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Novel Approaches To The Low-Cost, Portable And Rapid Detection Of Bacterial Pathogens In Foods And Food-Processing Environments, Stephanie Adeline Hice Jan 2019

Novel Approaches To The Low-Cost, Portable And Rapid Detection Of Bacterial Pathogens In Foods And Food-Processing Environments, Stephanie Adeline Hice

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Continued outbreaks of foodborne illness involving dairy products in the United States stress the importance for rapid methods of detection of pathogenic microorganisms in food processing environments. Pathogenic microorganisms, such as Salmonella are widespread, and can be found in a variety of foods, ingredients and in industrial environments. The presence of pathogens in dairy products constitutes great risk for increased exposure, illness and reduces overall quality of the foodstream. As a result, emphasis has been placed on adapting or developing sensitive techniques to rapidly detect notable pathogens, such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in both contaminated ...


Curriculum For Foods Of Animal Origin At Ellsworth Community College, Kaitlyn Bartling Jan 2019

Curriculum For Foods Of Animal Origin At Ellsworth Community College, Kaitlyn Bartling

Creative Components

No abstract provided.


Development Of A Standards-Based Traceability System For The U.S. Grain And Feed Supply Chain, Richa Sharma Jan 2019

Development Of A Standards-Based Traceability System For The U.S. Grain And Feed Supply Chain, Richa Sharma

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Traceability in the U.S. grain and feed supply chain is complicated by commingling and re-division of grain lots across the supply chain. Present traceability practices support the regulatory “one step forward, one step backward” approach, but fails to identify the multiple interactions among farmer, elevator, processor, end-user, and consumer. Several regulatory agencies in the United States and worldwide have set rules and requirements for the implementation of traceability in the food supply chain.

This dissertation used a template-method approach to develop guidance templates for facilitating traceability objectives throughout the grain supply chain. Also, a glossary of terminology related to ...


Development Of Gluten-Free Pasta Using Amaranth Flour And Pea Protein Flour, Charu Gupta Jan 2019

Development Of Gluten-Free Pasta Using Amaranth Flour And Pea Protein Flour, Charu Gupta

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

About 40 million people in the U.S. are suffering from gluten-related diseases, resulting in the increased demand for gluten-free products. However, the challenge in developing a gluten-free product is to produce a viscoelastic network in the absence of gluten. The present study aimed to develop a gluten-free pasta using pea protein flour (PPF) and amaranth flour (AF).

The effect of the addition of pea protein flour at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% to 95%, 90%, 85% and 80% AF respectively were studied. The effect of extruder screw speeds 110 rpm, 450 rpm, and 900 rpm was studied ...


Effects Of Processing Method And Non-Meat Binding Ingredients On Batter Stability, Yield And Texture Of Frankfurters, Benjamin Lee Ruther Jan 2019

Effects Of Processing Method And Non-Meat Binding Ingredients On Batter Stability, Yield And Texture Of Frankfurters, Benjamin Lee Ruther

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effects of processing method and added non-meat ingredients on the processing yield, batter stability, and texture profile of frankfurters were investigated. Five ingredient treatments (control, sodium alginate, iota carrageenan, transglutaminase, and pork collagen) of frankfurters were produced using three different processing methods (coarse grinding, chopping in a bowl chopper and passing through an emulsion mill). Emulsion stability (water separation, fat separation and total liquid separation) was measured on the resulting batter. Processing yield was measured after cooking and chilling the frankfurters. A texture profile analysis (TPA) of the finished frankfurters was also conducted with a focus on the TPA ...


Adaptation Of Temperate Crops To Support Local Food Production For Molokai, Jill Coombs Jan 2019

Adaptation Of Temperate Crops To Support Local Food Production For Molokai, Jill Coombs

Creative Components

The island of Molokai relies mainly on imported foods for the balance of most residents’ diets. This system is neither cost effective nor environmentally responsible, and it could render the entire island helpless in the wake of a natural disaster. Due to the western acculturation of the population’s diets many Molokai residents now face serious health concerns. The high cost of imported fresh produce only adds this issue, causing people to choose cheaper less healthy processed foods. The purpose of this paper would be to identify target crops and breeding methods which would enable the local production of all ...


