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The Parmesan Cheese Model System: Alleviation Of Browning Defect In Parmesan Cheese, Megan Huegli Aubrey Jan 2020

The Parmesan Cheese Model System: Alleviation Of Browning Defect In Parmesan Cheese, Megan Huegli Aubrey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In cold temperature storage, Parmesan cheese can develop an undesirable browning defect. Certain pyrazine compounds converted from methylglyoxal have been identified and associated with the brown pigmentations in Parmesan cheese samples. This study focused on creating a cheese model system to study variables that caused browning and variables that helped reduce or alleviate browning. The cheese making steps for the cheese model system were monitored by measuring pH and TA and the final composition for % fat, % moisture, % salt and pH. Additionally, the cooling curve was studied to ensure all wheels of cheese made were cooled similarly. Cheese made in the ...


Production And Storage Stability Of High Concentrated Micellar Casein And Its Effect On The Functional Properties Of Process Cheese Products, Ahmed Hammam Jan 2019

Production And Storage Stability Of High Concentrated Micellar Casein And Its Effect On The Functional Properties Of Process Cheese Products, Ahmed Hammam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Micellar casein is a high-protein ingredient that can be used in process cheese products (PCP) formulations. PCP is a dairy food prepared by blending dairy ingredients (such as natural cheese, protein concentrates, butter, non-fat dry milk NFDM, whey powder, and permeate) with nondairy ingredients (such as sodium chloride, water, emulsifying salts, color, and flavors) and then heating the mixture with a continuous agitation to produce a homogeneous product with an extended shelf-life. The first objective of this study was to produce a highly concentrated micellar casein (HC-MC) and evaluate its storage stability. Skim milk was pasteurized at 76°C for ...


Effect Of Mineral Ions On The Functional Properties Of Starch Films, Aliza Sigdel Jan 2019

Effect Of Mineral Ions On The Functional Properties Of Starch Films, Aliza Sigdel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Essential minerals are indispensable inorganic micronutrients that modulate vital physiological functions at the molecular level. Their deficiency, though required in small amounts, impairs health significantly. Their supplementation through diet is prudent and carbohydrates standout as favorable choice. Carbohydrates, starches and polysaccharides, exhibit unique chemical structures and functionalities, and interact with mineral ions in several ways. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of mineral ions on the physicochemical properties, tensile strength and in vitro starch digestion of starch-films. Corn starch and potato starch along with Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions have been chosen as model starch ...


Application Of Analytical Techniques In Food Product Development, Sonali R. Pandey Jan 2019

Application Of Analytical Techniques In Food Product Development, Sonali R. Pandey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Products are analyzed in major sectors of food industry to meet regulatory standards, food safety, quality control, and research and development. Analytical and extraction techniques have been applied for simultaneous investigation of multiple product characteristics. Food analysis faces critical challenges due to the complex composition of food, leading to matrix effects that result in loss of accuracy and reliability. The analytical techniques require an efficient sample preparation to avoid or minimize matrix effects. Solid-phase extraction has been widely used to address this issue. In this dissertation, the aim is to apply analytical techniques in food product development. To accomplish this ...


Stability Analysis Of Immunogenic Gliadin Accumulation In Hard Red Spring Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.), Stacy Lindblom-Dreis Jan 2018

Stability Analysis Of Immunogenic Gliadin Accumulation In Hard Red Spring Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.), Stacy Lindblom-Dreis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Misconceptions regarding plant breeding objectives have led to speculation regarding the increasing prevalence of gluten intolerance, wheat allergy, and celiac disease. It is thought that contemporary wheat cultivars accumulate more immunogenic proteins than older cultivars because of supposed genetic changes effected through plant breeding strategies. This study evaluated the stability of gliadin accumulation in 191 hard red spring wheat cultivars grown in 12 location-years. Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed. A paired t test (N = 34) failed to find a statistically significant difference between the experimental ELISAs and the commercial R5 assay measures of mean gliadin (t = 0.37 ...


