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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Exploring The Short-Term Effects Of Probiotic And Prebiotic Supplementation On The Microbiota And Physiology Of Male C57bl/6 Mice, Miguel Angel Rivas Jan 2018

Exploring The Short-Term Effects Of Probiotic And Prebiotic Supplementation On The Microbiota And Physiology Of Male C57bl/6 Mice, Miguel Angel Rivas

Wayne State University Theses

The gut microbiome may play a role in the development of chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Diets including prebiotics or probiotics can alter the abundance of gut bacterial groups and have subsequent health effects. In this study we wanted to establish a method for comparing the benefits of commercial supplements that alter the microbiota by monitoring fecal microbial profiles in male C57BL/6 mice (n = 24) exposed to 15 days of dietary supplementation. A probiotic diet (VSL#3) and a prebiotic diet (potato starch) were compared to a standard diet (n = 8 for each group). Microbial profiles ...


Optimization Of Growth Conditions And Characterization Of Properties On Christensenella Minuta, Qing Ai Jan 2017

Optimization Of Growth Conditions And Characterization Of Properties On Christensenella Minuta, Qing Ai

Wayne State University Theses

Currently, increasing numbers of people are suffering from obesity. The gut microbiome becomes a useful approach to control the mechanisms associated with obesity. A novel bacterium, Christensenella minuta, which was discovered in 2012, triggers body weight loss. Our purpose in this study is to further realize characteristics of C. Minuta as a potential probiotic supplement for future obesity studies. This study determines the following characteristics of C. Minuta: DNA identification, turbidity verification, generation time, as well as optimization of pH and temperature. To test the tolerance of C. Minuta as a gastrointestinal treatment, the pH and bile salts concentration in ...


Development Of Gi Sustainable Probiotic Beads Using Microencapsulation, Jiarun Cui Jan 2017

Development Of Gi Sustainable Probiotic Beads Using Microencapsulation, Jiarun Cui

Wayne State University Theses

Scientists tend to pay a lot attention to probiotics in recent years, due to its health related benefits for humans. Encapsulation is a necessary way to protect probiotics from being killed by harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, and to help probiotics to release in the intestinal environment. This study is mainly focusing on the encapsulation technique of Christensenella minuta, and the food product development of C. minuta beads. The extrusion technique was applied as the encapsulation method, with alginate as the encapsulation material. The effect of single encapsulation and double encapsulation of C. minuta was compared to determine the ...


The Potential Stimulation Of C. Minuta Growth By Various Prebiotics, And Its Sensitivity To Various Antibiotics, Maria Elena Hakim Jan 2017

The Potential Stimulation Of C. Minuta Growth By Various Prebiotics, And Its Sensitivity To Various Antibiotics, Maria Elena Hakim

Wayne State University Theses

Gut microbiota play a crucial role in maintaining intestinal health and integrity; a feature that is both heritable, as well as affected by the environment and lifestyle. Probiotics are supplements containing live microorganisms that act in a similar manner to gut microflora, and maintain a balance in the latter. C. minuta is a novel bacterium in the gut that was found to be associated with reduction in body weight and adiposity. The aim of this study was to determine the possible effects of different prebiotics on C. minuta growth, and the survival of C. minuta in response to different antibiotics ...


Prevalence And Antimicrobial Resistance Of E. Coli And Enterococcus Species In Detroit Urban Agriculture, Liyanage Nirasha Wijayangi Perera Jan 2017

Prevalence And Antimicrobial Resistance Of E. Coli And Enterococcus Species In Detroit Urban Agriculture, Liyanage Nirasha Wijayangi Perera

Wayne State University Theses

Urban farming is gaining popularity around the world as a sustainable agricultural system for providing heatlhy and inexpensive food. However, there are limited data available on the microbial safety related to this sector of agriculture. The objective of the present study was to examine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli and Enterococcus in soil and vegetables associated with urban agriculture.

A total of 19 soil samples and 48 vegetable samples, including 21 leafy greens and 27 root vegetables, were collected from three urban gardens in Detroit. E. coli and Enterococcus were isolated and identified by PCR. Enterococcus species ...


