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Identity Preservation & Traceability: The State Of The Art - From A Grain Perspective (Status Of Agricultural Quality Systems / Traceability / Certification Systems), Gregory Scott Bennet Jan 2008

Identity Preservation & Traceability: The State Of The Art - From A Grain Perspective (Status Of Agricultural Quality Systems / Traceability / Certification Systems), Gregory Scott Bennet

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A descriptive paper on the state of identity preservation and traceability (IPT) as it relates domestically and internationally to food safety and economics. While not exhaustive, it is illustrative of trends. Identity preservation and traceability (IPT) are not new concepts; however, the growth of public and business interest and concerns regarding them has grown tremendously during the past decade due to many events, which has resulted in these concepts joining together within a single concept (with the same title). This paper, while attempting to be thorough, will highlight the major systems of IPT from a US business perspective. Before and ...


Immunomodulatory, Anti-Inflammatory And Wound Healing Properties Of Echinacea Species, Zili Zhai Jan 2008

Immunomodulatory, Anti-Inflammatory And Wound Healing Properties Of Echinacea Species, Zili Zhai

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Herbal or botanical supplements have multiple health benefits. Public interest in these supplements has increased greatly in recent years aimed at modulation of the immune system to combat immune-related diseases. Historically, Echinacea has long been used as phytotherapy for wound healing, pain relief and treatment of the common cold. Although the non-specific immunostimulating properties of Echinacea species have been widely investigated, academic knowledge of the adaptive immune-modulating activity, the anti-inflammatory activity and the mechanistic basis for these immunomodulatory properties remain elusive. In this dissertation, we focused our research interest in these less explored fields, with an emphasis on the herbal ...


Loading System Effect On Performance, Handling And Meat Quality Attributes Of Finisher Pigs, Nicholas Lee Berry Jan 2007

Loading System Effect On Performance, Handling And Meat Quality Attributes Of Finisher Pigs, Nicholas Lee Berry

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Handling and transport losses can encompass several challenges experienced frequently by producers and packers alike. Marketing and transportation stress not only costs the industry due to mortalities, but has direct impact on the quality of pork delivered to the consumer (Barton-Gade, 1992; Geverink et al., 1996; Hambrecht, 2005).;The primary objective of the current study was to determine if loading system affects the incidence of losses during transportation or at the packing plant, welfare parameters at the time of marketing, and meat quality attributes. Two loading systems (prototype loading gantry [P] vs. traditional chute [T]) were compared on the first ...


Flavor Characteristics Of Soy Products Modified By Proteases And Alpha-Galactosidase, Sheue-Lei Lock Jan 2007

Flavor Characteristics Of Soy Products Modified By Proteases And Alpha-Galactosidase, Sheue-Lei Lock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Improved flavor characteristics of soy protein hydrolysates are needed so that soy protein ingredients with valuable properties can be used in food applications. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the aroma and flavor alteration of soy protein hydrolysates using descriptive analysis (DA). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and differences were determined (p<0.05). Sensory panelists (12) described differences in extruded-expelled soy flour (EESF) hydrolysates, particularly fishy, nutty, toasted, sweet, grassy beany, raw beany, bitter, and astringent attributes. Greater fishy aroma was detected in jet-cooked treatments of EESF compared to uncooked treatments. Control and Multifect-Neutral (MN)-modified EESF samples were more fishy than bromelain and Experimental Exopeptidase-C (EEC) treatments. For flavor attributes, bromelain hydrolysate was no different than the control. EEC and MN treatments had less sweetness and more intense grassy-beany flavor, astringency and bitterness than the control. MN-modified EESF was the most bitter and had the least nutty and toasted flavors among samples. A trained panel (10) evaluated sweetness and bitterness of EESF treated with MN and alpha-galactosidase (alpha-GAL). The non-digestible sugar in EESF hydrolyzed by alpha-galactosidase (alpha-GAL) increased sweetness and decreased bitterness of MN-modified EESF. alpha-GAL modification could be used to mask the bitterness of soy protein hydrolysates. Eleven trained panelists evaluated 3 protease-modified soy protein isolates (SPI) samples and un-hydrolyzed control with high- and low-protein dispersibility indices (PDI). High- and low-PDI SPIs were similar in most of the sensory attributes, but low-PDI SPI had more raw beany and bitter flavors than high-PDI SPI. SPI and soy flour hydrolyzed by MN were the most bitter and astringent and lowest in sweetness than other enzyme treatments. FPC-modified SPI had higher cooked beany flavor, less bitter flavor and less astringency than MN-modified SPI and the control. MN+FPC treatment had the sensory attributes between the single enzyme treatments. "Cooked beany" was a single attribute defined by sensory panelists, but is likely a mixture of aromas and flavors attributed to by-products of nonenzymatic browning and fatty acid oxidation, volatile carbonyls from lipid oxidation and furans. Proteolysis modification reduced chalkiness and grittiness of soy protein, which would be a favorable attribute for beverages. Bitterness and astringency are the primary flavor problems of protein hydrolysates. Bromelain and FPC proteases produced soy protein hydrolysates with little bitterness and may be potential hydrolysates for food applications. The use of MN + alpha-GAL and the MN + FPC combinations produced less bitter soy hydrolysates than the MN treatment alone.


