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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Quality Of Turkey As Affected By Ovens Of Varying Energy Costs, Marsha Mcneil Aug 1982

The Quality Of Turkey As Affected By Ovens Of Varying Energy Costs, Marsha Mcneil

Masters Theses

Energy conserving cooking procedures have been of recent interest to the consumer and the researcher. The introduction of convection and microwave ovens for consumers has been credited with potential energy savings. Therefore, an investigation was designed to compare the energy consumption of conventional, convection, and microwave ovens as boneless turkey roasts were cooked. Turkey was chosen because its consumption is increasing and it is a time and energy demanding muscle food to cook. The quality of the cooked roasts was evaluated by objective tests, an experienced sensory panel, and a consumer sensory panel.

The microwave oven cooked significantly faster (P ...


Factors Affecting Food-Related Behaviors Of Adolescents, Nancy N. Salvetti Aug 1982

Factors Affecting Food-Related Behaviors Of Adolescents, Nancy N. Salvetti

Masters Theses

Adolescents' evening meal patterns and the effects of the following factors on adolescents' eating behavior were investigated: gender, region (metropolitan or rural), mothers' employment, who prepared the evening meal, teens' employment, nutrition attitudes, and nutrition knowledge. A sample of 229 adolescents 16-18 years of age from four metropolitan and three rural high schools in East Tennessee completed 24-hour food records, written questionnaires, and nutrition attitude/knowledge tests in spring 1980. Additional data were collected from nine high schools in the Knoxville area in spring 1981. A paired sample of 74 adolescents working on the day of the survey and 74 ...


Recipe Design And Management In A Nutritional Data Base System, Robert G. Trenary Aug 1982

Recipe Design And Management In A Nutritional Data Base System, Robert G. Trenary

Master's Theses

The Nutritional Data Base System (NDBS) is an interactive information system which provides the user the ability to create and process menus, recipes and food items. Three primary program modules are thus indicated along with modules to translate user requests and process file and directory information. A discussion of standard data base concepts and an application of these concepts to the processing of recipes in the NDBS system is presented. Future possible expansions are suggested and other similar information systems are discussed.


Recyclable Materials In Food Service Facilities And Energy Recovery Possibilities, Mary E. Kopp Jun 1982

Recyclable Materials In Food Service Facilities And Energy Recovery Possibilities, Mary E. Kopp

Masters Theses

An identification of recyclable materials in food service facilities with potential energy recovery possibilities was determined by a mail questionnaire and on-site observations/interviews of food service facilities. Thirteen hospital food service departments, twenty-four restaurants, and eighteen combined hospital food services and restaurants responded to the questionnaire entitled, Current Energy Practices and Possibilities for Recycling of Materials in Food Service Facilities. Five facilities--two hospital food service departments and three restaurants--participated in the observations to examine actual practices of energy recovery through recycling processes. A second purpose of the study was focused on identifying the recycling method with approximate costs and ...


The Relative Roles Of Initial And Residual Sodium Nitrite On Germination Of Clostridium Botulinam Spores In Meat, Orchid Mettanant May 1982

The Relative Roles Of Initial And Residual Sodium Nitrite On Germination Of Clostridium Botulinam Spores In Meat, Orchid Mettanant

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Four levels of NaNO2 (0 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm, and 156 ppm) were tested for antibotulinal activity in ground pork inoculated with spores of Clostridium botulinum either at the time of formulation or after cooking. Samples formulated with less than 156 ppm sodium nitrite received additional nitrite to adjust the residual nitrite equal to that found after cooking in samples formulated with 156 ppm nitrite. All samples were subjected to abusive storage at 27 C. Inoculating the spores at the time of formulation resulted in a faster rate of swelling. Heating C. botulinum spores for 30 min. at ...


Associative Growth Of Paired Lactic Streptococci In Ph Controlled Whey-Based Media, Carol Lee Hansen May 1982

Associative Growth Of Paired Lactic Streptococci In Ph Controlled Whey-Based Media, Carol Lee Hansen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study evaluated four lactic streptococcal pairs which had been used routinely in cheese plants to determine (1) if strain growth interactions would produce stimulated growth and acid production; (2) final percent strain ratios and generation times after 1/1 initial inocula volumes and (3) whether final strain ratios could be controlled through adjustment of initial inocula volumes. Strains were propagated in fortified and unmodified whey substrate under pH control at 27C for 12 hours. Cell number and acid activity were evaluated on single and paired strains. Phage typing was used to determine generation times and the percent of each ...


The Relationship Between Milk Composition And Swiss Cheese Yields, Gheyath H. Majeed May 1982

The Relationship Between Milk Composition And Swiss Cheese Yields, Gheyath H. Majeed

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eighty-five samples of milk and Swiss cheese made from the same milk were collected at Cache Valley Dairy Association, Smithfield, Utah, between August, 1979, and July, 1980. The weights of the milk, Swiss cheese and the trim were carefully recorded. The milk samples were analyzed for fat and protein, and the cheese samples were analyzed for fat, protein and moisture. An attempt was made to predict Swiss cheese yields from the fat and protein content of the milk and the moisture content of the cheese.