Production Scheduling At Ardent Mills In Alton, Il, Parker Smith Jan 2019

Production Scheduling At Ardent Mills In Alton, Il, Parker Smith

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Inactivation Of Enteric Pathogens And Natural Microflora In Pineapple Juice With Added Isoeugenol And Yucca Extract, Emalie Rhonda Hyacinth Thomas-Popo Jan 2018

Inactivation Of Enteric Pathogens And Natural Microflora In Pineapple Juice With Added Isoeugenol And Yucca Extract, Emalie Rhonda Hyacinth Thomas-Popo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of isoeugenol (ISO-EU) at 0 (control) and 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 μL mL-1 for inactivating three enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica) and indigenous spoilage microflora in Tyndallized and raw pineapple juice (PJ) respectively, during refrigerated (4 ᵒC) storage of the juice. Sub-lethal injury of pathogen survivors in PJ and the effect of ISO-EU on sensory characteristics of PJ were also evaluated. Batches of Tyndallized PJ with added ISO-EU and YEX (0.5% w/v) were each inoculated with a five-strain mixture of ...


The Potential Role Of Nitrite-Embedded Film Technology In Extending The Color Stability And Shelf Life Of Alternatively-Cured Meat Products, Michael Stephen Cropp Jan 2018

The Potential Role Of Nitrite-Embedded Film Technology In Extending The Color Stability And Shelf Life Of Alternatively-Cured Meat Products, Michael Stephen Cropp

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Meat preservation in the form of salting, curing, and packaging have been centric to meat consumption for centuries. Current research in processed meats is heavily focused on alternatively-cured meats. Alternatively-cured meats have a greater potential for reduced color stability and shelf life (compared to conventionally-cured counterparts), due to limiting vegetable-like flavors. Development of vegetable-like flavors and natural/organic labeling requirements, meat processors generally reduce the amount of ingredients used, which can lead to quality and shelf life concerns. This study was designed to determine the effects of nitrite-embedded film (NEF) technology on fully cooked all-beef bologna. Specific emphasis was given ...


Ffa Generation During Dry-Grind Corn Ethanol Fermentation, Brett Brothers Jan 2018

Ffa Generation During Dry-Grind Corn Ethanol Fermentation, Brett Brothers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The fermentation of corn into ethanol is a major usage of the American-grown corn crop. During the process of corn to ethanol, corn lipid class composition changes. The formation of free fatty acid (FFA) from triacylglycerol is commonly observed. Increased free fatty acid fermentation byproducts result in troublesome processing to remove excess FFA. The objective of this work was to determine where in the process of corn to ethanol FFA is generated using both industrial and laboratory-scale approaches. Specific commercial steps and conditions in the process of corn to ethanol were tested to determine their role in the generation of ...


Outsourcing Hospitality Leadership: Front-Line Leader’S Knowledge, Knowledge Acquisition, And Ability To Effectively Lead, Gregory Scott Krawiec Jan 2018

Outsourcing Hospitality Leadership: Front-Line Leader’S Knowledge, Knowledge Acquisition, And Ability To Effectively Lead, Gregory Scott Krawiec

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Front-line leaders are critical to the success of hospitality organizations. Successful development of leaders is contingent upon higher education, industry, and hospitality management students working in partnership. A gap exists between the wants, needs, and desires of hospitality recruiters and what recruiters perceive academia is producing. However, industry has a responsibility to continue developing leadership skills of new leaders’ post-graduation. This study examined front-line leaders in full-service hotel environments. The purpose was to explore what front-line leaders know about leadership, understand how the knowledge was acquired, and if the knowledge was used effectively. This qualitative study takes a phenomenological approach ...


Synthesis Of Some Biobased Surfactants, And Their Functionalities As Emulsifiers And Antimicrobial Agents., Kangzi Ren Jan 2018

Synthesis Of Some Biobased Surfactants, And Their Functionalities As Emulsifiers And Antimicrobial Agents., Kangzi Ren

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Biobased surfactants, which are biochemicals derived from biological resources via various methods like enzymes and microbial fermentation, can achieve similar application functionality to petroleum-based surfactants. The conventional surfactants could face challenges in terms of limited fossil fuel availability, harsh processing conditions, low biodegradability and high aquatic toxicity. Biobased surfactants, on the other hand, can address some of these challenges; however, they also have their own challenges, for example, lower yield and production rate compared with conventional surfactant production method.

The overall goal of this work was to investigate the synthesis of specific biobased surfactants and evaluate their functionalities for potential ...


