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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Association Mapping Of Seed Weight, Protein, And Sucrose Content; And Kinetics Of Edamame Under Infrared Treatment, Laura Melissa Lara Santisteban Dec 2016

Association Mapping Of Seed Weight, Protein, And Sucrose Content; And Kinetics Of Edamame Under Infrared Treatment, Laura Melissa Lara Santisteban

Theses and Dissertations

Edamame is a specialty large-seeded soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) harvested at an immature stage (R6) that has become the second largest consumed soyfood. Although United States is the largest soybean producer, majority of edamame is imported from Asia, highlighting the importance of developing new edamame varieties. Association mapping (AM) provides an alternative to bi-parental linkage mapping method to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) adding higher resolution and broader germplasm information. Seed weight, sucrose, and protein are quantitative traits of value when selecting edamame lines. However molecular mechanisms controlling each of these traits are still inconclusive and have not been ...


A Bifunctional Nanocomposites Based Electrochemical Biosensor For In-Field Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria In Food, Meng Xu Dec 2016

A Bifunctional Nanocomposites Based Electrochemical Biosensor For In-Field Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria In Food, Meng Xu

Theses and Dissertations

This research focused on the application of electrochemical biosensors for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium, in foods. The possible presence of pathogenic bacteria in foods has always been a great threat to the wellbeing of people and the revenue of food companies. Therefore, the demand for rapid and sensitive methods to detect foodborne pathogens is growing. In this research, an impedimetric immunosensor was first developed for the rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in foods. It was based on the techniques of immunomagnetic separation, enzyme labelling, and electrochemical ...


Effects Of Harvest Conditions And Thickness Fractionation On Physicochemical Properties, Cooking And Sensory Characteristics Of Long Grain Rice, Sara Esther Jarma Arroyo Dec 2016

Effects Of Harvest Conditions And Thickness Fractionation On Physicochemical Properties, Cooking And Sensory Characteristics Of Long Grain Rice, Sara Esther Jarma Arroyo

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has demonstrated the extensive impacts of various environmental and processing conditions on rice milling and processing characteristics. Nevertheless, little is known about the influences of these conditions on cooking and sensory qualities of rice. The present study aimed to determine the impact of cultivating location, harvest moisture content (HMC), and thickness fractionation on the physicochemical properties, and cooking and sensory characteristics of long-grain rice. Four long-grain rice cultivars (purelines: Cheniere and V3501, and hybrids: XP760 and XL753) were cultivated at Harrisburg, AR and Alvin, TX, and harvested at three HMC. Rough rice lots were conditioned and a portion ...


The Effects Of Using Cinnamon Leaf And Bark Essential Oils On Listeria Monocytogenes (L.M.), Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.), In Model System, Strawberry Shake And Fresh Celery, And Sensory & Shelf Life Studies, Wafaa Brnawi Dec 2016

The Effects Of Using Cinnamon Leaf And Bark Essential Oils On Listeria Monocytogenes (L.M.), Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.), In Model System, Strawberry Shake And Fresh Celery, And Sensory & Shelf Life Studies, Wafaa Brnawi

Theses and Dissertations

Essential oils derived from the bark and leaves of the cinnamon plant have long been used as natural preservatives and flavoring agents in different types of foods. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial effects of cinnamon essential oils (CEOs), obtained from cinnamon leaf or bark, against two foodborne pathogens i.e., Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.) and Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.). Two different concentrations of microbial loading were used i.e.,109 and 104, cultured in nutrient media broth, strawberry shakes, and on celery sticks. Both CEOs of leaf and bark at 0.5% and 1% were found to completely ...


A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao Dec 2016

A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao

Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne diseases are a growing public health problem. In recent years, many rapid detection methods have been reported, but most of them are still in lab research and not practical for use in the field. In this study, a portable and automatic biosensing instrument was designed and constructed for separation and detection of target pathogens in food samples using nanobead-based magnetic separation and quantum dots (QDs)-labeled fluorescence measurement. The instrument consisted of a laptop with LabVIEW software, a data acquisition card (DAQ), a fluorescent detector, micro-pumps, stepper motors, and 3D printed tube holders. First, a sample in a syringe ...


