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Compliance To Dietary Guidelines In Elementary School Food Service, Martha Anne Henry Aug 1991

Compliance To Dietary Guidelines In Elementary School Food Service, Martha Anne Henry

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine compliance to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and to Recommend Dietary Allowances in Tennessee elementary school lunch programs and to determine training practices as they are related to nutrition. Fifty six of the 145 school food service supervisors in Tennessee participated in the study, a response rate 39%.

A four-part questionnaire was developed for all school food service supervisors in the state of Tennessee. The first three parts of the questionnaire consisted of items about types of food products used in cooking, the school food service supervisors' participation in training, and demographic ...


Meat Effects On Nonheme Iron Absorption, Yunji Kim May 1991

Meat Effects On Nonheme Iron Absorption, Yunji Kim

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Studies were undertaken to investigate if gastric acidity and iron chelation to a meat component enhance nonheme iron absorption. Cereal meals, with and without added proteins, were gavaged into iron-deficient rats. The role of iron chelation was investigated by adding sodium phytate, an iron chelator implicated with decreased iron absorption, to the meals. The role of gastric acidity was investigated by treating the rats with cimetidine, which inhibits gastric acid production. In rats with normal acid production, beef, pork and chicken enhanced iron absorption when phytate had been added to the meals, suggesting a role for chelation in meat enhancement ...


Effects Of Heat Treatment Of Ultrafiltered Milk On Its Rennet Coagulation Time And On Whey Protein Denaturation, Bashir H. Yousif May 1991

Effects Of Heat Treatment Of Ultrafiltered Milk On Its Rennet Coagulation Time And On Whey Protein Denaturation, Bashir H. Yousif

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of heating (including heating to ultra-high temperatures) homogenized ultrafiltered whole and skim milks on whey protein denaturation and milk's subsequent rennet coagulation properties: coagulation time, curd firmness, and microstructure.

Whole and skim milk samples were ultrafiltered using a spiral wound ultrafiltration membrane system. Samples were preheated to 72°C for 58 s, held for 8 s then heated to 72, 89, 106, 123, or 140°C for more than 97 sand held for 4 s. The milk was then cooled to 60°C and homogenized, further cooled to 30 ...


Determining The Validity Of Methods Used In Meat Iron Analysis, Padmashri Ummadi May 1991

Determining The Validity Of Methods Used In Meat Iron Analysis, Padmashri Ummadi

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The validity of the Homsey method for heme iron, modified Schricker and sodium pyrophosphate extraction methods for nonheme iron and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and ferrozine methods for total iron were determined using spikes of hemoglobin, ground beef baked to different degrees of doneness, proportional beef liver:catfish mixtures and National Institute of Science and Technology reference materials.

The mean spike recoveries of 0.0lg and 0.02g Hb in raw beef and raw chicken samples were 96.7% of the heme iron for the Homsey method, 97.9% of the total iron for the ferrozine method, and 85.7 ...


Survival Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus And Bifidobacteria Bifidum In Ice Cream For Use As A Probiotic Food, Sharareh Hekmat May 1991

Survival Of Lactobacillus Acidophilus And Bifidobacteria Bifidum In Ice Cream For Use As A Probiotic Food, Sharareh Hekmat

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ice cream mix (12% fat, 11% milk solids nonfat, 12.5% sugar, and 4.5% corn syrup solids) was fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Half of the mix was heat treated at 82°C for 30 minutes and cooled to 40-41°C. The other half was warmed to 40-41°C and inoculated with the starter cultures. Both were made into ice cream and stored at -29°C. Survival of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum and of β-galactosidase activity were monitored during 17 weeks of frozen storage. Reinforced clostridial medium was used to enumerate culture bacteria. Colony counts, after ...


