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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase-Mediated Lipid Metabolism In Obesity And Colon Tumorigenesis, Weicang Wang Oct 2019

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase-Mediated Lipid Metabolism In Obesity And Colon Tumorigenesis, Weicang Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

Colon cancer is a major public health issue: it is expected to have 140,250 new cases and 50,630 deaths during 2018, making colon cancer the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Obesity is associated with enhanced colonic inflammation, which is a major risk factor of colorectal cancer. Currently, more than 35% of adults and nearly 17% of children are obese. Considering the obesity and colon cancer epidemic in the United States, there is an urgent need to identify novel therapeutic targets for obesity and colon cancer ...


Silver Mirror Substrate And Rolling Method For Improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Spesctroscopic Analysis In Food, Yanqi Qu Oct 2019

Silver Mirror Substrate And Rolling Method For Improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Spesctroscopic Analysis In Food, Yanqi Qu

Doctoral Dissertations

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, short for SERS, is an emerging technology with great potential in food analysis due to rapid detection, high sensitivity, portable instrumentation, and simple sample preparation. However, it is always a bottleneck to obtain reproducible SERS measurements in real analytical cases due to the complicity of food systems and inhomogeneous aggregation of colloidal nanoparticles. To improve its performance for practical applications in food analysis, efforts have been made in improving the reproducibility, enhancing the selectivity and reducing the matrix interference to the analyte. Herein, a self-assembly silver nanoparticles mirror substrate was fabricated to improve the and the quantitative ...


Effects Of Ivermectin And Perfluorobutanesulfonic Acid (Pfbs) On Lipid Metabolism, Weipeng Qi Oct 2019

Effects Of Ivermectin And Perfluorobutanesulfonic Acid (Pfbs) On Lipid Metabolism, Weipeng Qi

Doctoral Dissertations

Accumulating evidence has shown a link between environmental contaminants and altered lipid metabolism. There is currently, however, limited knowledge regarding the causal molecular mechanisms. Therefore, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of two environmental contaminants, ivermectin and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), on lipid metabolism in adipocytes and hepatocytes using cell culture models. We first studied the effects of ivermectin, an anti-parasitic agent, on the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Our current results suggest that ivermectin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the expression of adipogenic genes where these effects were found to be partially via PPARĪ³-dependent, but not FXR-dependent, pathway. Additionally, ivermectin also ...


Determining Kinetic Parameters Of Thiamine Degradation In Three Nasa Spaceflight Foods In Thermal Processing And Long-Term Storage And Methods For Analyzing Microstructure And Precipitant Development In Real And Model Wines, Timothy R. Goulette Jul 2019

Determining Kinetic Parameters Of Thiamine Degradation In Three Nasa Spaceflight Foods In Thermal Processing And Long-Term Storage And Methods For Analyzing Microstructure And Precipitant Development In Real And Model Wines, Timothy R. Goulette

Doctoral Dissertations

The current NASA spaceflight food program encompasses a wide variety of commercial and custom-made edible products. These foods are designed to ensure each crewmember receives the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of vitamins and minerals to maintain adequate health during the entire spaceflight mission. With the desire for long-duration and exploration-class missions, such as the impending mission to Mars, the retention of important nutrients such as labile vitamins in spaceflight foods is critically important. For this reason, multiple studies were conducted to determine the vitamin degradation behavior of thiamine (vitamin B1) within three spaceflight foods which demonstrated both significant presence ...


Hybridized Polymeric Nano-Assemblies: Key Insights Into Addressing Mdr Infections, Ryan Landis Mar 2019

Hybridized Polymeric Nano-Assemblies: Key Insights Into Addressing Mdr Infections, Ryan Landis

Doctoral Dissertations

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria contribute to more than 700,000 annual deaths world-wide. Millions more suffer from limb amputations or face high healthcare treatment costs where prolonged and costly therapeutic regimens are used to counter MDR infections. While there is an international push to develop novel and more powerful antimicrobials to address the impending threat, one particularly interesting approach that has re-emerged are essential oils, phytochemical extracts derived from plant sources. While their antimicrobial activity demonstrates a promising avenue, their stability in aqueous media, limits their practical use in or on mammals. Inspired by the versatility of polymer nanotechnology and the ...


Strategies To Increase Lipid Oxidative Stability Of A Low Moisture Cracker System, Thanh Vu Mar 2019

Strategies To Increase Lipid Oxidative Stability Of A Low Moisture Cracker System, Thanh Vu

Doctoral Dissertations

The first study focuses on impact of solid fat content (SFC) on lipid oxidation and micro-structure of low moisture crackers. A series of fats were formulated to have varying SFC but the same linoleic acid (18:2) and tocopherol compositions so the fats had similar susceptibility to oxidation. A comparison of the oxidative stability of interesterified soybean oil and a blend of fully hydrogenated soybean fat and soybean oil, the interesterified fat (13.7% SFC at 55 oC) resulted in a more oxidatively stable cracker than the fat blend (17.4% SFC at 55 oC). Similarly in crackers ...


Prediction And Control Of Vitamin C Loss In Spaceflight Foods, William Dixon Mar 2019

Prediction And Control Of Vitamin C Loss In Spaceflight Foods, William Dixon

Doctoral Dissertations

Shelf stable foods that require no refrigeration or freezing are the predominant food source for astronauts. Due to its high impact on astronautsā€™ health, it is crucial to know if the astronauts are getting all the necessary nutrients from shelf stable foods, specifically vitamins. With limited knowledge on vitamin degradation in spaceflight foods during storage and processing, our team decided to tackle this issue focusing on unstable vitamins, which included vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamin B1 (thiamine); however, this thesis will specifically focus on vitamin C.

A two-year storage and retort processing study was conducted on 5 different foods ...