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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Changes In Fruit And Vegetable Household Food Availability Among Low-Income Families Over A One-Month Period Of Time, Ann Alicia Wells Dec 2011

Changes In Fruit And Vegetable Household Food Availability Among Low-Income Families Over A One-Month Period Of Time, Ann Alicia Wells

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: There is little evidence of how fruit and vegetable (FV) household food availability changes over a one-month period among low-income households. The objective of this study was to analyze how FV variety and sustainability changes over a 4-week period.
Design: Inventories were conducted in low-income family households (n=49) once a week over a 4-week period. Trained researchers gathered the weights of all FV, including legumes, within the home. Previously determined mean container weights were subtracted to obtain the estimated weight of the FV. All weights were then converted to edible cups of FV, taking into account the weight ...


Can Antioxidant-Rich Berries Improve Risk Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease In Postmenopausal Smokers?, Jordan Alaine Teeple Dec 2011

Can Antioxidant-Rich Berries Improve Risk Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease In Postmenopausal Smokers?, Jordan Alaine Teeple

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoking on risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and determine the efficacy of antioxidant-rich berries in ameliorating these risk factors in postmenopausal smokers. Menopause and cigarette smoking have been identified as major risk factors for CVD due to a decrease in antioxidant protection, increase in inflammation and oxidative stress, and adverse changes in serum lipids. Antioxidants, specifically flavonoid compounds found in blackberries and blueberries, have been shown to prevent low-density lipoprotein cholesterol oxidation and thus prevent downstream inflammation and oxidative stress. Healthy, postmenopausal nonsmokers (n=14) and smokers ...


Effect Of Soyasaponin Fractions On Human Colon Cancer Cells, Joseph Tyler Salyer Dec 2011

Effect Of Soyasaponin Fractions On Human Colon Cancer Cells, Joseph Tyler Salyer

Theses and Dissertations

Group B saponins, the predominant form of saponins in heat-treated soy products, have been shown to possess hypocholesterolemic, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previous studies have evaluated crude mixtures of soyasaponins, but studies evaluating a single purified soyasaponin as an anticarcinogenic agent are limited. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of purified soyasaponins I and III as well as their aglycone form, soyasapogenol B, as anticarcinogenic agents on the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of purified soyasaponins on cell proliferation, Protein Kinase C (PKC) activity, and cell morphology in ...


Effect Of Nutrient Supplements On Cucumber Fermentation By Lactic Acid Bacteria, Shruti Tripuraneni Dec 2011

Effect Of Nutrient Supplements On Cucumber Fermentation By Lactic Acid Bacteria, Shruti Tripuraneni

Theses and Dissertations

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important industrial microorganisms involved in fermentation of food and beverage products. The strict fermentative growth of LAB has complex requirements of various nutrients including amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Information about the effect of these nutrients on the growth of LAB in cucumber fermentation is not readily available. It is evident, from previous research that certain nutrients like; leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan, valine, biotin, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, manganese and magnesium are beneficial for LAB growth, but are not provided in sufficient quantities by the cucumber in the brine. The objective of this study was ...


Improvements On Just-About-Right (Jar) Scales As Product Optimization Tools Using Kano Modeling Concepts, Bangde Li Dec 2011

Improvements On Just-About-Right (Jar) Scales As Product Optimization Tools Using Kano Modeling Concepts, Bangde Li

Theses and Dissertations

Attribute Kano characteristics are useful in product design to prioritize development efforts. However, attribute Kano characteristics have not been discussed and applied to product optimization when using Just-About-Right (JAR) scales. Product optimizations without identifying attributes Kano characteristics can be misleading. The two objectives in this research were: 1. Determine attribute Kano categories using a modified classic Kano classification methodology. 2. Propose a method to measure attribute performance and identify attribute Kano characteristics to direct product optimization. Two methodologies of attribute Kano classification were investigated. In experiment one, a modified classic Kano methodology was employed to determine attribute Kano categories through ...


