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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Formulation And Characterization Of An Antimicrobial Coating Containing Nisin For Large Scale Food Package Converting Processes, Michele Christine Perna May 2016

Formulation And Characterization Of An Antimicrobial Coating Containing Nisin For Large Scale Food Package Converting Processes, Michele Christine Perna

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This research consisted of formulating an antimicrobial coating containing Nisaplin® intended for large scale production and inhibition of spoilage microorganisms. Secondly, the coating formulated was applied to a flexible film surface using two trials (gravure and flexography) commonly used in large scale food package coating or printing processes. In addition, diffusion and mass transfer theory was applied to discuss the many complications of predicting nisin diffusion or release from a coated material for antimicrobial food packaging applications.

Previous work conducted by predecessors, produced an antimicrobial coating formulation using a 70/30 Methylcellulose/Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose base (MC/HPMC). Some disadvantages of ...


Effects Of Semi-Rigid Plastic Tray Geometry On Thermal Processing And Quality Factors In Retorted Foods, Curtis Stowe Dec 2015

Effects Of Semi-Rigid Plastic Tray Geometry On Thermal Processing And Quality Factors In Retorted Foods, Curtis Stowe

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This research studied the effect of packaging geometry changes on heat penetration and quality attributes of a food system processed in a rotary retort vessel. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of package geometry in a rotary retort on heat penetration, analytical, and physical properties of a model food system processed at optimum conditions. Additionally, heat mapping for each shape was used to determine the heating profiles during retorting. Retort-able trays were filled with a tomato based food simulate and thermally processed in a water immersion, automated batch retort system (ABRS) using rotational speeds of 6 RPM and 11 ...


Effects Of Transportation Hazards On Package Performance And Food Product Shelf Life, Kyle Dunno Dec 2014

Effects Of Transportation Hazards On Package Performance And Food Product Shelf Life, Kyle Dunno

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This research studied the effect of transportation hazards on food product shelf life and package performance. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of package headspace volume, product viscosity and storage temperature on package integrity. Finally, accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) was utilized to determine how simulated transportation hazards affected the shelf life of a specific food product. Institutional retort pouches containing either water or 5% starch solution were filled with varying amounts of headspace volume to determine if package headspace volume could aid in package performance during simulated engineering tests for packaged products. Fixed displacement vibration testing and compression ...


Development And Application Of Scalable Two-Dimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography For Aromatic Selective Separations Of Biologically Active Phytochemicals From Oplopanax Horridus, Gregory Jones Dec 2014

Development And Application Of Scalable Two-Dimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography For Aromatic Selective Separations Of Biologically Active Phytochemicals From Oplopanax Horridus, Gregory Jones

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The high demand for more efficient purification processes with increased automation and throughput pushes the development of more advanced preparative, pilot, and process scale HPLC instrumentation that is capable of achieving higher purities in a shorter amount of time than are currently achieved using one dimensional separations. A preparative scale 2D HPLC system was designed and reduced to practice in order to demonstrate the capacity for scalability of on-line comprehensive 2D HPLC separations of basic compounds from a challenging natural product extract of Oplopanax horridus. The methodology and instrumentation design herein permits direct method transfer from analytical to preparative scale ...


Antibacterial Effects Of Proteases On Different Strains Of Escherichia Coli And Listeria Monocytogenes, Hanan Eshamah Aug 2013

Antibacterial Effects Of Proteases On Different Strains Of Escherichia Coli And Listeria Monocytogenes, Hanan Eshamah

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Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes are pathogens that have received special attention by federal agencies, food safety researchers and food industries due to their economic and human health impact. To reduce the presence of these pathogens, alternative interventions have been studied. However, increasing consumer's demand for natural ingredients has made the investigations of effectiveness of natural antimicrobials necessary. In this study, in vitro antimicrobial activity of bromelain and papain against E. coli JM109 and L. monocytogenes was investigated. Furthermore, actinidin and papain were evaluated to reduce populations of L. monocytogenes strain and three mixed strains of E ...


Correlation Of Physicochemical Properties Of Chondroitin Sulfate To Its In-Vitro Absorption And Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Lahari Surapaneni May 2013

Correlation Of Physicochemical Properties Of Chondroitin Sulfate To Its In-Vitro Absorption And Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Lahari Surapaneni

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The purpose of this study was to investigate if the molecular weight and degree of sulfation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) has an impact on its in vitro absorption and anti-inflammatory activity.
For absorption studies, Caco-2 cells were incubated with eight CS samples of differing molecular weights (7 kDa - 35 kDa). The amount of CS transported into the basolateral side of the Caco-2 monolayer was quantitatively determined to calculate the permeability coefficients (Peff). The permeability coefficients of the eight different CS samples across Caco-2 cell monolayers were assessed. For anti-inflammatory studies, RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were pre incubated with ...