Heterosis In Compositional, Physical, And Wet-Milling Characteristics Of Hybrids From Exotic Introgressed By Adapted Inbred Lines In Corn, Oswaldo R. Taboada-Gaytan Jan 2007

Heterosis In Compositional, Physical, And Wet-Milling Characteristics Of Hybrids From Exotic Introgressed By Adapted Inbred Lines In Corn, Oswaldo R. Taboada-Gaytan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Corn (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and the main crop in the United States. Starch is the most abundant component of the corn kernels and the most valuable fraction recovered by wet milling of corn. The amount wet milled from a sample is an indication of the millability or ease with which kernel components are separated. New hybrids with high grain yield and higher starch, protein, or oil contents have been developed and are available to corn growers. However, these hybrids are the result of crossing adapted inbred lines and rarely ...


Refunctionalization Of Extruded-Expelled Soybean Meal By Hydrothermal Cooking, Hui Wang Jan 2007

Refunctionalization Of Extruded-Expelled Soybean Meal By Hydrothermal Cooking, Hui Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Diversified Strategies For Improving Iron Bioavailability Of Maize, Amy Katheryn Proulx Jan 2007

Diversified Strategies For Improving Iron Bioavailability Of Maize, Amy Katheryn Proulx

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide, affecting over 2 billion people, especially women and children. Populations consuming maize as a staple food are particularly prone to iron deficiency because of the low iron bioavailability (FeBA). The overall objective of this three-part study is to enhance FeBA in foods made of maize through novel fortification techniques, processing modifications, and genetic modifications.;The first study focused on the fortification of plant heme iron to improve FeBA in tortillas. Plants, particularly soy roots can produce heme iron as part of nitrogen fixation. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of ...


Accelerated Shelf-Life Test Of Alkamides In Echinacea Purpurea Root Aqueous Ethanol Soxhlet Extracts, Avery Kent Sia Solco Jan 2007

Accelerated Shelf-Life Test Of Alkamides In Echinacea Purpurea Root Aqueous Ethanol Soxhlet Extracts, Avery Kent Sia Solco

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Echinacea species are purported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and other medicinal values. Echinacea alkamides, which are unsaturated fatty acyl isobutylamides/methylbutylamides, are thought to be the characteristic compounds responsible for some of these medicinal values. Echinacea species are rich in anti-oxidant phenolic acids, thus may protect the alkamides from oxidation. Our hypothesis is antioxidant phenolic acids protect degradation of alkamides in Echinacea purpurea . Alkamide stability was evaluated in ethanol extracts of E. purpurea: phenolics-rich and phenolics-poor extracts. The stability of the alkamides in extracts was evaluated in dry form at 70, 80 and 90°C and in DMSO solution at ...