Nutritional And Health Benefits Enhancement Of Wheat-Based Food Products Using Chickpea And Distiller’S Dried Grains, Waleed H.M. Alrayyes Jan 2018

Nutritional And Health Benefits Enhancement Of Wheat-Based Food Products Using Chickpea And Distiller’S Dried Grains, Waleed H.M. Alrayyes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The first objective of this research was to enhance nutritional, rheological, sensory profiles, and shelf life of wheat-based pita bread using chickpea (CP) and food grade distiller’s dried grains (FDDG) as fortification ingredients. CP and FDDG are both high-protein and high-fiber ingredients. Nutritional efficacy was evaluated. Dough rheology and product texture were also analyzed. Chemical, physical, and rheological properties of blends, doughs and finished products were evaluated and the results showed an increase in protein, fat, ash, and total dietary fiber with an increase of FDDG and CP in the wheat-based food formulation. Moisture content was decreased in both ...


Characterization Of Anthocyanins In Aronia, Theodore Mohr Jan 2018

Characterization Of Anthocyanins In Aronia, Theodore Mohr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anthocyanins function as antioxidants and offer numerous other health benefits, such as anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammation protection, and may aid in the prevention of degenerative diseases. Aronia berries, uniquely high in anthocyanins, have a great potential in improving human wellness. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a rapid and reproducible analytical method for estimating the anthocyanin amount in Aronia berries; and (2) to determine the effect of growing conditions on anthocyanin concentration. A standard curve method was established based on anthocyanin absorbance in the visible range. The results reveal that the developed protocol could yield rapid and reproducible ...


Rapid And Simultaneous Determination Of Nutritional Constituents Of United States Grown Oats Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (Nirs), Devendra Paudel Jan 2018

Rapid And Simultaneous Determination Of Nutritional Constituents Of United States Grown Oats Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (Nirs), Devendra Paudel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Oats is a unique cereal owing to its nutritional and health benefits. Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an efficient tool for monitoring the quality of cereal foods. NIRS holds potential for non-destructive multicomponent oat analyses with advantage of large sample throughput, speed, and reduced cost. The purpose of this study was to develop predictive calibration models for estimating beta-glucan, protein, and oil content of US oat cultivars using NIRS and validated AACCI reference methods. A rapid, non-destructive (whole oat groat), and secondary NIRS method was developed to estimate beta-glucan, protein, and oil content based on the standard reference analyses ...


Strategies To Improve Calf Performance: Improving Water Quality, Feeding Microbially-Enhanced Soy Protein, And Supplementing Condensed Whey Solubles, Nirosh Dias Senevirathne Jan 2018

Strategies To Improve Calf Performance: Improving Water Quality, Feeding Microbially-Enhanced Soy Protein, And Supplementing Condensed Whey Solubles, Nirosh Dias Senevirathne

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Six experiments were conducted for this dissertation research to evaluate strategies to improve growth performance and health of calves. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and health effects were evaluated when calves were offered water treated with reverse osmosis system (RW), fed starter pellets supplemented with microbially-enhanced soy protein (MSP) or supplemented condensed whey solubles (CWS). The first two experiments were conducted to determine drinking preference, growth performance, and health of dairy calves offered RW or by a municipal water treatment plant (MW), compared with local untreated well water (WW). First a sequential elimination study was conducted to observed drinking preference of ...


Using Gluten Index To Improve Spring Wheat Loaf Volume Prediction, Yaming Lu Jan 2017

Using Gluten Index To Improve Spring Wheat Loaf Volume Prediction, Yaming Lu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely cultivated crop in the world and contributes about 20% of the total dietary calories and proteins globally. Unique properties of doughs formed from wheat flour make it feasible to produce a range of food, including bread. Loaf volume is the most perceptible indicator for breadmaking quality. Selection in the early generations for loaf volume is difficult due to the requirement of the large volume of grains and due to the costly, time-consuming, and labor-intensive evaluation process. Identification of simple and reliable predictive tests for loaf volume is highly desirable. This study mainly ...