Effects Of Fermentation By Yeast And Amylolytic Lactic Acid Bacteria On Grain Sorghum Protein Content And Digestibility, Christina Day Dec 2016

Effects Of Fermentation By Yeast And Amylolytic Lactic Acid Bacteria On Grain Sorghum Protein Content And Digestibility, Christina Day

Theses and Dissertations

Grain sorghum is an underutilized crop despite many advantages to its cultivation. A drought-tolerant plant with many pest-resistant cultivars, its applications are limited by problems with nutrient availability, particularly protein digestibility. Digestibility of grain sorghum protein is reduced by antinutritional compounds in the grain like tannins and phytates, and by moist-heat cooking. Some of these concerns can be mitigated by how the grain is processed. Fermentation is one processing method that can improve digestibility. Fermentation can also concentrate protein in a substrate. In this experiment, grain sorghum was subjected to different treatments and used as a substrate for yeast fermentation ...


Antimicrobial Inhibitory Activities Of Phenolic Extracts From Four Selected Soybean Hulls In Culture And Chicken Skin Model Systems, And Preliminary Ace-Inhibitory Activity, Rajaa Abdulkair Abutheraa Dec 2016

Antimicrobial Inhibitory Activities Of Phenolic Extracts From Four Selected Soybean Hulls In Culture And Chicken Skin Model Systems, And Preliminary Ace-Inhibitory Activity, Rajaa Abdulkair Abutheraa

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean components provide health benefits to humans. Soybean hulls, a major by-product of the soybean processing industry consist of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and polyphenols such as anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins and isoflavones. The polyphenolic compounds in the hulls give them various colors such as black, brown, green, yellow or even a mottled appearance. Studies have reported different soybean varieties with varying total phenolic compounds in their seed hulls, which have antioxidant property. Phenolic extracts can be used as substitutes for synthetic antimicrobials and preservatives to assist in preventing the growth of pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, E coli 0157:H7, and ...


Microbes In Rough Rice – Prevalence, Growth Kinetics And Links To Dry Matter Loss, Supriya Thote Aug 2016

Microbes In Rough Rice – Prevalence, Growth Kinetics And Links To Dry Matter Loss, Supriya Thote

Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of microorganisms on freshly-harvested long-grain hybrid, long-grain pureline, and medium-grain rice has not been elucidated. The first objective of this two-part study was to determine the relative prevalence of microbes on freshly-harvested, high moisture content rice of different types and cultivars. The total and surface aerobic plate counts (APC) and mold counts were determined in terms of log10 colony forming units per gram of rice (log10 CFU/g) for six rice cultivars over two years. In 2013, among harvested samples of all the studied rice cultivars, the long-grain hybrid cultivars had the lowest APC levels (M = 8.10 ...


Listeria Monocytogenes Strain Variation: Starvation, Metabolism, And Macrophage Survival, Nathan A. Jarvis Aug 2016

Listeria Monocytogenes Strain Variation: Starvation, Metabolism, And Macrophage Survival, Nathan A. Jarvis

Theses and Dissertations

Listeria spp. are often isolated from raw and processed food products. Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for death rates of 10 to 30% in immune compromised people; it can also infect a vast range of animals. There are numerous reports of poultry harboring or becoming infected with L. monocytogenes. First, this research assessed the ability of L. monocytogenes to replicate within chicken macrophages. Using the gentamicin-killing assay, a cell culture of chicken macrophage-like cells (HD11) were infected with two strains of L. monocytogenes individually (EGD-e and Scott A). Results show that unlike data on mouse macrophages, intracellular L. monocytogenes do not ...


In Vitro Fermentation Patterns Of Rice Bran Components By Human Gut Microbiota, Tung Minh Pham Aug 2016

In Vitro Fermentation Patterns Of Rice Bran Components By Human Gut Microbiota, Tung Minh Pham

Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing in recent years worldwide. In the United States, it is ranked the second leading cause of cancer death. Risks of CRC increase with age and are associated with several lifestyle factors such as diet, drinking and smoking habits, and levels of physical activity. There is an abundance of scientific literature demonstrating the protective roles of several dietary components including fibers and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds have been shown to be able to positively modulate gastrointestinal ecology by increasing the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and promoting the population of beneficial ...


Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen Aug 2016

Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen

Theses and Dissertations

Within the United States type 2 diabetes is an ever growing health epidemic. The prevalence in the adult population has quadrupled over the past 30 years and is expected to continue on a similar path in the coming decades. While the cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial, it is considered to be an acquired condition related to environmental contributors including poor diet, obesity, and physical inactivity, which may be managed to alter the course or progression of the disease. Preventative or maintenance measures emphasize nutritional intervention strategies, including encouraging individuals to follow a nutrient-dense, high-fiber diet with ample whole-grains ...