Chemical And Sensory Characterization Of Oat Bran From Experimental Oat Lines With Varying Amounts Of Total Beta-Glucan, Krisha Lynn Miller Jan 2007

Chemical And Sensory Characterization Of Oat Bran From Experimental Oat Lines With Varying Amounts Of Total Beta-Glucan, Krisha Lynn Miller

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Oat bran from experimental oat lines (Avena sativa) with increased beta-glucan content, N979-5-2-4 and IA95111, had a greater amount of total beta-glucan, water absorption and water solubility indices than bran from public oat cultivars, 'Paul' and 'Jim,' or retail oat products, Oat Bran and Old Fashioned Quick Oats (both, Quaker Oats Company); with positive correlations between total beta-glucan and water absorption index (r = 0.853), and water solubility index (r = 0.820). N979 and IA95 brans bound 99% of bile acids, and had the greatest Rapid Visco Analyser values for peak viscosity, final viscosity, trough, and breakdown. Jim produced the ...


Functionality Of Egg Yolk Lecithin And Protein And Functionality Enhancement Of Protein By Controlled Enzymatic Hydrolysis, Guang Wang Jan 2007

Functionality Of Egg Yolk Lecithin And Protein And Functionality Enhancement Of Protein By Controlled Enzymatic Hydrolysis, Guang Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Egg yolk lecithin (EYL) is a good source of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and it is different from soy lecithin (SL) in both fatty acid and phospholipid class composition. These factors may lead to different behavior in oxidative stability and emulsification properties in food systems. Therefore, these characteristics were investigated in this study. Emulsification properties were evaluated at two oil-to-water ratios, two emulsifier concentrations, two pHs, and with the addition of xanthan gum. The results showed that low concentration of EYL (2.5% in oil) gave poorer emulsion stability than did 5.0%, whereas emulsions with oil-to-water ratio of ...


Composition, Sensory Attributes, And Flavor Of Dry- And Oil-Roasted Soynuts After Roasting And During Storage, Emily Louise Boge Jan 2007

Composition, Sensory Attributes, And Flavor Of Dry- And Oil-Roasted Soynuts After Roasting And During Storage, Emily Louise Boge

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Five food-grade soybean cultivars were dry- and oil-roasted and stored for 6 months. The effects of cultivar, roasting, and storage on soybean composition, sensory characteristics, and flavor attributes were determined. Oil-roasted soynuts had significantly higher lipid contents than raw soybeans and dry-roasted soynuts due to the absorption of oil. Reductions were observed in reducing sugars and free amino acids with roasting.;Sensory characteristics of roasted soynuts were determined by descriptive analysis and consumer acceptability panels. Dry-roasted soynuts were higher in cereal-like aroma, bitter flavor, and beany flavor intensities. The oil-roasted soynuts had higher roasted aroma, rancid aroma, roasted flavor, nutty ...


Influence Of Selection For Improved Growth Rate On Pork Quality, Corey Edward Wagner Jan 2007

Influence Of Selection For Improved Growth Rate On Pork Quality, Corey Edward Wagner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

It is hypothesized that selection for improved growth rate has the potential to result in a loss of desirable fresh pork quality. The objective of this study was to investigate if genetic selection of sires for improved growth rate is associated with changes in fresh pork quality. A sample derived from the cross between a commercial line of Duroc sires and white line dams was subdivided according to the sires' estimated breeding value (EBV) for age at 125 kg. Differences in age at 125 kg were achieved by assigning pigs sired by High EBV growth boars (n=48), Low EBV ...


Using Ozone To Control Fungi In High Moisture Corn, Steven Dale White Jan 2007

Using Ozone To Control Fungi In High Moisture Corn, Steven Dale White

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Ozone was looked at as a possible way to control fungi growth in high moisture (HM) corn. Experiment I stored 22% mc corn at 32C for 9d. Corn was treated for 24h, 5h, or every 3d. Ozone had little impact on dry matter loss (dml) or damage kernel total (dkt) of the HM corn. Experiment II stored 26% mc corn at 15.5C for 30d. Ozone was applied over the initial 24h or every 3, 6, or 12d. Ozone did have a effect on dml, but not on the dkt.;The effectiveness of ozone on fungi in HM corn was ...