Biofilm Formation By Common Dairy Sporeformers On Native And Modified Stainless Steel Surfaces, Shivali Jindal Jan 2017

Biofilm Formation By Common Dairy Sporeformers On Native And Modified Stainless Steel Surfaces, Shivali Jindal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Aerobic sporeformers can be traced in a variety of dairy products such as milk powders, evaporated milk, and canned products, which demonstrates their capability of resisting high temperature treatments such as pasteurization and Ultra high temperatures. These bacilli also actively attach to the stainless steel surfaces, consequently resulting in the formation of biofilms. Product quality as well as its safety is undesirably affected by the growth of these sporeforming bacteria. Therefore, creating an ideal environment for the processing of dairy products is a critical challenge for the dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to analyze various surface ...


Effect Of Ultrasonication On Biofilm Forming Ability Of Common Dairy Sporeformers, Taghreed Almalki Jan 2017

Effect Of Ultrasonication On Biofilm Forming Ability Of Common Dairy Sporeformers, Taghreed Almalki

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sporeformers are common dairy contaminants, which are of a great concern to the dairy industry. Quality of dairy products is affected by these sporeformers such as Bacillus species, which are a significant cause of spoilage of dairy products. Thermal processes such as pasteurization have been used to inactivate pathogens, but some of the sporeformers and their endospores are resistant to such heat treatments. Beside thermal treatments, various new approaches are being developed to improve the quality of dairy products. Amongst these, ultrasonication is a promising non-thermal technique for the inactivation of thermoduric sporeformers and their endospores. Current study was carried ...


Mitigating Risks Of Ochratoxin A Contamination In Oats, Bandana Dhungana Jan 2017

Mitigating Risks Of Ochratoxin A Contamination In Oats, Bandana Dhungana

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic metabolite produced by several species of fungal genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. The major OTA producer in temperate regions (i.e. U.S., Canada, Europe) is Penicillium verrucosum. Oat (Avena sativa), like any other cereal grain, can be contaminated with OTA when storage conditions are favorable for fungal growth. The presence of OTA exceeding the European Union maximum limit of 3 ppb in processed food has been reported in some samples of oat-based breakfast cereals from the US. The use of oat genotypes with limited OTA accumulation would be an effective way to reduce risks ...


Effects Of Bran Treatment On Rheology And Sensory Quality Of Whole Wheat Flat Bread, Jigyasha Mishra Jan 2016

Effects Of Bran Treatment On Rheology And Sensory Quality Of Whole Wheat Flat Bread, Jigyasha Mishra

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to study the differences in the quality of 100% whole wheat flour (WWF) when the bran fraction was subjected to mild solvent treatment before reconstitution with the endosperm. The bran treatments included water washing and washing with ethanol solutions (50% and 100%). WWF prepared with untreated bran served as the control. Effects of these treatments on particle size, chemical composition, color, dough rheology, product formulation, and sensory characteristics of 100% whole wheat flour were studied. Grains of five HRSW cultivars (Advance, Prevail, Select, Brick and Forefront) were milled using a Quadrumat Senior mill. Gluten ...


Protein And Fiber Fortification Of White Pan Bread Using Food-Grade Distiller’S Dried Grains, Ashley Adamski Jan 2016

Protein And Fiber Fortification Of White Pan Bread Using Food-Grade Distiller’S Dried Grains, Ashley Adamski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Distiller’s dried grains (DDG) are a coproduct of ethanol production. DDG has been used historically as animal feed. However, in the past decade, ethanol production has dramatically increased causing a surplus of distiller’s grains and saturating the market. The use of DDG, which is high in both protein and fiber, to fortify baked goods is one option to reduce the excess of DDG while enhancing its economic value. The purpose of this study was first, to evaluate the washing process for DDG to make it food grade, and second to evaluate the effects of incorporation of food-grade DDG ...


Proteomics Study Of Pre-Harvest Sprouting In Wheat, Pramod Khadka Jan 2016

Proteomics Study Of Pre-Harvest Sprouting In Wheat, Pramod Khadka

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a condition characterized by the early germination of spikes during moist environmental conditions. PHS lowers yield, degrades the quality of grain and thus limits the profits of wheat producers groups. During this investigation, proteomics studies of PHS-resistant and PHS-susceptible wheat embryos were conducted at different imbibition time periods via a cutting-edge technology called iTRAQ. Proteomic analysis revealed that 190 differentially expressed proteins might be involved in various cellular functions, such as carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, stress response, redox regulation, ATP synthesis, and protein translation, during this untimely germination of the wheat ...


