In the first part of this study, we compared the ability of urate and ascorbate to protect human LDL from in vitro oxidation. LDL oxidation was initiated by 15 mM of a water soluble azo-initiator in the presence or absence of ascorbate or urate. The ...


Fate Of Β-Lactoglobulin, Α-Lactalbumin, And Casein Proteins In Ultrafiltered Concentrated Milk After Ultra-High Temperature Processing, Mark Christopher Alleyne May 1994

Fate Of Β-Lactoglobulin, Α-Lactalbumin, And Casein Proteins In Ultrafiltered Concentrated Milk After Ultra-High Temperature Processing, Mark Christopher Alleyne

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The problem of age gelation in ultra-high temperature (U1IT) sterilized milk retentate (ultrafiltered 3x concentrated) is investigated in this work. Transmission electron microscopy (1EM), utilizing the microcube encapsulation technique and protocols for immunolocalization of milk proteins, provides insight into the phenomenon of age gelation ofUHT-sterilized, ultrafiltered (UF) milk retentate. Primary antibodies (specific for the native as well as the complexed forms of milk proteins) and secondary antibodies (conjugated to gold probes) are used to elucidate the positions of the milk proteins in various samples of milk from the stage of milking through UHT sterilization and storage for 12 months, by ...


Influence Of Ultra-High Temperature Process Parameters On Age Gelation Of Mille Concentrate, Mohamed A. Elhilaly May 1994

Influence Of Ultra-High Temperature Process Parameters On Age Gelation Of Mille Concentrate, Mohamed A. Elhilaly

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of ultra-high temperature process parameters on age gelation of milk concentrate. Skim milk was concentrated to 2X (volume reduction) using reverse osmosis. The milk concentrate was preheated at 75 or 90°C for 20 or 50 s and UHT-processed at 138 or 145°C for 4 or 16 s. Sterilizing methods used were direct steam injection and indirect plate heat exchanger. The samples were aseptically collected in presterilized plastic containers and stored at 15 or 35°C. At 15°C storage temperature, the steam-injected samples gelled in 5 months when ...


Manufacture Of A Dairy Dessert From Ultra-High Temperature Milk Concentrate, Mark H. Smith May 1994

Manufacture Of A Dairy Dessert From Ultra-High Temperature Milk Concentrate, Mark H. Smith

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this project was to initiate development of a nonrefrigerated dairy dessert product. Milk was concentrated by pressure-driven filtration and then sterilized using ultra-high temperature (UHT) processing. Following sterilization, samples were aseptically inoculated with rennet to coagulate the milk, which was then stored at room temperature. These processing steps produced a dairy dessert that did not require refrigeration. I investigated the influence of total solids, milk fat, rennet dosage, storage temperature, and storage time on curd firmness and syneresis. I investigated the effect on curd firmness and syneresis of giving the concentrate a heat treatment prior to UHT ...


The Contribution Of Meats To Energy And Essential Nutrient Intakes Of Women In The United States, C. Dian Martin May 1994

The Contribution Of Meats To Energy And Essential Nutrient Intakes Of Women In The United States, C. Dian Martin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study used the 1987-88 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey to investigate the contribution meat products make to intakes of nutrients at risk of inadequate or excessive consumption by women. The study is unique in that meat nutrients were extracted from mixed dishes, providing a more accurate picture of consumption. Cluster analysis was used to classify nonpregnant, nonlactating women 19 years and older based on their consumption patterns of total meat and individual meats (beef, poultry, processed meats, pork and seafoods) as percent of caloric intake.

Total fat and SFA intakes exceeded National Research Council (NRC) goals regardless of meat ...


A Response Surface Study Of Extruded Corn Starch/Skim Milk Powder Blends, Sachin Singh May 1994

A Response Surface Study Of Extruded Corn Starch/Skim Milk Powder Blends, Sachin Singh

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Skim milk was ultrafiltered to three lactose/protein ratios and spray dried. The skim milk powder was extruded with pearled corn starch at different moisture contents, protein contents, lactose/protein ratios, and feed rates (control variables). Response surface methodology and a central composite in cube experimental design were used. This design required 30 experimental runs with 16 factorial points, 8 axial points, and 6 center points for replication. The physical and functional properties evaluated were expansion ratio, product temperature, bulk density, color, shear stress, viscosity, and water absorption index (response variables). Scanning electron microscopy was done to evaluate the microstructural ...


Consumption Of Iron-Fortified Cheese And Lipid Peroxidation In Females, Gene J. Giunti May 1994

Consumption Of Iron-Fortified Cheese And Lipid Peroxidation In Females, Gene J. Giunti

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Dairy products are important sources of calcium and other nutrients but are a poor source of dietary iron. Cheese comprises a substantial portion of dairy food consumption and has been determined an appropriate medium for iron-fortification. However, iron may promote the potentially harmful process in food and biological systems known as lipid peroxidation. Therefore, the safety of consuming iron-fortified cheese was examined.

