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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effect Of Forage Feeding And Length Of Grain Finishing Period On Selected Performance, Carcass, And Sensory Characteristics Of Serially Slaughtered Hereford Steers Of Varying Frame Score Classifications, Henry Walker Stockley Iii Aug 1983

Effect Of Forage Feeding And Length Of Grain Finishing Period On Selected Performance, Carcass, And Sensory Characteristics Of Serially Slaughtered Hereford Steers Of Varying Frame Score Classifications, Henry Walker Stockley Iii

Masters Theses

Eighty-one Hereford steers were backgrounded on fescue-orchard grass-clover pasture and then removed after summer grazing and assigned subjective scores for frame size and muscling. Steers were then fed whole shelled corn ad libitum for 0, 28, 56, 84, 112, and 140 days on feed (DOF), evaluated for performance traits and slaughtered. Carcass data were collected then the left side of each carcass was fabricated and evaluated for various yield, quality, chemical, physical, and palatability characteristics.

Large framed steers had heavier live weights (P<.05) and were taller at the withers (P<.05) than small framed steers throughout the forage feeding phase. All frame size groups were similar in ultrasonic fat thickness measurements during forage feeding.

During grain-finishing, the large framed steers were taller (P<.05) at the withers than the small-framed cattle through 140 DOF but past 28 DOF no advantage in frame size, with respect to live weights was discovered. Live fat thickness measurements did not differ (P>.05) among frame size groups. The small framed ...


Enzymic Milk Coagulation: Casein Micelle Aggregation And Curd Formation, Donald J. Mcmahon May 1983

Enzymic Milk Coagulation: Casein Micelle Aggregation And Curd Formation, Donald J. Mcmahon

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Enzymic milk coagulation was monitored by measuring changes in curd firmness and apparent absorbance of undiluted milk. Detection of coagulation, visually or rheologically, occurred after the milk changes from a system of aggregating particles to an extended space network. This change was observed as a shoulder in apparent absorbance plots and coagulation time was defined as the critical point in the aggregation process analogously to non-linear condensation polymerization reactions. It corresponds to the inflexion point during the period when apparent absorbance was rapidly increasing and can be calculated by fitting curd firmness data to an exponential equation.

Addition of calcium ...


A Method For Separating Casein Micelles From Whey Proteins For Determining Casein In Milk, Robert N. Carpenter May 1983

A Method For Separating Casein Micelles From Whey Proteins For Determining Casein In Milk, Robert N. Carpenter

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if size exclusion chromatography could be used to separate casein micelles from whey proteins for a rapid, direct test to measure percent casein in milk. A size exclusion chromatography column was developed for the separation having dimensions 100 by .4 cm. Packing material selected was glycophase coated porous glass supports. A Beckman DU-8B spectrophotometer monitored the casein and whey protein peaks as they eluted and a Tektronix 4052 computer accepted data points every 4 sec, storing these on tape. Absorbances and areas of each peak were used in the evaluation of samples ...


Using Videodisc Technology And The Index Of Nutritional Quality To Teach Dietary Guidance To Young Adults, Glenda Wigginton Edmunds May 1983

Using Videodisc Technology And The Index Of Nutritional Quality To Teach Dietary Guidance To Young Adults, Glenda Wigginton Edmunds

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A review of the literature indicated a need for nutrition education materials to be current with prevailing scientific knowledge, using advanced instructional technology. Individuals need help in applying nutrition principles to their dietary practices.

A nutrition education program utilizing the nutrient density concept and the dietary guidelines for use on videodisc with microcomputer interface was developed and evaluated. The evaluation of the program did not prove to be effective statistically but learners did show an interest in the program and had positive feedback in regard to the information presented and the technology used.


Selection And Preparation Of Lactic Culture Starters For Manufacture Of Cheddar Cheese, Aly Youssef Gamay May 1983

Selection And Preparation Of Lactic Culture Starters For Manufacture Of Cheddar Cheese, Aly Youssef Gamay

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A Spiral Plater and a Microtiter system were used to isolate and evaluate cultures for a paired strain culture program. Bacteriophage and temperature sensitivity data of 43 Streptococcus cremoris strains were introduced into a computer cluster program to pair the least similar strains.

Selected pairs were challenged with phage. Resistant mutants were developed.

Characteristics of proteinase positive and proteinase negative variants were examined. Proteinase positive isolates produced more changes in pH, cell mass and more generations in milk than their counter-parts. Paired proteinase negative cultures produced more change in pH and cell mass and more generations in milk than single ...