Factors Affecting Moisture Distribution In 290-Kilogram Stirred-Curd Cheddar Cheese Blocks, Robert S. Reinbold May 1991

Factors Affecting Moisture Distribution In 290-Kilogram Stirred-Curd Cheddar Cheese Blocks, Robert S. Reinbold

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to study factors affecting moisture distribution in 290-kilogram stirred-curd Cheddar cheese blocks cooled in stainless steel hoops. Uneven moisture distribution within blocks may create cheese with variable texture and flavor, which can be extremely costly to the producer. The effects of temperature, pH, and vacuum treatment on moisture distribution were investigated. Temperature, pH, moisture, and pressure profiles were presented. Also, comparisons were made between temperature profiles of 290- kilogram stirred-curd Cheddar cheese blocks cooled in stainless steel and in plywood hoops, as well as between temperature profiles of 66-kilogram Swiss cheese blocks cooled in ...


Rapid Determination Of Milk Components And Detection Of Adulteration Using Fourier Transform Infrared Technology, Ivan Von Mendenhall May 1991

Rapid Determination Of Milk Components And Detection Of Adulteration Using Fourier Transform Infrared Technology, Ivan Von Mendenhall

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Absorption bands responding to changes in fat, protein, and lactose concentrations in milk were determined. The effects of milk fat variation and lipolysis on the infrared spectrum were studied.

Absorbances from 1283 to 1100 cm-1 correlated with fat, protein, and lactose concentration and showed a low response to milk fat variation and lipolysis. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an attenuated total internal reflectance cell was calibrated using these absorption band s, partial least squares statistics, and milk samples from herds in Minnesota. When the fat, protein, and lactose concentrations in these samples were predicted, the standard deviations ...


An Automated Reflectance Color Meter Instrument For Microbiological And Enzymic Assays, Tsz-Ching Yuan May 1991

An Automated Reflectance Color Meter Instrument For Microbiological And Enzymic Assays, Tsz-Ching Yuan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The development of an automated instrument employing reflectance colorimetry was described. Several models were designed, assembled, and programmed to perform microbial and enzymic tests automatically. Samples were prepared manually or automatically by a Zymate™ II robot. These samples were incubated during the tests to maintain an optimum temperature for reactions and microbial growth. During incubation, color changes of appropriate indicator dyes in the sample/reagent mixtures were measured intermittently, recorded, and compared to previously defined end points. The computer-controlled instrument received data that related time of color changes with the initial numbers of microorganisms or the enzyme activity of the ...


Influence Of Organizational Culture On Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Turnover, Absenteeism, And Productivity In Hospital Foodservice, Nancy M. Gilbert May 1991

Influence Of Organizational Culture On Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Turnover, Absenteeism, And Productivity In Hospital Foodservice, Nancy M. Gilbert

Masters Theses

The study was designed to determine the type of organizational culture (bureaucratic, innovative, or supportive), and to determine the relationships among organizational culture, affective outcomes (job satisfaction and organizational commitment), and behavioral outcomes (turnover, absenteeism, and productivity) in hospital foodservice operations in Canada and the United States. The sample included 436 foodservice employees from ten hospitals in eastern Canada and nine hospitals in East Tennessee. Two research instruments were used for data collection. The historical data instrument obtained information to calculate productivity, turnover, and absenteeism for each hospital. The four-part instrument for employees included a 24-item organizational culture index to ...


Development Of Financial Management Competencies For Entry-Level And Advanced-Level Dietetic Practice: A Survey Of Hospital Foodservice Directors/Chief Dietitians, Elisabeth M. Cochrane May 1991

Development Of Financial Management Competencies For Entry-Level And Advanced-Level Dietetic Practice: A Survey Of Hospital Foodservice Directors/Chief Dietitians, Elisabeth M. Cochrane

Masters Theses

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify competencies related to financial management for entry- and advanced-level dietitians practicing in the area of foodservice systems management. Specifically, this study:

1. Developed a comprehensive list of financial management competencies for entry- and advanced-level dietitians.

2. Determined the importance of financial management competencies for entry- and advanced-level dietetic practice as perceived by hospital foodservice directors/chief dietitians.

3. Identified underlying financial management factors for entry- and advanced-level dietitians.

4. Determined whether foodservice directors/chief dietitians who are Registered Dietitians (RDs) support specialty certification in foodservice management.