Commercial-scale batches of Cheddar cheese were iron-fortified to a level of two milligrams of iron per ounce with either ferric chloride, ferric-casein complex, or ferric-whey protein complex. Fifty-four premenopausal females were divided into three treatment groups and supplemented ...


Effects Of Soluble Calcium-To-Protein Ratio On Age Gelation Of Ultra, Je Hong Ryue May 1994

Effects Of Soluble Calcium-To-Protein Ratio On Age Gelation Of Ultra, Je Hong Ryue

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF) retentates were ultra-high temperature (UHT) processed and compared for storage life at room temperature. Viscosity studies indicated that UHT-treated, RO retentate delayed age gelation longer than UF retentate at the same total solids level (26% TS). When compared at 6.4% protein level (2x RO vs 2.7x UF where x=ratio of the feed volume to concentrate volume), the storage life for both RO and UF retentates was about 6 to 8 months.

Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) and disodium phosphate (DSP) at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 mM concentrations were incorporated prior to ...


Effects Of Whey Protein Concentrate, Phosphate, And Sodium Hydroxide On Texture And Acceptability Of Turkey And Beef Rolls, Igor V. Moiseev May 1994

Effects Of Whey Protein Concentrate, Phosphate, And Sodium Hydroxide On Texture And Acceptability Of Turkey And Beef Rolls, Igor V. Moiseev

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Processed turkey rolls were prepared with 1 or 3% whey protein concentrates WPC-50 (pH=5.80), WPC-60 (pH=4.53) and WPC-75 (pH=6.85} containing 50, 60 and 75% protein along with controls (phosphate and no phosphate). Control rolls made with 0.5% phosphate had the highest bind strength, and sensory evaluation scores. Only WPC-75 (1%) was acceptable as a binding agent and flavor enhancer. WPC-60 reduced pink discoloration of rolls, but flavor, bind and cohesiveness scores were unacceptably low. WPC-50 was not an effective binding agent. In general, rolls made with 3% WPC had lower scores for intensity ...


Effects Of Nonfat Dry Milk, Whey Protein Concentrate And Calcium Caseinate On Color And Texture Of Turkey Rolls, Brent Neeley Dobson May 1994

Effects Of Nonfat Dry Milk, Whey Protein Concentrate And Calcium Caseinate On Color And Texture Of Turkey Rolls, Brent Neeley Dobson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of milk solids on restructured and emulsified turkey rolls. the milk solids used were nonfat dry milk (NFDM), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and calcium caseinate (CC). Turkey rolls consisted of 100% breast meat or 90:10 or 70:30 breast-to-thigh, salt (1%), water (10%), internal or cluster fat (10%), and 3% of various milk solids (WPC, NFDM, CC).

The objectives of these studies were to 1) determine which ratio between light and dark meat is preferred; 2) determine which of milk solids evaluated will permit the highest level of dark meat incorporation ...


Microstructural Changes In Casein Micelles During Acidification Of Skim Milk, Hongwen Du May 1994

Microstructural Changes In Casein Micelles During Acidification Of Skim Milk, Hongwen Du

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Pasteurized skim milk was acidified using glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) at 10, 20, 30, and 40°C or with 1.2% freeze-dried yogurt starter culture at 40°C. Milk coagulation was followed by measuring turbidity, curd firmness, particle size, and casein micelle microstructural changes using transmission electron microscopy .

The pH of milk was gradually lowered during acidification with GDL or starter culture. Acidification rate showed greater influence on turbidity change at 10°C than at 20, 30, or 40°C.

Average casein micelle size increased with decreasing temperature. The patterns of average micelle size versus pH were not affected by temperature. No ...


Development Of A Biofilm Bioreactor For Enhanced Ethanol Production , Mahipal Reddy Kunduru Jan 1994

Development Of A Biofilm Bioreactor For Enhanced Ethanol Production , Mahipal Reddy Kunduru

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Biofilms are a natural form of cell immobilization that result from microbial attachment to solid supports. Plastic-composite supports were prepared by high temperature extrusion of polypropylene and up to 25% (w/w) various agricultural materials and micronutrients into 2-3 mm chips. Pure cultures of the ethanol producers Zymomonas mobilis (ATCC 31821) or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC 24859), and mixed cultures with either ethanol-producing microorganism and the biofilm forming Streptomyces viridosporus T7A (ATCC 39115) were used. A maximum ethanol productivity of 374 g/l/h with 44% yield was obtained using soybean hull-zein-plastic composite supports with Z. mobilis and a 10% glucose ...