Analyses Of Consumer Perceptions, Farmer Challenges, Polyamine, And Amino Acid Content Of Organic And Conventional Fresh Produce Grown In South Carolina, Emily Steinberg Dec 2012

Analyses Of Consumer Perceptions, Farmer Challenges, Polyamine, And Amino Acid Content Of Organic And Conventional Fresh Produce Grown In South Carolina, Emily Steinberg

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Execution of the USDA organic standards led to more support for local food as distinct from organic food. The current study was conducted to examine fresh produce perceptions and purchasing decisions of S.C. consumers. Four-hundred and eight S.C. consumers were surveyed at S.C. grocery stores. More than one-third of the S.C. consumers not knowing about the 'certified S.C. grown' program suggest that the S.C. Department of Agriculture (SCDA) may want to improve the promotion of their program. Eighty-five percent of consumers indicated that they would choose local over organic. This information would be useful ...


Biological Properties Evaluation And Chemical Profiles Of Phenolic Compounds In Muscadine Grapes (Vitis Rotundifolia), Qi You May 2012

Biological Properties Evaluation And Chemical Profiles Of Phenolic Compounds In Muscadine Grapes (Vitis Rotundifolia), Qi You

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Phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins in muscadines have attracted much attention due to their diverse biological activities. With bioassays of antioxidant activities in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) total anthocyanin content (TAC), total procyanidin content (TPA), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ABTS radical scavenging Activity (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oil peroxidation inhibitory capacity of all muscadine samples, the muscadine grapes showed strong antioxidant activities. The liquid-liquid organic solvent extraction successfully separated the anthocyanins and other phenolics to different fractions. Strong linear relationship between responses of TPC, TAC and TPA versus their antioxidant activities ...


The Nutritional And Microbiological Characteristics Of An Equol-Enriched Table Egg Produced In A Free-Range Or Conventional Production System, Michelle Parisi May 2012

The Nutritional And Microbiological Characteristics Of An Equol-Enriched Table Egg Produced In A Free-Range Or Conventional Production System, Michelle Parisi

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The specialty foods market has grown by 30% since 2006 with specialty eggs now making up about 5% of all eggs sold at retail. Specialty eggs like those produced in alternative production systems and enhanced in beneficial nutrients can provide a profitable opportunity for egg producers while meeting consumer demands for nutritious, safe, and humanely-produced eggs. Isoflavone-enriched eggs can be marketed as a new specialty egg that would offer a valuable source of health-promoting isoflavones, nutrients that are typically lacking in diets of Western culture. Equol, a potent soy isoflavone is found naturally in eggs of laying hens and can ...


Development Of A Nutrition Education Program For Hispanic Women Of South Carolina Based On Nutrition And Cooking Classes Using The Health Belief Model And The Social Cognitive Theory, Marta Gamboa Acuna Aug 2010

Development Of A Nutrition Education Program For Hispanic Women Of South Carolina Based On Nutrition And Cooking Classes Using The Health Belief Model And The Social Cognitive Theory, Marta Gamboa Acuna

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During 2005, Hispanics became the largest minority group in the country. In the case of South Carolina during 2006, the Hispanic population represented 3.5% of its entire population. In general, Hispanics have lower level of income and education, and higher obesity rates than other ethnic groups. In addition, several studies have shown that Hispanics lack a basic knowledge regarding health and healthy eating, food combinations, portion size and cooking skills. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a nutrition and cooking program for Hispanics with low income and low education levels. To determine participants' needs, an ...


Carnosine Content And Antioxidant Activity From Poultry Co-Products, Protein Meal And Stressed Poultry Tissues, Paljinder Manhiani Jan 2010

Carnosine Content And Antioxidant Activity From Poultry Co-Products, Protein Meal And Stressed Poultry Tissues, Paljinder Manhiani

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Four separate studies were conducted to examine carnosine levels and associated antioxidant activity in poultry co-products, in rendered poultry protein meal, in tissues from stressed or non-stressed chickens. In the first study, carnosine was extracted from poultry co-products (head, liver, lungs, tail, gizzard, brain and heart). Liver contained the highest (102.29 mg/gm) level, while brain contained the lowest level of carnosine (0.95 mg/gm). Except brain, all tissue ultrafiltrates (20.87-39.57%) and reconstituted dry powders (5.66- 14.47%) showed thiobarbituric reactive acid species (TBARS) inhibition. Head ultrafiltrate and reconstituted dry powder showed maximum while gizzard ...


Characterization Of Bioactive Phytochemicals From The Stem Bark Of African Mahogany Khaya Senegalensis (Meliaceae), Huaping Zhang Dec 2008

Characterization Of Bioactive Phytochemicals From The Stem Bark Of African Mahogany Khaya Senegalensis (Meliaceae), Huaping Zhang

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ABSTRACT
African mahogany Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (Meliaceae) is a large tree growing mainly in the sub-Saharan savannah forests from Senegal to Uganda. This plant is one of the most popular medicinal meliaceous plants in traditional African remedies, used as a bitter tonic, folk and popular medicine against malaria, fever, mucous diarrhea, and venereal diseases as well as an anthelmintic and a taeniacide remedy. Its extracts and chemical constituents have been the subject of extensive phytochemical and pharmacological investigations since 1960s. Anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anthelmintic, and antiplasmodial activities of plant extracts have been reported. Limonoids with anti-feeding, feeding deterrent and ...