Investigation Into Roseburia Intesinalis For Optimal Growth And Survivability Conditions For Potential Probiotic Use, Lisa Rana Felczak Jan 2017

Investigation Into Roseburia Intesinalis For Optimal Growth And Survivability Conditions For Potential Probiotic Use, Lisa Rana Felczak

Wayne State University Theses

Obesity and diabetes is an epidemic of increasing concern. Certain novel bacteria have been found to be an aid in reversing some of the mechanisms associated. This study focused on investigating the optimal stability conditions for R.intestinalis that can associate with an increase in growth. First, environmental conditions were tested to find the optimal conditions associated with each. Once growth conditions were found, generation time was calculated and various prebiotics were used to investigate a potential for additional growth. Next, common antibiotics were tested to see if the R.intestinalis could still show growth when exposed. Large batches of ...


Optimization Of Growth Conditions Of "Eubacterium Hallii" As A Potential Probiotics, Sampurna Guhathakurta Jan 2017

Optimization Of Growth Conditions Of "Eubacterium Hallii" As A Potential Probiotics, Sampurna Guhathakurta

Wayne State University Theses

ABSTRACT

OPTIMIZATION OF GROWTH CONDITIONS OF “Eubacterium hallii” AS A POTENTIAL PROBIOTICS

by

SAMPURNA GUHATHAKURTA

May 2017

Advisor: Dr. Kequan Zhou

Major: Nutrition and Food Science

Degree: Master of Science

Probiotics are becoming popular to a greater extent over the past two decades for their potential benefits on human health. Therefore, they are widely used in the food industry by incorporation into food products. Nowadays, there are a lot of probiotics which are famous in the market. In this study, the strain of Eubacterium hallii was used because it has a significant importance in the pharmaceutical or food industry especially ...


The In Vivo Effect Of Oil Palm Phenolics (Opp) In Atherogenic Diet Induced Rats Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease (Ad), Yan Wu Jan 2017

The In Vivo Effect Of Oil Palm Phenolics (Opp) In Atherogenic Diet Induced Rats Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease (Ad), Yan Wu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the aging population. It is characterized by cognitive decline and deposition of ß-amyloid plaques in the hippocampus. It has been shown that hypercholesterolemia induced by high cholesterol diet is associated with AD development. Increased level of oxidative stress has also been observed in AD patients. An important strategy to treat or delay the impairment is based on dietary modification, using food supplements. OPP, a water soluble fraction from oil palm fruit, rich in phenolics has been found to possess significant antioxidant activities. Its beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases ...


In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion Model To Monitor The Antioxidant Properties And Bioaccessbility Of Phenolic Extracts From Elderberry (Sambucus Nigra L.), Ninghui Zhou Jan 2016

In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion Model To Monitor The Antioxidant Properties And Bioaccessbility Of Phenolic Extracts From Elderberry (Sambucus Nigra L.), Ninghui Zhou

Wayne State University Theses

This study performed an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model to monitor the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts derived from the elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.). The stability and antioxidant qualities of phenolic compounds from elderberry were assessed by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model involving pepsin digestion (to simulate gastric digestion) and pancreatin digestion (to simulate small i22ntestine conditions). Digested and undigested elderberry were subject to antioxidant assays including total phenolic content (TPC) assay, DPPH radical scavenging assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Our result showed that digestion process significantly reduced DPPH radical scavenging activity but had no significant ...


Histological Evidence Of The Effect Of Oil Palm Phenolics In Atherogenic Diet Induced Rat Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Kenechukwu Monplaisir Monplaisir Jan 2016

Histological Evidence Of The Effect Of Oil Palm Phenolics In Atherogenic Diet Induced Rat Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Kenechukwu Monplaisir Monplaisir

Wayne State University Theses

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with the clinical presentation of memory loss and cognitive impairment. Alzheimer's disease pathology is the accumulation of beta amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.

METHOD: In this study atherogenic diet was used to induce AD in aged Brown Norway rats. The rats were assigned to the following four groups fed isocaloric diets; control group (C ),high cholesterol diet (H), high cholesterol + oil palm phenolics group (HP), high cholesterol + curcumin group (HC). The impact of oil palm phenolics (OPP) on neuronal health and its effect on amyloid deposition was evaluated using histology ...