Application Of Differential Scanning Calorimetry For Identifying Novel Starch Types In Maize , Mark Robert Campbell Jan 1994

Application Of Differential Scanning Calorimetry For Identifying Novel Starch Types In Maize , Mark Robert Campbell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to identify genotypic and environmental effects on maize starch properties. Significant (P ≤ 0.01) differences were observed among three genotypes (OH43, A632 and OH43xA632) for gelatinization onset (T[subscript] o), peak (T[subscript] p), and enthalpy ([delta]H). Later planting dates for these genotypes also resulted in greater values for T[subscript] p, [delta]H and range. Upon examination of 25 maize inbreds grown in two years, significant (P ≤ 0.01) difference were seen for all DSC values. A significant inbred x year effect was observed for all DSC values with the exception of ...


Effects Of Irradiation On Selected Pathogens In Meat And Meat Products , An-Hung Fu Jan 1994

Effects Of Irradiation On Selected Pathogens In Meat And Meat Products , An-Hung Fu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The ability of low and medium dose irradiation to reduce foodborne hazards in meat and meat products was investigated;Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium were inoculated on cooked pork chops (pumped with salt/polyphosphate brine or untreated) and cured ham. Low (0.75-0.90 kGy) or medium doses (1.8-2.0 kGy) of irradiation, each dose delivered at either a low (8.2 ft/sec) or high (17.9 ft/sec) dose-rate were applied. The meat products were processed, then stored at 7°C for 7 days, followed by 2 days at 25°C. Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Escherichia ...


Carrageenans In Meat Systems , Zoraida Defreitas Jan 1994

Carrageenans In Meat Systems , Zoraida Defreitas

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Meat model systems were used to evaluate the interactions between meat proteins and carrageenans and the nature of the forces involved in such as interactions. Experiments conducted with salt-soluble meat proteins (SSMP) and carrageenan (CGN) mixtures indicated that the force needed to compress muscle protein and CGN gels varied with the type of CGN used. Addition of [kappa]- and \iota-CGN increased the gel strength of SSMP gels, however, this effect was significantly greater when [kappa]-CGN was used. The force needed to compress [kappa]-CGN and SSMP gels independently did not add up to the total force required to compress ...


Recovery And Purification Of Lactic Acid From Fermentation Broth By Adsorption , Roque Lagman Evangelista Jan 1994

Recovery And Purification Of Lactic Acid From Fermentation Broth By Adsorption , Roque Lagman Evangelista

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Weak- (Reillex 425 and Riedel-de-Haen VI-15), moderate- (Dowex MWA-1, Dowex WGR-2, Dowex XUS-40283, and Dowex XUS-43432), and strong- (Dowex XUS 40196 and Amberlite IRA-958) base resins were evaluated for their sorption capacities of lactic acid from solutions with different pHs. Composite isotherms and fixed-bed sorption indicated that the sorption capacities of weak- and moderate-base resins decreased markedly as the pH of the feed exceeded the pK a of lactic acid. The decrease in capacity was mainly due to the decrease in concentration of undissociated lactic acid as the pH of the feed increases. The strong-base sorbents exhibited significantly higher sorption ...


Functional And Cake-Baking Properties Of Egg White, Bovine Blood Plasma And Their Protein Fractions , Maide Özbay Raeker Jan 1994

Functional And Cake-Baking Properties Of Egg White, Bovine Blood Plasma And Their Protein Fractions , Maide Özbay Raeker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Heat denaturation, foaming, emulsification, and cake-baking properties of egg white, blood plasma, and their protein components were characterized and compared. Prior to evaluating the baking properties of small quantities of all these proteins, a micro method for cake-baking was developed using a high-ratio white layer cake formulation. All blood plasma proteins denatured at lower temperatures than ovalbumin and globulins of egg white. Denaturation temperature of ovalbumin, the major protein of egg white, was about 9°C higher than that of albumin which is the predominant protein in blood plasma. Fibrinogen was the most heat sensitive, and [gamma]-globulins were the ...


The Effects Of Calcium Chloride, Sodium Chloride, And Tripolyphosphate Injections On The Tenderness, Water Holding Capacity And Microscopic Structure Of Beef Muscle , Dirk Douglas Beekman Jan 1994

The Effects Of Calcium Chloride, Sodium Chloride, And Tripolyphosphate Injections On The Tenderness, Water Holding Capacity And Microscopic Structure Of Beef Muscle , Dirk Douglas Beekman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Bovine longissimus muscle was excised from the right side of five market steers at 24 hours postmortem, and cut into 24, 1.9 cm strip loin steaks. These were randomized and placed into one of four treatment groups injected to a 10% weight basis at a final concentration with: (1) water, (2) sodium chloride/tripolyphosphate (0.75%/0.35%), (3) calcium chloride (0.15%), (4) sodium chloride/tripolyphosphate /calcium chloride (0.75%/0.35%/0.15%). Each of the four groups was post-mortem aged at 2°C for three, six, or thirteen days post-mortem. Sensory evaluation, Warner-Bratzler shear, water holding ...


Colonial Virginia's Cooking Dynasty: Women's Spheres And Culinary Arts, Katharine E. Harbury Jan 1994

Colonial Virginia's Cooking Dynasty: Women's Spheres And Culinary Arts, Katharine E. Harbury

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.