Successful Weight Management: Barriers And Facilitators To Maintaining Weight After Weight Loss Via A Meal Replacement Program, Hope D. Kleine Jan 2016

Successful Weight Management: Barriers And Facilitators To Maintaining Weight After Weight Loss Via A Meal Replacement Program, Hope D. Kleine

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: Meal replacement programs (MRPs) facilitate weight loss. Unfortunately, a large percentage of individuals that lose weight through MRP are not successful at maintaining their weight. Weight regain one year following weight loss via meal replacements has been as high as 40-50%, demonstrating a critical need to improve weight maintenance in MRP participants. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify barriers and facilitators of weight maintenance after reaching a goal weight in MRP participants.

Methods: Seven focus groups of ≤8 clients were conducted to discuss barriers and facilitators of weight maintenance prior to reaching a point of saturation ...


Use Of Extraction Technologies In Food Safety Studies, Changling Qiu Jan 2016

Use Of Extraction Technologies In Food Safety Studies, Changling Qiu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Food safety has become a top concern in our society. The public in general is increasingly concerned about the safety of the food products they consume every day as more and more food contamination incidents and widespread recalls arise. It is necessary to trace any presence and/or the concentration levels of contaminants, pesticides, herbicides, or other harmful substances in food samples. Sample preparation is a crucial step in a food analytical method, as it takes up most of the total analysis time, contributing highly to the total cost of analysis and greatly influencing the results of the analysis. Traditional ...


Increasing The Nutritional Value Of Canola Meal Via Fungal Bioprocessing, Jason R. Croat Jan 2015

Increasing The Nutritional Value Of Canola Meal Via Fungal Bioprocessing, Jason R. Croat

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The main limitation of meals from canola and other Brassica spp. is the presence of glucosinolates (GLS), which are anti-nutritional and can even be toxic at high ingestion levels. Furthermore, large amounts of GLS can reduce palatability for livestock and thus reduce intake and growth rates. For this reason canola was bred to contain lower levels of GLS (<30 μmol/g) and erucic acid (< 2%). However, feed inclusion rates are still limited to ~30%, and this reduces the value of canola meal. The goal of this thesis was to optimize a pretreatment and fungal conversion process to enhance the nutritional value of canola meal. Various combinations of physical/chemical pretreatments, fungal cultures, and incubation methods were investigated to metabolize GLS into cell mass, CO2, or other non-toxic components. These treatments also served to hydrolyze canola meal fiber into carbohydrates which were then metabolized by the fungi into single cell protein. Solid-state incubation conditions were initially tested, since filamentous fungi are well adapted to grow at lower moisture levels, and this would potentially reduce contamination issues with bacteria. Flask trials were performed using 50% moisture, hexane extracted (HE) or cold pressed (CP) canola meal, with incubation for 168 h at 30ºC. On HE canola meal Trichoderma reesei (NRRL-3653) achieved the greatest increase in protein content (23%), while having the lowest residual levels of sugar (8% w/w) and GLS (0.4 μM/g). On CP canola meal T. reesei (NRRL-3653), Aureobasidium pullulans (NRRL-58522), and A. pullulans (NRRL-Y-2311-1 ...


Ultrafiltration Of Skim Milk Prior To Cottage Cheese Making, Izhar H. Athar Jan 1983

Ultrafiltration Of Skim Milk Prior To Cottage Cheese Making, Izhar H. Athar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cottage cheese has the largest sales volume potential of all cultured dairy products in the United States today. Moreover, it can be a highly profitable product if proper control is exercised during its manufacturing (46). Commercial production of cottage cheese utilizes a significant portion of the total fluid milk produced in the U. S.A. After the 1955's, yearly per capita consumption of cottage cheese increased from 1. 7 7 kg (3.9 lb) to a high of 2. 45 kg (5.4 lb) in 1972 (67) . Consumer demand for lower fat dairy products gradually increased, which put more ...