Optimization Of Biodiesel Production From Crude Cottonseed Oil And Waste Vegetable Oil:Conventional And Ultrasonic Irradiation Methods, Xiaohu Fan Dec 2008

Optimization Of Biodiesel Production From Crude Cottonseed Oil And Waste Vegetable Oil:Conventional And Ultrasonic Irradiation Methods, Xiaohu Fan

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Biodiesel, derived from the transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with simple alcohols, has attracted more and more attention recently. As a cleaner burning diesel alternative, biodiesel has many attractive features including: biodegradability, nontoxicity, renewability and low emission profiles.
Although cottonseed oil was the first commercial cooking oil in the U.S, it has progressively lost its market share to some vegetable oils that have larger production and less cost. However, regarding the active researches on biodiesel production from vegetable oils, there is a promising prospective for the cottonseed oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production, which may enhance ...


Fish Gelatin-Nanoclay Composite Film. Mechanical And Physical Properties, Effect Of Enzyme Cross-Linking, And As A Functional Film Layer, Hojae Bae Dec 2007

Fish Gelatin-Nanoclay Composite Film. Mechanical And Physical Properties, Effect Of Enzyme Cross-Linking, And As A Functional Film Layer, Hojae Bae

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The effect of clay content, homogenization RPM, and pH on the mechanical and barrier properties of fish gelatin/nanoclay composite films was investigated. The addition of clay increased the tensile strength (TS) from 30.31±2.37 MPa to 40.71±3.30 MPa. The nanoclay composite film had improved oxygen and water barrier properties when compared to neat fish gelatin film. Oxygen permeability decreased from 0.0004028±0.0000007 gm/m2dayatm to 0.0001144±0.0000162 gm/m2dayatm and the water vapor permeability decreased from 0.0312±0.0016 ngm/m2sPa to 0.0081±0.0001 ngm/m2sPa. The ...


Antimicrobial Powders And Bio-Based Films, Byungjin Min Aug 2007

Antimicrobial Powders And Bio-Based Films, Byungjin Min

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Food safety can be improved by various antimicrobial applications through the effective inhibition of microorganisms for certain periods by controlled release. Antimicrobials in powders and films were studied to investigate their activities and properties. Nisin (Nisaplin®) (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 IU/ml) was adsorbed to silica and different corn starches and their antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated by agar diffusion assay. Nisin-adsorbed silica (Celpure P-65) powder had the highest antimicrobial activity at 600 IU/ml and also confirmed that the highest amount of nisin was adsorbed onto silica at the same concentration. Efficacy of both unmodified ...


Application Of Nanotechnology To Pathogen Detection And Inactivation, Hua Yang Dec 2006

Application Of Nanotechnology To Pathogen Detection And Inactivation, Hua Yang

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Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotrophic, gram-positive pathogen frequently involved in outbreaks of food-borne disease in which milk, cheese, meat, and vegetables represent the incriminated foodstuffs. L. monocytogenes biofilms formed on food contact surfaces and processing environments are the major sources of contamination to ready-to-eat food products. Nanotechnology as an emerging new technology has many biological applications. The objectives of this study were to apply immunonanoparticles, carboxyl modified nanoparticles covalently bound with anti-L. monocytogenes, for L. monocytogenes detection and inactivation. Immunonanopaticles and fluorescent immunonanoparticles were applied to indirect fluorescent immunoassay and direct fluorescent immunoassay, respectively, for sensitive detection of L. monocytogenes ...


Eliminating Listeria Monocytogenes In Packed Ready-To-Eat Poultry Products By Combining In-Package Pasteurization With Nisin And/Or Lysozyme, Sunil Mangalassary Dec 2006

Eliminating Listeria Monocytogenes In Packed Ready-To-Eat Poultry Products By Combining In-Package Pasteurization With Nisin And/Or Lysozyme, Sunil Mangalassary

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Listeria monocytogenes is a significant food-borne pathogen particularly associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products which can grow and multiply at refrigeration temperatures. In-package pasteurization is an effective post-lethality intervention to reduce microbial contamination of RTE meat products. Enhancing the efficiency of in-package pasteurization is vital in reducing the L. monocytogenes population as well as in preserving the quality of the meat product. The first section of the dissertation research evaluated the effect of product thickness on the surface heating rate and final surface temperature during in-package pasteurization of vacuum-packaged bologna. Three thicknesses (4, 12, and 20 mm), corresponding ...