The data were analyzed statistically by Gauss-Newton non-linear least squares method of iteration. Three formulas ...


A Comparative Study Of Seizure Susceptibility And Serum Calcium, Magnesium And Phosphorus Profiles Of Magnesium Deficient Rats, Nicole H. Bernhard May 1982

A Comparative Study Of Seizure Susceptibility And Serum Calcium, Magnesium And Phosphorus Profiles Of Magnesium Deficient Rats, Nicole H. Bernhard

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Magnesium deficiency in rats is known to precipitate audiogenic seizures. An unknown mineral factor in a diet mixture was found to substantially reduce the seizure occurence in magnesium deficient vii animals. This was corrected when the same mineral mixture was remade. Subsequently the faulty mineral mixture was discarded. This research .. as aimed at determining the mineral factor responsible for the observed changes in seizure occurence, and also aimed at investigating the relationships of serum calcium, magnesium and phosphorus concentrations to seizure susceptibility. Treatments to change the serum concentrations of these minerals included dietary manipulation, subcutaneous injection of calcitonin, of 1 ...


Improved Fermentation Process For Producing Methane From Cheese Whey, Abdulraman Y. Awad May 1982

Improved Fermentation Process For Producing Methane From Cheese Whey, Abdulraman Y. Awad

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Two methods of single-stage fermentation were used to produce methane from whey. The first method involved batch fermentation in which the pH was automatically controlled at 7.0. In addition to pH control, the second method was characterized by introducing the substrate continuously into the fermenter along with dilution water to keep the organic acids at a non-toxic level.

The first method did not improve the production of methane compared to the batch fermentation in which a pH control system was not used (41). However, the second method showed that the concentration of organic acids has a major effect on ...


Seasonal Variation In The Ability Of Milk And Whey To Support Lactic Culture Growth, Rick Cameron Norton May 1982

Seasonal Variation In The Ability Of Milk And Whey To Support Lactic Culture Growth, Rick Cameron Norton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Milk samples from two cheese plants with overlapping milk supplies were collected monthly for one year in an attempt to measure seasonal variation in the ability of milk and whey to support lactic culture growth . Treatments to control and minimize variability of milk or whey were evaluated to optimize stability in starter culture performance.

Raw milk samples were tested for somatic cell counts, activity tests (modified Horrall- Elliker), acid degree values, and total plate counts. Activity (modified Horraii-EIIiker) and inhibitory tests were also performed on pasteurized, pasteurized-vacuumized and high heat milk treatments.

Rennet whey (heated and unheated) was collected from ...


The Derivation And Validation Of A Workable Food Listing System For Use In Evaluation Of Food Consumption, Georgia C. Lauritzen May 1982

The Derivation And Validation Of A Workable Food Listing System For Use In Evaluation Of Food Consumption, Georgia C. Lauritzen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Three separate food grouping systems were derived for diet evaluation by utilizing a computer clustering program. System 1 was based on grouping of foods according to nutrient quality and quantity, system 2 was based on nutrient quality and frequency of consumption and system 3 was based on nutrient quality and kilocalories consumed. Defendable nutritional principles as well as knowledge of present nutritional concerns and eating habits of the U.S. population underpinned the derivation of the three systems. Over 4,000 individual foods were condensed to approximately 325 groups.

The three food grouping systems which were developed were compared for ...


Evaluation Of Heme And Free Iron Binding Agents As Substitutes For Sodium Nitrite In Cured Meat, Farzaneh Vahabzadeh May 1982

Evaluation Of Heme And Free Iron Binding Agents As Substitutes For Sodium Nitrite In Cured Meat, Farzaneh Vahabzadeh

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases, alone or with oxalate, phytate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) were tested for antibotulinal activity as substitutes for sodium nitrite in ground pork inoculated with spores of Clostridium botulinum, then abused by storage at 277°C. Nitric oxide with 250 ppm oxalate or phytate was most inhibitory, while NO alone was as effective as 156 ppm sodium nitrite for inhibition of gas and botulinal toxin production in the meat system. All swollen samples contained very low levels of residual nitrite, but nitroso heme and soluble iron content did not change compared with unswollen samples ...


A Nutrition Education Componenet For Migrant Children Based On The K-6 Nutrient-Density Curriculum, Sandra Beadleson May 1982

A Nutrition Education Componenet For Migrant Children Based On The K-6 Nutrient-Density Curriculum, Sandra Beadleson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A nutrition education component was developed, implemented, and evaluated for integration into the Title I migrant education program. The component was based on an evaluated nutrition education curriculum implemented by Brown in the elementary school. The nutrition education program was developed on the concept of nutrient density which measures the ratio of a food's nutrient contribution to its caloric contribution on a constant caloric basis. The nutrition component was modified to include behavioral objectives and concepts that partially met the needs of a migrant population in Utah.