The Effect Of Protein Quantity And Quality At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Appetite And Metabolic Health, Brianna Lynne Neumann May 2016

The Effect Of Protein Quantity And Quality At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Appetite And Metabolic Health, Brianna Lynne Neumann

Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is a global health concern and, within the United States, the current obesity rate is 36% and projected to double within the next two decades. Obesity is linked to many chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. In young females, weight gain (5-11 kg) between the ages of 20-30 years increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders later in life. The cause of obesity is multifactorial in nature, however fundamentally weight gain occurs when energy intake is greater than energy expended (i.e. calories in > calories out). Therefore, identifying and validating ...


A Molecular Approach To Understanding The Effects Of Original-Xpc On The Modulation Of The Cecal Microbiota And The Survival Of Salmonella In The Poultry Host, Stephanie Roto May 2016

A Molecular Approach To Understanding The Effects Of Original-Xpc On The Modulation Of The Cecal Microbiota And The Survival Of Salmonella In The Poultry Host, Stephanie Roto

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen commonly associated with poultry products; the economic burden to the U.S. is estimated to be approximately $693 million (without factoring in contaminated eggs). Recently, there has been pressure to withdraw sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotics (also known as antibiotic growth promoters; AGP) from poultry due to concern over antibiotic-resistant bacteria spreading to the human population. Therefore, various feed additives have been researched for their ability in providing protection against harmful pathogens and their potential growth promoting effects, both of which were attributes of poultry treated with AGP. This thesis consists of a comprehensive literature review ...


Comparative Efficacy Of Foaming And Non-Foaming Handsoap In Reduction Of Microorganisms In Handwashing, Danielle Marie Conover May 2016

Comparative Efficacy Of Foaming And Non-Foaming Handsoap In Reduction Of Microorganisms In Handwashing, Danielle Marie Conover

Theses and Dissertations

Handwashing (HW) is a long established method to prevent disease transmission. Ensuring effectiveness of current HW methods is essential for optimal HW and enhanced disease prevention. The objectives of this research were to 1) conduct a survey of soap type and volume in food service establishments in Washington County, Arkansas; 2) investigate how soap type impacts HW behavior; and 3) determine the difference in microbial reduction between foaming (F) and liquid (L) handsoap. For Objective 1, food service establishments in Washington County, AR were selected based on exclusion criteria and random number generations, and handsoap samples were collected to determine ...


Assessment Of Microbial And Growth Response Of Broilers Fed A Commercial Prebiotic, Sang In Lee May 2016

Assessment Of Microbial And Growth Response Of Broilers Fed A Commercial Prebiotic, Sang In Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Prebiotic refers to nondigestible food ingredients that enhance the health of the host by selectively promoting one or more number of beneficial bacteria. Gibson and Roberfroid (1995) initially described prebiotics as compounds that neither hydrolyzed nor absorbed in upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, selectively stimulates growth of beneficial bacteria, enhance health of the host and able to amend microorganism population to healthier states. Prebiotics are particularly attractive supplements in animal production due to their variety of effects including production of short chain fatty acids, pH amendments and suppression of pathogen colonization. In addition, prebiotics were emphasized as antibiotic alternatives ...


Effects Of Delayed Drying And Storage Conditions On Milling, Color, And Viscosity Properties Of Rice, Kathryn Nicole Haydon May 2016

Effects Of Delayed Drying And Storage Conditions On Milling, Color, And Viscosity Properties Of Rice, Kathryn Nicole Haydon

Theses and Dissertations

Head rice yields (HRYs), kernel discoloration, and functional properties are three hallmarks of rice quality, and can be impacted after harvest by storage conditions. This study evaluated impacts on rice quality due to controlled storage at moisture contents (MCs), temperatures, and storage durations that may be incurred during Mid-South rice farming practices. Three hybrid, long-grain cultivars, harvested in Arkansas in 2014 and 2015, were stored in rough rice form at 4 MCs (12.5%, 16%, 19%, and 21%), and 5 temperatures (10°C, 15°C, 20°C, 27°C, and 40°C), for 16 weeks, with samples taken every 2 ...


Production And Application Of Trans, Trans Cla-Rich Eggs: Chemical And Physiological Properties And Prospects For Value-Added Foods, Sara Shinn May 2016

Production And Application Of Trans, Trans Cla-Rich Eggs: Chemical And Physiological Properties And Prospects For Value-Added Foods, Sara Shinn

Theses and Dissertations

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an 18-carbon fatty acid with conjugated double bonds that is naturally present in beef and dairy products. Certain CLA isomers exhibit human bioactivity such as anti-obesity and muscle metabolism effects, as well as prevention of age-associated conditions, and improved immune and inflammatory responses. However, an individual needs to consume 3-4 g CLA/day to realize these potential health benefits, and a Western diet only provides a tenth of this recommendation. Chicken eggs have been used as a commercialized vehicle to deliver other bioactive lipids such as omega-3 fatty acids, because the lipid profile of the ...