Development Of Lecithin-Based Oleogels And Oleogel Emulsions With Stearic Acid Capable Of Enhancing Probiotic Viability And Delaying Oxidation, Nicole Gaudino Jan 2018

Development Of Lecithin-Based Oleogels And Oleogel Emulsions With Stearic Acid Capable Of Enhancing Probiotic Viability And Delaying Oxidation, Nicole Gaudino

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Phospholipids (PL) have been shown to bind to probiotics and increase their viability. However, phospholipids are readily prone to oxidation, which hinders their use in dairy products. The objectives of this study were to 1) produce and characterize semisolid soy lecithin (SL): stearic acid (SA) oleogels (LOG) and oleogel emulsions (LOGE) and 2) evaluate the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in the aqueous phase of LOGE. Oleogels were developed with 1 wt% water, and two gelator concentrations (20 wt% and 30 wt%) with SL:SA ratios (0:10, 3:7, 5:5, 7:3, 10:0). The same ...


Development And Assessment Of A Pilot Food Safety Training For Exempt Home Food Operations And Home Bakeries In Iowa, Leah Gilman Jan 2018

Development And Assessment Of A Pilot Food Safety Training For Exempt Home Food Operations And Home Bakeries In Iowa, Leah Gilman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The U.S. Department of Agriculture reports a 76% increase in farmers’ market locations between 2008 and 2014, indicating the increased consumer interest in local food(U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2014). Home-based food operations are producers who make and sell potentially hazardous and non-potentially hazardous products in their home kitchens. States surrounding Iowa, currently have trainings and resources available to those interested in home-based production. These trainings have been recommended to Iowa producers, but do not reflect the Iowa laws that these producers must follow. Developing a food safety training relevant for these home producers is important to increase ...


Implementation Of The Food Safety Modernization Act Among Fruit And Vegetable Processors In The North Central Region, Jacques Ludwig Alexander Overdiep Iii Jan 2018

Implementation Of The Food Safety Modernization Act Among Fruit And Vegetable Processors In The North Central Region, Jacques Ludwig Alexander Overdiep Iii

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) is a food safety law that changed the way food companies are regulated to prevent foodborne illnesses. The FSMA Preventive Controls for Human Food rule was released September 2016 for facilities in manufacturing, processing, packing, and holding of human food. The North Central Region (NCR) Center for FSMA Training, Extension and Technical Assistance was founded by the Food and Drug Administration to assist with the education of processors around the Midwest. The NCR Center funded a project with three phases designed to help small fruit and vegetable processors in the Midwest understand their relationship ...


Evaluation Of Pigmented Post-Consumer Recycled Polyethylene Properties, Emily Hurban, Greg Curtzwiler, Keith Vorst Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Pigmented Post-Consumer Recycled Polyethylene Properties, Emily Hurban, Greg Curtzwiler, Keith Vorst

Creative Components

With increased regulation of recycled materials, such as minimum content claims for bags and rigid containers in California, additional research was needed to understand how the recycled content affects the material properties and safety of these polymers. The objective of this research was to investigate how material properties changed as commodity recycled material is incorporated into commercial products, and if these changes can be modeled. Post-consumer recycled (PCR) linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) feedstocks were blended with virgin LLDPE to create 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% wt/wt PCR sample sets. The recycled feedstocks contained either exclusively calcium carbonate ...


Iron Absorption From A Novel Iron-Enriched Fungal Fortificant In Young Women, Amanda E. Bries Jan 2017

Iron Absorption From A Novel Iron-Enriched Fungal Fortificant In Young Women, Amanda E. Bries

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Iron deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency, attributing to approximately 800 million individuals with anemia, worldwide. This nutrient deficiency is greatly attributed to consumption of high plant-based diets and foods that have low bioavailable iron. Challenges arise in iron fortification, as the most affordable and conventional iron compounds have low bioavailability, therefore efforts have been made towards finding an iron fortificant with high bioavailability. The objective of this research was to determine the iron absorption of an iron-enriched fungus, Aspergillus oryzae (ASP-p) and determine its effectiveness compared to current fortificants ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). Two, single-blinded ...


Assessment Of Ethanol Production By Pentose-Degrading Yeasts In An Integrated Corn-Soy Bio-Refinery And Testing Of Efficacy Of Chemical Preservatives In Distillers Wet Grains, Varsha Gaonkar Jan 2017

Assessment Of Ethanol Production By Pentose-Degrading Yeasts In An Integrated Corn-Soy Bio-Refinery And Testing Of Efficacy Of Chemical Preservatives In Distillers Wet Grains, Varsha Gaonkar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis can be divided into two parts: one was to evaluate the effect of integrating coproducts of enzyme assisted aqueous extraction of oil from soybean oilseeds, namely soy skim and soy insoluble fiber, in corn fermentation when different yeast species are used, and the second was to evaluate the efficacy of different chemical preservatives in increasing the shelf life of distillers wet grains (DWG), which is a co-product of the corn fermentation process and sold as animal feed.