Development Of Simple And Rapid Procedures For Purification Of Egg Yolk Immuno-Globulin And Ovotransferrin From Chicken Egg And Antimicrobial Activity Of Ovo-Transferrin Against Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Listeria Monocytogenes, Kyung Yuk Ko Jan 2007

Development Of Simple And Rapid Procedures For Purification Of Egg Yolk Immuno-Globulin And Ovotransferrin From Chicken Egg And Antimicrobial Activity Of Ovo-Transferrin Against Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Listeria Monocytogenes, Kyung Yuk Ko

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The overall goal of this study was to develop practical, natural, and efficient antimicrobials from egg. To accomplish the goal, novel protocols for large-scale production of egg yolk immunoglobulin and ovotransferrin were developed. Also antibacterial activity of ovotransferrin against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was investigated and the antimicrobial activity of ovotransferrin was improved by combinations with other antimicrobials. The developed protocol for large-scale production of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) consisted of several steps such as using 0.01% charcoal to remove lipoproteins from IgY extract, ultrafiltration to concentrate IgY solution, and 40% ammonium sulfate to precipitate IgY ...


Post-Packaging Irradiation Combined With Modified Atmosphere Packaging For Control Of Bacterial Pathogens On Meat Products, Li Liang Kudra Jan 2007

Post-Packaging Irradiation Combined With Modified Atmosphere Packaging For Control Of Bacterial Pathogens On Meat Products, Li Liang Kudra

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne illnesses caused by consumption of contaminated meat and poultry products with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella or Campylobacter have been major concerns in the U.S. Therefore, control of these pathogens by irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was investigated. Ground beef patties were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, frankfurters or pre-cooked pork chops were inoculated with L. monocytogenes, and fresh chicken breasts were inoculated with Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, or Campylobacter jejuni. Packaging in vacuum or high CO 2 MAP (99.5% CO2/0.5% CO for beef patties and chicken breasts; and vacuum or ...


Effects Of Fat Content, Aging Time, And Additive Application Methods On The Quality Characteristics Of Irradiated Ground Beef, Hesham Abdel-Moez Ahmed Ismail Jan 2007

Effects Of Fat Content, Aging Time, And Additive Application Methods On The Quality Characteristics Of Irradiated Ground Beef, Hesham Abdel-Moez Ahmed Ismail

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effects of fat content, aging time and additives application methods on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef were determined. Two different methods, mixing or spraying, of applying ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and sesamol; ground beef with 3 different aging times; and ground beef with 3 different fat contents were used in the study. Beef patties were prepared, treated with additives, placed on Styrofoam trays, wrapped with oxygen permeable plastic film, treated with electron beam irradiation at 0 or 2.5 kGy, and displayed under fluorescent light at 4°C. Color, lipid oxidation, volatiles, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and ...


Assessing The Use Of Piceid (Resveratrol-Glucoside)-Accumulating Transgenic Alfalfa Against Colon Cancer, Brian Donald Kineman Jan 2007

Assessing The Use Of Piceid (Resveratrol-Glucoside)-Accumulating Transgenic Alfalfa Against Colon Cancer, Brian Donald Kineman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Biotechnological approaches have been applied to introduce resveratrol-synthase (RS ) (aka. Stilbene synthase ) into novel crops such as apple, kiwi, tomato and wheat. As with natural sources of resveratrol, genetically-modified plants, which constitutively express RS, accumulate resveratrol primarily in the form of piceid (RG). The chemopreventive activity of a RG-accumulating transgenic alfalfa (variety Regen SY) against colon cancer was assessed in an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) rodent model of carcinogenesis. Our initial studies revealed that the transgenic alfalfa (TA) at 20% in the diet by weight had no affect on the number, size or multiplicity of ACF in ...