The Effect Of Heat Treatment On Meat Heme And Nonheme Iron Bioavailability For The Anemic Rat, Oranong Jansuittivechakul May 1983

The Effect Of Heat Treatment On Meat Heme And Nonheme Iron Bioavailability For The Anemic Rat, Oranong Jansuittivechakul

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Three separate experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of heat treatment on meat heme and nonheme iron bioavailability in anemic rats. Male weanling Sprague-Drawley rats were first made anemic, then subsequently fed with experimental diets. In the first experiment, dietary iron sources were raw or autoclaved meat mixed with ferrous sulfate to give the ratios of iron from meat and ferrous sulfate equal to 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 respectively. For the second experiment, the dietary iron sources were raw or autoclaved meat mixed with bovine hemoglobin (HB) to give dietary iron ratios ...


Efficiency Of Converting Iron Into Hemoglobin As An Assay For Evaluating Iron Bioavailability, Paul Whittaker May 1983

Efficiency Of Converting Iron Into Hemoglobin As An Assay For Evaluating Iron Bioavailability, Paul Whittaker

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effect of iron absorption on subsequent hemoglobin regeneration was investigated by repletion and subsequent analysis of an anemic weanling rat model. Primary assay procedure in these studies was the Regeneration Efficiency method.

As repletion or curative assay techniques form the central body of investigative research in iron utilization, the first subject of inquiry was the effect of repletion interval and degree of depletion upon the animals as monitored by physical indicators such as blood volume, growth and hematinic response. Percent blood volume is a particularly useful figure in the calculation of the amount of hemoglobin iron but was found ...


Effects Of Heat Treatment And Post-Treatment Holding Time On Rennet-Clotting Properties Of Milk, Zeynep Ustunol May 1983

Effects Of Heat Treatment And Post-Treatment Holding Time On Rennet-Clotting Properties Of Milk, Zeynep Ustunol

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Samples of raw whole milk were heated at L5, 50 and 75 C for 0, 30, 60, llU and 240 min. After heat treatment each sample was subdivided and portions held at O C for 0, 30, 60 and 120 min. In a second experiment samples of milk were heated at 25 and 50 C for the same lengths of time as before but this time at 75 C for only 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. A constant holding time of 30 min was used after the heat treatments. Following the various heat treatments pH of each sample was ...


The Effect Of Long Term Storage Of Nonfat Dry Milk On Sensory Quality And On The Development Of Oxidative Derivatives Of Sterols, Nancy R. Driscoll May 1983

The Effect Of Long Term Storage Of Nonfat Dry Milk On Sensory Quality And On The Development Of Oxidative Derivatives Of Sterols, Nancy R. Driscoll

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nonfat dry milk (NOM) was evaluated to determine the effect of long term storage on its sensory quality, its solubility index and on the development of oxidative derivatives of sterols. Storage variables included the form of the milk, the atmosphere in the storage container, the type of package and the storage temperature. A trained taste panel evaluated the milk for the development of cooked, metallic, and oxidized/stale flavors, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. Gas chromatography was used to determine cholesterol content and the quantity of oxidative derivatives of cholesterol present in the samples.

Although long term storage of NOM did ...


A Study Of The Action Of Bovine Cathepsin D On Intra Muscular Connective Tissue, Elimosaria Elikalia Maeda May 1983

A Study Of The Action Of Bovine Cathepsin D On Intra Muscular Connective Tissue, Elimosaria Elikalia Maeda

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cathepsin D has been postulated to play a role in the tenderization of meat with ageing. Meat toughness has been related to connective tissue content and degree of myofibrillar shortening. This investigation was undertaken to determine the activity of cathepsin Don bovine intramuscular connective tissue.

Highly purified cathepsin D preparations from bovine spleen and bovine sternomandibularis muscle were obtained by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by affinity chromatography on pepstatin coupled to controlled pore size alkyl amine glass beads . Maximum proteolytic activity using hemoglobin as substrate was obtained at pH 3.5 and 3.8 for bovine spleen and muscle cathepsin ...


The Impact Of Computer Use On Food Service Organizations, Stephanie D. Ference Mar 1983

The Impact Of Computer Use On Food Service Organizations, Stephanie D. Ference

Masters Theses

An investigation was conducted in college and university food services to assess the present situation and probable future developments in the use of computers as well as to identify and evaluate the effect of computer use on employee skill requirements and employment trends. Results were obtained by two mail questionnaires. The first questionnaire inquired about the present and future use of the computer. The second questionnaire was used to evaluate the effect of computer utilization on employee skill requirements and labor trends. Eighty-five or 40% of the college and university food service directors responded to the questionnaire.