Assessment Of An Industrial Type Radiant Heating System For Drying Rough Rice, Anne Adhiambo Okeyo May 2016

Assessment Of An Industrial Type Radiant Heating System For Drying Rough Rice, Anne Adhiambo Okeyo

Theses and Dissertations

Rough rice is normally harvested at moisture contents (MCs) higher than that for safe storage. The objective for this study was to investigate the effectiveness of scaled-up infrared (IR) heating followed by tempering steps to dry freshly-harvested rough rice. An industrial type, pilot scale, IR drying equipment, designed to convey rough rice on a vibrating conveyor belt was used in this study. The heating zone of the equipment had catalytic IR emitters powered by natural gas. Freshly-harvested rough rice of long-grain pureline (cv. Cheniere), long-grain hybrid (cv. 6XP 756) and medium-grain (cv. CL 271) cultivars at initial moisture contents (IMCs ...


Development Of Infrared Heating Technology For Corn Drying And Decontamination To Maintain Quality And Prevent Mycotoxins, Shantae Wilson May 2016

Development Of Infrared Heating Technology For Corn Drying And Decontamination To Maintain Quality And Prevent Mycotoxins, Shantae Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

Infrared (IR) heating of corn followed by tempering treatments has potential to rapidly dry and simultaneously decontaminate corn without adverse effect on the overall quality. However, it is vital to determine the optimal processing parameters that maximize throughput and minimize drying energy without affecting overall corn quality. This study investigated the effects of IR heating and tempering treatments on moisture removal, mold load reduction, corn color change, and drying energy requirements. In addition, the study evaluated the feasibility of scaling up IR drying process using a newly built, pilot scale IR dryer. Freshly harvested corn with initial moisture content (IMC ...


The Influences Of Texture And Mastication Pattern On Flavor Perception Across The Lifespan, Curtis Robert Luckett May 2016

The Influences Of Texture And Mastication Pattern On Flavor Perception Across The Lifespan, Curtis Robert Luckett

Theses and Dissertations

Texture is an often-overlooked food attribute and is known to influence other food characteristics. More specifically, texture has been repeatedly to influence how we perceive flavor. Several studies have linked this change in flavor perception to the altered mastication patterns that accompany texture changes. This dissertation is composed of four studies that were designed to address how American food consumers view texture and other food attributes as well as characterize how texture and mastication can influence temporal flavor dynamics. The first study was a survey that outlined consumer attitudes towards a variety of different foods. This study solidified that texture ...


Use Of A Blunt Version Of Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear To Analyze Meat Qualities Of Broilers With Woody Breast Myopathy And Reared To Various Ages, Famous Lue Yang May 2016

Use Of A Blunt Version Of Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear To Analyze Meat Qualities Of Broilers With Woody Breast Myopathy And Reared To Various Ages, Famous Lue Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Broiler breast meat tenderness is an important meat quality attribute. There has been an increase in incidences of woody breast along with white striping as meat quality defects. These defects have been found to negatively impact meat qualities of broiler breast fillets. Woody breast can be classified by the degree of hardness into normal (NORM) and severe (SEV). The Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear (MORS) method was developed to assess broiler meat tenderness and a blunt version (BMORS) has been reported to be more sensitive at higher degrees of toughness. The present study was intended to determine the effect of age, debone ...


The Effect Of Monetary Reward And Food Type On Motivation Of Untrained Sensory Panelists In Triangle Tests, Jessilee Noel Loucks Mar 2016

The Effect Of Monetary Reward And Food Type On Motivation Of Untrained Sensory Panelists In Triangle Tests, Jessilee Noel Loucks

Theses and Dissertations

Although human panelists provide unparalleled data, they are prone to bias, which is a primary concern of sensory scientists. Motivational bias is of concern because it determines how much effort a panelist will exert to be consistent, find a difference, or use appropriate descriptors when taking a test. For central location tests, money has become a common motivational device to compensate panelists for their time and effort. Studies have documented that money can change results in sensory testing but have not measured the impact on motivation. Additionally, little research has been conducted on the effect of the test food itself ...