A Survey Of Commercially Available Broilers Originating From Organic, Free-Range And Conventional Production Systems For Cooked Meat Yields, Meat Composition And Relative Value, Ryan Lon Husak Jan 2007

A Survey Of Commercially Available Broilers Originating From Organic, Free-Range And Conventional Production Systems For Cooked Meat Yields, Meat Composition And Relative Value, Ryan Lon Husak

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range and conventionally raised broilers as marketed to the general consumer. Fifteen broilers from four suppliers of each type were purchased and immediately frozen. Retail costs were recorded and broilers were evaluated for meat yield, cooked yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition and sensory attributes.;On a raw basis, organic broilers yielded a higher percentage of dark meat (P<0.05) and a lower percentage of skin (P<0.05) than free-range or conventional broilers. On a cooked basis, conventional and free-range broilers yielded a higher (P<0.05) percentage of cooked light meat than organic broilers. Free-range whole carcasses had the highest absolute cooked yield however was only significantly (P<0.05) higher than conventional broiler yields. Protein content of raw organic breast and thigh meat was higher (P<0.05) than conventional broilers but not different (P>0.05) from free-range broilers. The protein content of cooked organic breast and thigh meat was higher (P<0.05) than conventional, consistent with analyses on the raw basis comparisons.;Ultimate pH (pHu) for breast meat from organic broilers was higher (P<0.05) when compared to free-range and conventional. The pHu of thigh meat from organically raised broilers was higher (P<0.05) than the free-range but not different from (P>0.05) conventionally ...


Applications And Mechanisms Of Colicin E1, Brenda Sue Patton Jan 2007

Applications And Mechanisms Of Colicin E1, Brenda Sue Patton

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

To combat the rise of foodborne disease outbreaks in fresh and ready-to-eat (RTE) meats and to reduce further bacterial drug resistance, researchers are looking to natural and chemical alternatives to antibiotics. These alternatives include, but are not limited to, plant and herbal extracts, vaccines, and bacterial proteins. One alternative, bacteriocins, are being used in livestock production, food manufacturing and processing, and retail packaging and sanitization. Bacteriocins are proteinaceous compounds produced by and lethal to bacteria of species similar to the producing strain. Various bacteriocins---including nisin, colicin, pediocin, cloacin, and lactic acid bacterial peptides---have been evaluated for use in food products ...


Thermal Tolerance Of Acid Adapted And Non-Adapted Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella Enterica In Ground Beef , Manpreet Singh Jan 2006

Thermal Tolerance Of Acid Adapted And Non-Adapted Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella Enterica In Ground Beef , Manpreet Singh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

D-values of acid adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were determined in meat serum and ground beef stored at 4 and -20°C as an indicator of thermal tolerance. Pathogens were acid adapted by growing in Tryptic Soy Broth with 1% glucose (TSB+1%G). Five-strain cocktail of both bacteria were grown and inoculated meat serum was heated to 58, 62, and 65°C, while inoculated ground beef was heated to 62 and 65°C on day 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 (4°C), and on day 1, 30, 60, 90, and 120 (-20°C). Higher (P<0.05) D-values were observed for acid adapted E. coli O157:H7 in meat serum at 58, 62, and 65°C; and for acid adapted Salmonella at 58 and 62°C, but no difference (P>0 ...


Evaluation Of Extruded-Expelled Low-Fat Soybean Flour In Flour Blends And The Effects On Bread And Dough Development , Toshiba Lynne Traynham Jan 2006

Evaluation Of Extruded-Expelled Low-Fat Soybean Flour In Flour Blends And The Effects On Bread And Dough Development , Toshiba Lynne Traynham

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The research detailed in this document focuses on the performance of a partially defatted soybean flour called low-fat soybean flour (LSF). This soybean flour type has not received widespread application as a food ingredient. This has resulted from a lack of information available on the performance of LSF in a variety of food systems. Based upon its compositional and functional properties, LSF has shown potential for use in a flour blend. Past studies have focused on the usage of flour blends containing wheat flour partially replaced by an oilseed or legume flour. Wheat-soy flour blends have mostly been studied for ...