Studies Of Lipid Peroxidation In Microsomes Isolated From Beef And Pork Muscles: And, Bioluminescent Bacterial Mutagenesis Test For Fatty Acid Derivatives, Heated Oils, Mycotoxins And Heterocyclic Amines , Sheau-Cherng Sun Jan 1991

Studies Of Lipid Peroxidation In Microsomes Isolated From Beef And Pork Muscles: And, Bioluminescent Bacterial Mutagenesis Test For Fatty Acid Derivatives, Heated Oils, Mycotoxins And Heterocyclic Amines , Sheau-Cherng Sun

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The presence of an enzymatic lipid peroxidation system in microsomal fractions of beef or pork muscle has been demonstrated in this study. The enzymatic reaction required ADP, NADPH or NADH, and ferrous or ferric iron. When intact muscles or isolated microsomes were stored at -70°C for up to a month, the enzyme activity of the microsomes did not change. Metmyoglobin (MetMb) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide initiated microsomal lipid peroxidation, whereas no oxidation occurred in the presence of MetMb or hydrogen peroxide alone. With 10[mu]M to 50 [mu]M ferrous iron alone, there was significant stimulation ...


Developmental Changes Of Seven Common Cultivars Of Green Peas (Pisum Sativum) , Yu-Hee Kim Jan 1991

Developmental Changes Of Seven Common Cultivars Of Green Peas (Pisum Sativum) , Yu-Hee Kim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Biochemical changes occurring in developing green peas were studied in order to understand the textural and flavor changes. The activity of pectinmethylesterase (PME), a pectin modifying enzyme, was measured by the continuous spectrophotometric assay. Specific activity of PME decreased over all varieties and all sieve sizes as the seeds matured. Chelate soluble pectin contents were decreased or remained constant in all varieties. Decreased PME activity and pectin content indicated that the crosslinking of pectin and calcium might not play an important role in the firmness of green peas. The moisture level decreased as maturity increased, which was inversely related to ...


The Economics Of Food Safety: An Experimental Approach , Seung Youll Shin Jan 1991

The Economics Of Food Safety: An Experimental Approach , Seung Youll Shin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Food safety issues have received increased attention from scientific and consumer groups alike in recent years. Pathogenic microbiological agents have been shown to be a major contributor to food-borne illnesses in the United States. The presence and cost of these pathogens has become a major issue for policy makers, consumers, and producers;Estimated economic losses to society attributable to food-borne diseases have been large. These estimated losses usually have been based on direct consumer losses and likely represent an underestimation of the true economic costs. Morbidity costs, such as consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce their chance of becoming ...


Study Of Triacylglycerol Assembly By Apiotrichum Curvatum Atcc 20509 As A Model System , Inmok Lee Jan 1991

Study Of Triacylglycerol Assembly By Apiotrichum Curvatum Atcc 20509 As A Model System , Inmok Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The oleaginous yeast Apiotrichum curvatum ATCC 20509 was grown on various lipids as carbon sources. When commercial oils were used as substrates, the yeast triglyceride had a fatty acid profile similar to that of the substrate oil, but the glyceride structure was altered. The yeast did not utilize saturated free fatty acids with less than 14 carbons. An emulsion of palmitic acid was well utilized by the yeast, however stearic and arachidic acid emulsions gave very limited and no growth, respectively. Palmitic and stearic acids were extensively desaturated before being deposited in the yeast triglyceride. Oleic acid supported very good ...