The program was evaluated in the Title I programs in Corrine and ...


Prediction Of Mozzarella Cheese Yield From Milk Composition, Hamzah M. Abu-Tarboush May 1982

Prediction Of Mozzarella Cheese Yield From Milk Composition, Hamzah M. Abu-Tarboush

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study was conducted to develop and evaluate several formulas which predict Mozzarella cheese yield from fat and protein content of milk and moisture content of cheese. During a one month period, 107 samples of milk and cheese were collected at Olympia Cheese Company, Olympia, Washington. Milk samples were analyzed for fat and protein content. Cheese samples were analyzed for fat, protein and moisture content.

Three models were derived to predict the yield of Mozzarella cheese. The three models were statistically fitted to the data by applying the Gauss-Newton non-linear least squares method of iteration. The differences among the three ...


Assay, Purification, And Characterization Of A Pantetheine Hydrolyzing Enzyme From Pig Kidney, Carl Thomas Wittwer May 1982

Assay, Purification, And Characterization Of A Pantetheine Hydrolyzing Enzyme From Pig Kidney, Carl Thomas Wittwer

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A microsomal glycoprotein hydrolyzing pantetheine to pantothenate and cysteamine has been solubilized and purified to homogeneity as determined by sodium dodecylsulfate electrophoresis. Four rapid, independent assays of pantetheine hydrolysis are described and compared along with a method for localizing enzymatic activity on polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme is solubilized on exposure to butanol and purified by heat treatment, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, hydrophobic chromatography, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The glycoprotein, purified 5600-fold in 22% yield, has a specific activity of 14 μmoles pantothenate produced/min/mg of protein, 35 times that previously reported. The enzyme has a pH optimum of 9 ...


Effects Of Inorganic Polyphosphates On Reduced Sodium And Conventional Meat Emulsion Characteristics , Curtis Lynn Knipe Jan 1982

Effects Of Inorganic Polyphosphates On Reduced Sodium And Conventional Meat Emulsion Characteristics , Curtis Lynn Knipe

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effects of the addition of selected inorganic phosphates to emulsion meat products were studied. All studies were designed to test basic theories regarding inorganic phosphates and meat under practical conditions. For the most part, evaluations were made on raw emulsions made in a small laboratory food chopper. In an attempt to stress the emulsions, low sodium chloride levels were frequently used. Evaluations included emulsion stability, soluble protein level, pH, emulsion viscosity and reflected surface color. At reduced sodium chloride levels, tetrasodium pyrophosphate and tetrapotassium pyrophosphate improved emulsion stability more than sodium tripolyphosphate or potassium tripolyphosphate. Preblending with tetrasodium pyrophosphate ...


Effect Of Dietary Methionine On Methylmercury And Atrazine Toxicities , Mohsen Meydani Jan 1982

Effect Of Dietary Methionine On Methylmercury And Atrazine Toxicities , Mohsen Meydani

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effects of methionine (Met) on the toxicities of methylmercury (MeHg) and atrazine in male Wistar rats were investigated. Three levels of dietary Met, three levels of MeHg by gavage, and two levels of dietary atrazine were used. A two-choice form light discrimination test was used to investigate behavioral effects of the treatments. Samples of blood, liver, kidney, and brain were collected for glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd), glutathione-S-transferase (GSH-S-trans), total glutathione (GSH), prostaglandin (PG), and mercury analyses. Excess dietary Met had a protective effect on MeHg and atrazine toxicities in rats, using weight gain as the index of ...


Feeding And Food Selection In The Japanese Oyster Crassostrea Gigas, Rickey D. Moore Jan 1982

Feeding And Food Selection In The Japanese Oyster Crassostrea Gigas, Rickey D. Moore

Dissertations and Theses

The Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas is commercially grown in bays and estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. The oyster's complex, ciliated, plicate gill is responsible for removing particles from surrounding waters for ingestion. In order to determine how this is accomplished, structural interrelationships of gill components were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Particle movement was observed directly on both isolated gill sections and intact gills. Feeding data were obtained by comparing initial to final concentration and size of algal particles in a Coulter counter.


Water Relations In High Ratio White Cake Batters And Cellulose Substituted White Cake Batters , Oleane Carden Zenoble Jan 1982

Water Relations In High Ratio White Cake Batters And Cellulose Substituted White Cake Batters , Oleane Carden Zenoble

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Water relations in high ratio white cake batter (AACC 10-90) and reduced calorie microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) substituted cake batters were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The amount of freezable water at -50(DEGREES)C, defined as free water, was subtracted from the total water in the sample to calculate bound water present in the batters. The water binding capacity (WBC) was determined as the moisture content (g total water/g solids) at which there was no freezable water present in the sample. This value was calculated from a linear regression equation in which the amount of freezable water was ...