Investigating Uncured No Nitrate Or Nitrite Added Processed Meat Products , Jeffrey Joseph Sindelar Jan 2006

Investigating Uncured No Nitrate Or Nitrite Added Processed Meat Products , Jeffrey Joseph Sindelar

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Samples of different commercial brands (4 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added and one nitrite-added) of three product types (frankfurters, hams and bacons) were evaluated for color, pigment content, pH, lipid oxidation, residual nitrate and nitrite quantity, and consumer acceptance. All samples contained residual nitrate and residual nitrite except for Brands B and D bacons (<1 ppm nitrite). A large variation in severity of lipid oxidation existed between product types within brands with frankfurters reporting the highest levels. Color measurements indicated the majority of products and brands were similar to the control. Consumer sensory ratings determined that variation existed;The effects of varying levels of vegetable juice powder (VJP) and incubation times (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics and sensory properties of emulsified frankfurter-style cooked (EFSC) sausages and hams over a 90-day storage period were investigated. Four EFSC sausage treatments (TRT) (TRT1: 0.20% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT3: 0.40% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT4: 0.40% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added (156 mg/kg) control (C) were identified for this study. No differences for lipid oxidation between any TRTs and C or over time were identified. No differences (P>0.05) for Commission International D'Edairerage (CIE) L* values were found between TRTs. CIE a* and reflectance ratio values revealed TRTs 2, 4 and C were redder and had better cured color than TRTs 1 and 3 at Day 0. Trained sensory intensity ratings determined that all ...


Starch Biogenesis: Relationship Between Starch Structures And Starch Biosynthetic Enzymes , Li Li Jan 2006

Starch Biogenesis: Relationship Between Starch Structures And Starch Biosynthetic Enzymes , Li Li

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research is to gain understanding on starch biogenesis by studying starch granule formation and development. The objectives of this research were to modify the structure of cyanobacteria glycogen by replacing the endogenous glycogen synthase gene with a plant starch synthase and to study starch granule formation by creating a plant starch biosynthetic system in a cyanobacterium, and to investigate the development of starch granules in maize endosperm during maturation of the maize kernel;A potato starch synthase III (PSSIII) was expressed in Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutants without glycogen synthase I (M1) or glycogen synthase II ...


Antimicrobial Action Of Selected Plant-Derived Compounds Against Listeria Monocytogenes , Natalia A. Weinsetel Jan 2006

Antimicrobial Action Of Selected Plant-Derived Compounds Against Listeria Monocytogenes , Natalia A. Weinsetel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a disease that can be fatal to immunocompromised individuals. Due to the number of outbreaks, recalls, and deaths linked to the consumption of contaminated ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, the United States government issued a directive for the control of L. monocytogenes in the production of RTE meats including the use of a post-lethality treatment and/or the addition of a growth inhibitor. Several methods to inhibit pathogenic bacteria in RTE foods are currently utilized. One method actively being studied involves the use of natural plant products as food antimicrobials. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of plant-derived ...


Comparison Of Soy-Flour Hydrolysates For Wood Adhesive Systems , John F. Schmitz Jr. Jan 2006

Comparison Of Soy-Flour Hydrolysates For Wood Adhesive Systems , John F. Schmitz Jr.

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Soy-protein-based adhesives have not been used extensively in wood products since the 1960's because of poor performance, stability, and water-resistance issues compared to petroleum-based adhesives. The early soy-protein adhesives were made from defatted flours and were dispersed in alkaline solutions to denature proteins and make more polar amino acid groups available for adhesion bonding. Recent research has focused on soy flour adhesives due to increased phenol prices and environmental concerns related to the use and exposure to formaldehyde. Soy protein isolates can be modified in highly caustic alkaline solutions to reduce viscosity and improve adhesive properties, but the price ...