Maternal, Neonatal And Feeding Type Factors Associated With Severity Of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, Cheryl Ann Miner Nov 2011

Maternal, Neonatal And Feeding Type Factors Associated With Severity Of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, Cheryl Ann Miner

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To identify statistical associations with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) severity as dichotomized into cases with Bell stage II and III disease.
Study Design: We conducted a retrospective study using eight consecutive years of data from a multihospital healthcare system analyzed NEC severity (Bell stage II vs. III).
Results: We identified 220 neonates with stage ≥ II who had 225 separate episodes of NEC (157 stage II and 68 stage III). Those with stage III were born at earlier gestational age (P<0.0001) and lower birth weight (P<0.0001). Diagnosis of NEC occurred on about the same day of life in stage II and stage III cases. Those who developed stage III had significantly higher C-reactive protein (P<0.0001), I/T ratio (P= 0.0005), mean platelet volume (MPV) (P= 0.0001) and lower pH (P<0.0001) and platelet counts (P<0.0001). Transfusions were more common to those who progressed to stage III (P<0.0001). Regression analysis indicated higher odds of stage III in relationship to the volume of RBC transfusions (OR 2.41, {CI 1.85 to 3.11}, P<0.0001) and pasteurized human milk (PHM) (OR 1.32, {CI 1.07 to 1.62}, P = 0.0089). In contrast, feeding early mother's own milk (colostrum) for five days reduced the odds for stage III (OR 0.802, {CI 0.67 to 0.96}, P=0.0170). Those with small bowel resection were less likely to have received mother's own milk before NEC (OR 0.94, {CI 0.89 to 0.99}, P = 0.019) and factors predicting death from NEC were a low pH (OR 2.21, {CI 1.27 to 3.85}, P = 0.0005) and less colostrum (OR 0.96, {CI 0.94 to 0.99}, P = 0.003).
Conclusions: RBC transfusions and PHM increased the odds for stage III NEC, whereas early mother's own milk five days ...


Stability And Sensory Properties Of Rice Bran Peptide Fraction Incorporated Orange Juice, Mirna Georges Khairallah Aug 2011

Stability And Sensory Properties Of Rice Bran Peptide Fraction Incorporated Orange Juice, Mirna Georges Khairallah

Theses and Dissertations

Functional foods offer consumers added benefits beyond the sole nutritional content of the food. Food companies are aggressively seeking new and cheaper sources of functional ingredients. Kannan et al. (2008) characterized anticancer peptides and peptide fraction from rice bran. However, information about their application and stability in food is lacking. In this study the stability of the peptide fraction in water at pH 7.2, at pH 3.5, and in orange juice was studied. The effect of the addition of the peptide fraction on the quality parameters of orange juice including sensory was also assessed. The results showed that ...


The Antimicrobial Activity Of Cold Pressed Terpeneless Valencia Orange Oil At Cold Temperatures, Sean Jeffrey Pendleton May 2011

The Antimicrobial Activity Of Cold Pressed Terpeneless Valencia Orange Oil At Cold Temperatures, Sean Jeffrey Pendleton

Theses and Dissertations

This research was undertaken to identify an antimicrobial for use during chilling in beef processing, including periods of temperature abuse, as well as to evaluate membrane filtration as means to remove essential oils from bacteria to prevent further antibacterial action. Cold pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil was examined in combination with various temperatures (37°C, 10°C, and 4°C) to determine its antimicrobial activity against various strains of bacteria. The strains were tested using a ninety-six well microtiter plate method, with or without membrane filtration. The compound 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride was used as a growth indicator. Serial ...


Analysis Of Rice Blast Resistance Genes In The National Small Grains Collection (Nsgc), Moytri Roychowdhury May 2011

Analysis Of Rice Blast Resistance Genes In The National Small Grains Collection (Nsgc), Moytri Roychowdhury

Theses and Dissertations

Identification of blast resistance genes in rice germplasm is one of the most important activities of rice breeding programs in worldwide. The objective of this research was to characterize two major blast resistance genes, Pi-z and Pi-b, in selected rice germplasm. A simple sequence repeat DNA marker, AP5659-1 linked to the Pi-z gene, and a Pib dominant marker derived from the Pi-b gene were first used to screen a rice core collection consisting of 1700 accessions estimated to represent 70% of the genetic diversity of rice in the US National Small Grains Collection. There were 131 rice germplasm accessions with ...


Characterization Of Polyphenolics In Cranberry Juice And Co-Products, Brittany Lynn White May 2011

Characterization Of Polyphenolics In Cranberry Juice And Co-Products, Brittany Lynn White

Theses and Dissertations

Historically, cranberry juice has been consumed to prevent urinary tract infections. These and other health benefits, including reduced risks of cancer and cardiovascular disease, are believed to be due to the presence of polyphenolics, specifically flavonoids. Cranberry pomace is the by-product of cranberry processing which consists of seeds and skins. This research focuses primarily on the effects of processing on the flavonoid composition of cranberries and cranberry pomace. First, the concentration of flavonoids during juice processing was evaluated. It was determined that anthocyanins were degraded readily compared to other flavonoids, and a significant amount of flavonoids were retained in the ...