Potential Antidiabetic And Antioxidant Activitys Of Selected Medicinal Plants, Paba Surangi Sathsara Saranasingha Edirisuriya Jan 2015

Potential Antidiabetic And Antioxidant Activitys Of Selected Medicinal Plants, Paba Surangi Sathsara Saranasingha Edirisuriya

Wayne State University Theses

Explore traditionally used medicinal plants for diabetes mellitus would be beneficial to find an alternative option for controlling global diabetic prevalence. Present study aims to compare and identify potential antidiabetic activity in Tinospora cordifolia, Gymnema sylvestre and Aegle marmelos. Fifty percent acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of each plant were studied for anti-diabetic activity using different assays (ORAC, DPPH, ABTS, TPC, α-glucosidase inhibition). Total phenolic content and anti oxidant properties were significantly different among three plants. Tinospora cordifolia ethyl acetate extract possessed significantly higher anti oxidant activity and total phenolic content. DPPH and ABTS results were significantly correlated with each ...


Detection Of Beneficial Microbiota In Mouse Colon, Aranya Linpisanl Jan 2015

Detection Of Beneficial Microbiota In Mouse Colon, Aranya Linpisanl

Wayne State University Theses

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bifidobacterium are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics. They are present in the human gastrointestinal tract and have a significant influence on our health and well-being. Microbiota plays an important role in host metabolism and provides a natural defense mechanism against invading pathogens. This experiment was focusing on establish a method to detect the gastrointestinal tract microbiota, either by fecal or colonic tissue DNA extraction.

The experiment comparing 2 types of DNA extraction; ZR Fecal kit and DNAzol direct. DNAzol direct was easy to use but was not suitable for long term ...


Antimicrobial-Resistant Listeria Species From Retail Meat In Metro Detroit, Liziane Da Rocha Jan 2015

Antimicrobial-Resistant Listeria Species From Retail Meat In Metro Detroit, Liziane Da Rocha

Wayne State University Theses

A total of 138 Listeria isolates, including 58 Listeria welshimeri, 44 Listeria monocytogenes, and 36 Listeria innocua, from retail meat were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility tests against nine antimicrobials. In addition, the 44 L. monocytogenes were analyzed by serotype identification using PCR and genotyping using pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Resistance to one or two antimicrobials was observed in 32 Listeria (23.2%). No multidrug resistance was identified. Tetracycline resistance was the most common resistance phenotype and identified in 22 Listeria isolates. Low prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin was also detected. L. innocua demonstrated the highest overall ...


Curcumin Attenuates The Effects Of Atherogenic Diet In Aged Male Brown Norway Rats, Vindhyaja Srirajavatsavai Jan 2015

Curcumin Attenuates The Effects Of Atherogenic Diet In Aged Male Brown Norway Rats, Vindhyaja Srirajavatsavai

Wayne State University Theses

ABSTRACT

CURCUMIN ATTENUATES THE EFFECTS OF ATHEROGENIC DIET IN AGED MALE BROWN NORWAY RATS

by

VINDHYAJA SRIRAJAVATSAVAI

DECEMBER 2015

Advisor: Dr. Smiti Gupta

Major: Nutrition and Food Science

Degree: Master of Science

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a universal problem in modern society. Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Hyperlipidemia further leads to increased oxidation and inflammation. Curcumin has long been used as a spice and food-coloring agent. In experimental animals, curcumin has shown anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-oxidant properties. In this study, Aged Brown Norway Rats were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: a ...


Antimicrobial Activity Of Essential Oil Emulsions And Possible Synergistic Effect On Food Borne Pathogens, Varun Tahlan Jan 2014

Antimicrobial Activity Of Essential Oil Emulsions And Possible Synergistic Effect On Food Borne Pathogens, Varun Tahlan

Wayne State University Theses

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oil emulsions against food borne pathogenic bacteria and determine potential applications. The oils used for this study were cinnamon, oregano, clove, thyme, rosemary, sage, bergamot, nutmeg, lemon grass and bay. Oil in water emulsions were prepared using Tween 80 as an emulsifying agent, with a stock oil concentration in the emulsions of 20,000 ppm. Essential oil emulsions were individually screened against E. coli (ATCC 25922), E. coli (ATCC 700927), L. monocytogens (ATCC 19115), L. innocua (ATCC 33090) and S. Typhimurium (ATCC 19585) using the broth micro ...