Frying Performance Of Soybean Oils With Reduced Linolenate Content And Methods To Monitor Deteriorative Changes , Jose Arnaldo Gerde Jan 2006

Frying Performance Of Soybean Oils With Reduced Linolenate Content And Methods To Monitor Deteriorative Changes , Jose Arnaldo Gerde

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The performance during frying of three expeller-pressed physically refined soybean oils with different contents of linolenic acid (ULL, 1.5%; LL, 2.6%; control, 5.2%) was tested. French fries were fried in a commercial-like setting for 6 hr/day during 23 consecutive days. There were no significant differences in color or in polar material content. The amount of conjugated dienoic acids was higher in the control than in both ULL and LL oils throughout the frying process. Free fatty acid levels were not different among the oils until day 14, after which ULL was higher than the control for ...


School Foodservice Directors' Perceptions Of Value And Cost Of Using Agriculture Commodities In Child Nutrition Programs , Barbara Ann Jirka Jan 2006

School Foodservice Directors' Perceptions Of Value And Cost Of Using Agriculture Commodities In Child Nutrition Programs , Barbara Ann Jirka

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Commodity foods are available to child nutrition programs (CNP) through the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Distribution Program. Using USDA commodity foods creates costs for CNP due to non-value-added expenses such as storage and delivery. Programs such as net off invoice (NOI) have been implemented in the past five years to remove non-value costs. Use of these programs is voluntary by the state distribution agency, manufacturers, and distributors. The purpose of this research was to compare CNP director perceptions on cost and value of commodity foods in states that use NOI and perceptions of CNP directors in states ...


Methanobactin: A Potential Novel Biopreservative For Use Against The Foodborne Pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes , Clinton Lewis Johnson Jan 2006

Methanobactin: A Potential Novel Biopreservative For Use Against The Foodborne Pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes , Clinton Lewis Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, pathogenic foodborne bacterium, typically associated with post-processing contamination of ready-to-eat meats. Control of this pathogen has been a research topic for years, with more recent work investigating the use of novel naturally-produced antimicrobials. Methanobactin is a novel, chromopeptide recently isolated from the methanotroph, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Its recent characterization has placed it in a new class of compounds now known as chalkophores, which are analogous to iron-binding siderophores. While it is thought to possibly serve multiple physiological roles involving copper metabolism in this bacterium, nothing is known regarding its potential as an antimicrobial. Our research ...


Mechanisms Of Lipid Peroxidation In Meats From Different Animal Species , Byungrok Min Jan 2006

Mechanisms Of Lipid Peroxidation In Meats From Different Animal Species , Byungrok Min

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the elements that make differences in the oxidative stability of meats from different animal species and (2) to determine the major catalysts of lipid peroxidation in meat and meat products. The most important difference in the susceptibility of meat from different animal species to lipid peroxidation was the balance between anti- and pro-oxidative factors in meat. Raw and cooked ground beef were the most susceptible to lipid peroxidation, followed by chicken thigh meat, pork, and chicken breast meat. The high storage stability of chicken breast meat was attributed to a very ...


Effects Of Oxidation, Ph, And Ionic Strength On Inhibition Of [Mu]- And M-Calpain By Calpastatin , Kasey Rae Maddock Jan 2005

Effects Of Oxidation, Ph, And Ionic Strength On Inhibition Of [Mu]- And M-Calpain By Calpastatin , Kasey Rae Maddock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objective was to determine the effects of pH, ionic strength, and oxidation on inhibition of mu- and m-calpain by calpastatin. Calcium activated cysteine proteinases, mu- and m-calpain, were evaluated for activity under pH (7.5, 6.5, and 6.0), ionic strength (165 and 295 mM NaCl), and oxidizing (with or without H2O2) conditions in the presence of calpastatin, their inhibitor. Using a fluorogenic peptide, mu-calpain is most active at pH 6.5 and m-calpain is most active at pH 7.5 and 165 mM NaCl. Oxidation with 0.16 muM H2O2 decreased mu- and m-calpain activity. It was ...