Forty-seven percent, or ...


Technical, Human, And Conceptual Skill Development For Potential Foodservice Administrators In Four-Year Degree Programs, John E. Brady Mar 1983

Technical, Human, And Conceptual Skill Development For Potential Foodservice Administrators In Four-Year Degree Programs, John E. Brady

Masters Theses

An inquiry was conducted to investigate the need for technical, human, and conceptual skills in the foodservice industry and to investigate the role of baccalaureate degree programs in developing these skills for potential foodservice administrators. Technical, human, and conceptual skills are collectively referred to as administrative skills.

Courses in colleges and universities which emphasize administrative skills, were identified and used in the development of a Semantic Differential scale. The purpose of the Semantic Differential scale is to measure the meaning of specific concepts by various people by having them judge the concept against a series of descriptive scales. The Semantic ...


Alterations In Bovine Skeletal Muscle Desmin And The Cytoskeleton Induced By Temperature And Electrical Stimulation , Lenard Edward Kasang Jan 1983

Alterations In Bovine Skeletal Muscle Desmin And The Cytoskeleton Induced By Temperature And Electrical Stimulation , Lenard Edward Kasang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Alterations in the myofibrillar integrating cytoskeleton and its constituent protein, desmin, were assessed in bovine skeletal muscle at 1, 24 and 168 hours of postmortem storage. Changes assessed over post-mortem storage in muscle subjected to usual (control) storage conditions (2(DEGREES)C) were compared to changes in tissue subjected to either of two conditions known to increase meat tenderness, i.e. high temperature (25(DEGREES)C) storage or electrical stimulation. Quantities of desmin extractable at the selected intervals were determined in part by densitometric scanning of the desmin band in polyacrylamide tube gels of desmin-enriched fractions. Alterations in the protein ...


Effect Of Postmortem Storage On Degradation Of The Recently Discovered Myofibrillar Protein Titin In Bovine Longissimus Muscle, Mary Lee Gragg Lusby Jan 1983

Effect Of Postmortem Storage On Degradation Of The Recently Discovered Myofibrillar Protein Titin In Bovine Longissimus Muscle, Mary Lee Gragg Lusby

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The high molecular weight (M(,r) (TURN) 1 x 10('6)) protein titin was isolated from purified bovine longissimus muscle myofibrils by gel filtration column chromatography in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Purified bovine, rabbit and chicken skeletal muscle titins were closely related or homologous in that they yielded similar column elution profiles and had similar amino acid compositions. Titin purified from rabbit and bovine skeletal muscles also comigrated in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and cross-reacted with antibodies specific for titin. Indirect immunofluorescence localization demonstrated that titin is preferentially localized in the A-I junctional area with some diffuse ...


Effect Of Heat Denaturation Of Whey Proteins On The Rheological Properties Of Cornstarch-Milk Systems , Li-Hsiang Ling Jan 1983

Effect Of Heat Denaturation Of Whey Proteins On The Rheological Properties Of Cornstarch-Milk Systems , Li-Hsiang Ling

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Heating cornstarch with milk that has received little or no previous heat treatment produces a two-step increase in Amylograph viscosity resulting in higher final viscosity after further heating. The second step disappears as increasing temperatures are used for preheating the milk. Amylograms of 6% slurries of cornstarch in the preheated milks were compared with gel electrophoresis patterns of the whey proteins remaining undenatured in the same preheated milk samples. As temperature of preheating was increased, smaller portions of each whey protein remained undenatured and the second increase in viscosity shown by the Amylograph became less. After all the whey proteins ...


Ultrafiltration Of Skim Milk Prior To Cottage Cheese Making, Izhar H. Athar Jan 1983

Ultrafiltration Of Skim Milk Prior To Cottage Cheese Making, Izhar H. Athar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cottage cheese has the largest sales volume potential of all cultured dairy products in the United States today. Moreover, it can be a highly profitable product if proper control is exercised during its manufacturing (46). Commercial production of cottage cheese utilizes a significant portion of the total fluid milk produced in the U. S.A. After the 1955's, yearly per capita consumption of cottage cheese increased from 1. 7 7 kg (3.9 lb) to a high of 2. 45 kg (5.4 lb) in 1972 (67) . Consumer demand for lower fat dairy products gradually increased, which put more ...