Bacteriophage Isolated From The Environment And E. Coli Of Meat Origin As A Reservoir Of Antibiotic Resistance, Manisha Polur Jan 2014

Bacteriophage Isolated From The Environment And E. Coli Of Meat Origin As A Reservoir Of Antibiotic Resistance, Manisha Polur

Wayne State University Theses

ABSTRACT

BACTERIOPHAGE ISOLATED FROM THE ENVIRONMENT AND E. COLI OF MEAT ORIGIN AS A RESERVOIR OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

by

MANISHA POLUR

April 2014

Advisor: Dr. Yifan Zhang

Major: Nutrition and Food Science

Degree: Master of Science

This study was aimed to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance reservoir in bacteriophage. Bacteriophages were isolated and purified from waste water treatment plants, Detroit river, Belle Isle, Urban Garden soils and examined for the presence of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance genes. Thirty E. coli isolates from retail meat were analyzed for the presence of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance genes. 95% of E. coli them carried ...


Characterization Of Bacteriophages From Environmental Water Samples And The Potential Of Bacteriophages Tailspike Proteins (Tsp) In Bacteria Detection, Gayathri Upeksha Gunathilaka Jan 2014

Characterization Of Bacteriophages From Environmental Water Samples And The Potential Of Bacteriophages Tailspike Proteins (Tsp) In Bacteria Detection, Gayathri Upeksha Gunathilaka

Wayne State University Theses

ABSTRACT

CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIOPHAGES FROM ENVIRONMENTAL WATER SAMPLES AND THE POTENTIAL OF BACTERIOPHAGES TAILSPIKE PROTEINS (TSP) IN BACTERIA DETECTION

by

GAYATHRI UPEKSHA GUNATHILAKA

May 2014

Advisor: Dr. Yifan Zhang

Major: Nutrition and Food Science

Degree: Master of Science

The high abundance of phage in the environment and their specificity with the bacteria host make them an excellent tool for bacteria detection. To characterize phage specific to Salmonella and E. coli from water samples in the Southeastern Michigan and to develop a novel bacterial detection method using phage, environmental water samples were collected from rivers and waste water treatment plant (WWTP ...


Screening Of Natural Antimicrobial Agents And Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria Using A Soleris System, Mingyang Huang Jan 2014

Screening Of Natural Antimicrobial Agents And Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria Using A Soleris System, Mingyang Huang

Wayne State University Theses

ABSTRACT

SCREENING OF NATURAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL - RESISTANT BACTERIA USING A SOLERIS SYSTEM

by

MINGYANG HUANG

May 2014

Advisor: Dr. Yifan Zhang

Major: Food Science and Nutrition

Degree: Master of Science

Traditional broth micro-dilution method is a common assay of measuring Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) to determine the antimicrobial activity of an antimicrobial agent. However, this method is generally time-consuming and labor intensive. Alternatively, an automated optical method using the Soleris system was applied in this study. The system was compared to the traditional broth micro-dilution 96-well assay to test the antimicrobial activity of 11 essential oils and 2 ...


Development Of Active Packaging With Antimicrobial Activity, Xiuxiu Sun Jan 2014

Development Of Active Packaging With Antimicrobial Activity, Xiuxiu Sun

Wayne State University Dissertations

Microbial safety of fresh fruits and vegetables is an increasing concern with any possible recall or outbreaks negatively affecting the entire industry. The interest in the development of active packaging has recently been steadily increasing due to significant concerns about environmental pollution caused by non-biodegradable packaging materials and consumer demand for high quality food products. Newly developed packaging materials and methods often have additional functional properties, such as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

In our study, the chitosan-gallic acid edible films and chitosan-essential oil coatings with antimicrobial activity, as well as active packaging with chlorine dioxide sachet were developed. The results ...


Isolation And Characterization Of Natural Antimicrobials From Plant And Marine Organisms, Corene Barbara Canning Jan 2014

Isolation And Characterization Of Natural Antimicrobials From Plant And Marine Organisms, Corene Barbara Canning

Wayne State University Dissertations

Antibiotic agents have been found to have a limited lifespan due to the ability of microrganisms to develop antimicrobial resistance. In this study a number extracts of plant and marine organisms were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against a number of high priority pathogens. Bioassay-guided fractionation of four extracts led to the identification of compounds with inhibitory activity; including one previously unknown compound. Compounds were evaluated through a variety of techniques including broth microdilution assay to determine each compound's MIC and MBC. The majority of the compounds showed antimicrobial activity equal to, if not better than, the commonly used ...