Gender Differences In Choice Shifts: A Study Of Social Influence On Consumer Attitude Toward Food Irradiation, Li-Jun Zhao Jan 1991

Gender Differences In Choice Shifts: A Study Of Social Influence On Consumer Attitude Toward Food Irradiation, Li-Jun Zhao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of Meat Lipid Oxidation With Examination Of Polyphosphate Interaction , Michael Paul Wanous Jan 1991

Analysis Of Meat Lipid Oxidation With Examination Of Polyphosphate Interaction , Michael Paul Wanous

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The distillation 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test for meat lipid oxidation assessment was investigated in the presence of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) utilizing alternate wavelengths and TBA solvents;Malonaldialdehyde, hexanal and 2,4-hexadienal were reacted with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) using water or 90% glacial acetic acid, and monitored at 532nm, 495nm and 455nm. Malondialdehyde absorbances increased linearly with concentration at both 532nm and 495nm. Hexanal and 2,4-hexadienal absorbances increased at all three wavelengths with concentration. Hexanal absorbance predominated at 455nm; acid-based 2,4-hexadienal absorbed greatest at 495nm whereas 532nm was the dominant water-based wavelength;STPP interference on the distillation TBA method ...


Microbiological, Physical And Chemical Studies On Fresh Red Meats Packaged Under Different Modified Gas Atmospheres , Wireko Manu-Tawiah Jan 1991

Microbiological, Physical And Chemical Studies On Fresh Red Meats Packaged Under Different Modified Gas Atmospheres , Wireko Manu-Tawiah

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effects of various modified gas atmospheres on the microbiological, physical and chemical characteristics of fresh red meats (pork chops, beef steak and ground beef) were studied. Fresh pork chops were packaged in air, vacuum or eleven modified gas atmospheres containing carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations from 0% to 40%. Increasing the initial CO[subscript]2 concentration delayed growth of aerobic psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae, but slightly enhanced that of lactic acid bacteria. Increasing the initial O[subscript]2 concentration reduced growth of facultative anaerobic and anaerobic bacteria and enhanced growth of Brochotrix thermosphacta. In general, carbon dioxide ...


Fungicide Treatment Of High-Moisture Corn , Sulaiman A. Al-Yahya Jan 1991

Fungicide Treatment Of High-Moisture Corn , Sulaiman A. Al-Yahya

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Two corn hybrids, one resistant the other susceptible to storage fungi, were harvested and hand shelled at 22% moisture, wet basis, and stored at this moisture in aerated bin units each containing 1000 g. For each corn hybrid, four Rovral fungicide treatments and a control treatment were applied prior to storage. Carbon-dioxide evolution was measured in each treatment as the index of grain-deterioration rate. The experiment was terminated when a 2.0% dry-matter loss in the susceptible hybrid untreated sample was observed. Development of fungi growth in the stored samples was observed by determining the percent of fungi infection by ...


Isolation And Characterization Of Unique Cholesterol-Reducing Anaerobes , Timothy Alan Freier Jan 1991

Isolation And Characterization Of Unique Cholesterol-Reducing Anaerobes , Timothy Alan Freier

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

New media and methods were used in attempts to isolate cholesterol-reducing bacteria (CRB) that might be used to reduce the cholesterol contents of foods. Media for the enrichment and isolation of CRB were formulated, and a variety of novel sources were sampled to isolate CRB with improved properties;Stable mixed cultures of anaerobic bacteria that converted cholesterol to coprostanol were obtained from the following sources: feces from cattle, goats, horses, and humans; a marine sponge; sediments from rivers, streams, and ponds; standing water; a hog sewage lagoon; and commercial frozen pork brains. Cholesterol-reducing activity was maintained in these cultures after ...


The Use And Acceptability Of Lupin Seed And Sprout As A Food Ingredient, Pam Yates Jan 1991

The Use And Acceptability Of Lupin Seed And Sprout As A Food Ingredient, Pam Yates

Theses : Honours

This study set out to determine whether germination improved the biochemical and sensory properties of lupins and whether an accept able food could be made from the sprout . The lupin seed, (L. anqustifolius cv . Gungurru), was sprouted using a commercial sprouter for up to 6 days. The seeds were soaked for 24h, then germinated in the dark at 20°C. The sprouts were used in each part of the study: Biochemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation, Food Product Development and Consumer Market Survey. Many biochemical changes occurred especially in the soaking and early germination stages; including increases in protein (6%) and ...