Selenium Supplementation Increases Antioxidant Response In Vitro, Yasmin Fakhereddin Jan 2013

Selenium Supplementation Increases Antioxidant Response In Vitro, Yasmin Fakhereddin

Wayne State University Theses

Reactive oxygen species and free radicals are associated with the negative effects of aging. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms can defend cell structures from free radical damage. Selenium is an essential trace element necessary for cellular functions in the human body. A positive correlation between low serum selenium levels with the morbidity and mortality of a range of cancers has been illustrated in numerous studies. Glutathione Peroxidase catalyzes a reaction in which H2O2 oxidizes the reduced form of GSH and forms H2O. NADPH further reduces GSSG, the oxidized structure of glutathione, in a reaction catalyzed by glutathione reductase. Tissue culture was ...


Characterization Of Antimicrobial-Resistant Staphylococcus Spp. In Food Animals And Retail Meat, Kanika Bhargava Jan 2013

Characterization Of Antimicrobial-Resistant Staphylococcus Spp. In Food Animals And Retail Meat, Kanika Bhargava

Wayne State University Dissertations

Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus spp. is a worldwide epidemic concern in hospital and community settings. Food animals and retail meat are important reservoirs of these pathogens that can pose potential threat to humans. In this dissertation, we aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCoNS) in food animals and retail meat to provide insight into the role of agricultural environment in transmitting bacteria of human clinical significance. Furthermore, the potential application of phytochemicals as antimicrobials and antimicrobial adjuvants to control MRSA infections was explored.

CoNS recovered from food animals were characterized by ...


Purification Of Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors From Grape Extract, Gayle M. Shipp Jan 2012

Purification Of Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors From Grape Extract, Gayle M. Shipp

Wayne State University Theses

ABSTRACT

PURIFICATION OF ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORS FROM GRAPE EXTRACT

by

GAYLE SHIPP

August 2012

Advisor: Dr. Kevin Zhou

Major: Nutrition and Food Science

Degree: Master of Science

Diabetes and its complications are steadily growing and remain major causes of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Intestinal á-glucosidases play a crucial role in controlling postprandial blood glucose. For this reason, one attractive prevention and/or treatment strategy for type-2 diabetes is the inhibition of á-glucosidase. The effectiveness of á-glucosidase inhibitors (AGI's) for diabetes treatment is well documented in numerous animal and human clinical studies. Grape pomace extract ...


Uracil Accumulation In Folate Depleted Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts, Eneida Doko Jan 2012

Uracil Accumulation In Folate Depleted Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts, Eneida Doko

Wayne State University Theses

Folate is a water-soluble vitamin B that plays a critical co-enzyme in the de novo nucleotide synthesis and other biochemical processes including DNA metabolism, DNA repair, DNA methylation, and cellular growth. Folate deficiency has been associated to increase the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) and cancers of the lung, breast, colon, cervix, esposphagus and brain. Most importantly, folate deficiency has been shown to increase uracil misincorporation into DNA and therefore induce DNA damage repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. In response to folate depletion, levels of thmidylate decrease in the deoxyribonucelotide pool, resulting in uracil being misincorporation ...


The Effects Of Oil Palm Phenolics On Inflammation And Oxidative Stress In Relation To Amyloid Beta Plaques In Fad-Mutant And Wild Type B103 Cells, Lindsay Michelle Godsey Jan 2012

The Effects Of Oil Palm Phenolics On Inflammation And Oxidative Stress In Relation To Amyloid Beta Plaques In Fad-Mutant And Wild Type B103 Cells, Lindsay Michelle Godsey

Wayne State University Theses

Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects approximately 35.6 million people in the world today (35). It is expected that by year 2050, an individual will develop AD every 33 seconds (8). Unfortunately, the etiology is not well known. Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) occurs due to specific genetic mutations, making it possible to replicate them in cells. Using B103 rat neuroblastoma cells transfected with a cDNA construct, wild type cells and FAD mutant cells were used in this research.

Natural ingredients such as oil palm phenolics (OPP) contain antioxidants. After finding the optimal experimental parameters, OPP was found to aid ...