For evaluating the performance of different yeast species in ethanol production in an integrated corn-soy fermentation system, a review of published ...


Prevalence Of Salmonella Species And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Organically Managed Cattle And Food Safety Status Of Selected Meat Products, Joshua Raymond Nazareth Jan 2017

Prevalence Of Salmonella Species And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Organically Managed Cattle And Food Safety Status Of Selected Meat Products, Joshua Raymond Nazareth

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Beef is an important source of food for consumers, thus requiring the safety of beef products important when considering the potential for a foodborne related illness. The food safety status of ground beef and fermented sausage products was examined in the literature along with interventions applied to reduce food safety risk. Ground beef was found to be a more important contributor to foodborne illnesses traced back to beef, and, undercooked ground beef was frequently associated with E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks. Salmonella spp., and E.coli O157:H7 are frequently associated with ground beef. Fermented sausage products were found to ...


Volatile Organic Contamination Analysis In Packaged Foods, Nathan W. Davis Jan 2017

Volatile Organic Contamination Analysis In Packaged Foods, Nathan W. Davis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are unavoidable aspects of foods and their packaging. Some VOCs provide pleasant odors and contribute to flavor profiles, while others can cause negative health and environmental effects. VOCs are most commonly measured using headspace gas chromatography, and more recently, kinetic techniques such as solid phase microextraction (SPME). In microwave popcorn, diacetyl and possible other related substances (DAPORS) have recently become an emerging concern. Diacetyl was first discovered to cause bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) in microwave popcorn plant workers, but some claim levels of these compounds in microwave popcorn is of concern to consumers; particularly because of the ...


Optimizing Co-Products Production In Dry-Grind Corn Fermentation, Lei Fang Jan 2017

Optimizing Co-Products Production In Dry-Grind Corn Fermentation, Lei Fang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To improve the profitability of the industry, ethanol plants are capturing the values of coproducts, including distillers corn oil (DCO) and dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). Current oil recovery method can only recover 40% of oil contained in corn, which needs to be improved along with DDGS quality. This study explores the use of surfactants and hydrolyzing enzymes to improve oil recovery and DDGS quality. Our research has shown that the use of non-ionic surfactants in dry-grind ethanol process affected oil partition in thin stillage and improved final oil yield. The surfactant replaced protein from the emulsion interface and ...


Developing Soybean Oil-Based Coating And Binding Materials And Environmental Friendly Solvent System For Recovery Of Poly-Β-Hydroxybutyrate (Phb), Tao Fei Jan 2017

Developing Soybean Oil-Based Coating And Binding Materials And Environmental Friendly Solvent System For Recovery Of Poly-Β-Hydroxybutyrate (Phb), Tao Fei

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Driven by the industrial application needs and the desire to improve sustainability, my

studies have focused on developing vegetable oil-based wax and binder alternatives to

replace petroleum-based wax and animal product-based bird seed binder, and to improve the

availability of natural waxes having desired properties but limited availability. A variety of

soybean oil-based wax ester and amide derivatives were synthesized as potential paraffin and

carnauba wax replacers, and a vegetable oil-based adhesive material was developed as an

alternative to the gelatin-based bird seed binder. Some of the compounds showed physical

properties such as hardness, cohesiveness and melting point, very comparable ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Select Bacteria Against Clostridium Difficile, Kelsey Choquette Jan 2017

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Select Bacteria Against Clostridium Difficile, Kelsey Choquette

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes roughly 30,000 deaths each year in the United States and the number has been increasing since the early 2000s. Traditionally, CDI is treated with antibiotics (metronidazole or vancomycin). However, this method is only effective in 50% of the patients since it only affects the vegetative C. difficile cells and not the spores. Since the early 2000s fecal microbiota transplants (FMTs) have been used as a treatment method, leading to over 80% success rate. However, FMTs are still considered an investigational therapy since the mechanism of how these FMTs treat CDI are unknown. This has ...


Determining Aroma Differences Among Basil, Parsley, And Dill Grown Under Varied Supplemental Light Wavelengths Using Consumer Sensory And Flash Gas Chromatograph-Electronic Nose Analyses, Anne Kalyn Seely Jan 2017

Determining Aroma Differences Among Basil, Parsley, And Dill Grown Under Varied Supplemental Light Wavelengths Using Consumer Sensory And Flash Gas Chromatograph-Electronic Nose Analyses, Anne Kalyn Seely

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Greenhouse herb producers may use artificial lighting to supplement the natural light available to their crops. High-pressure sodium (HPS) lights are the most common supplemental lighting systems employed in such operations, but light-emitting diode (LED) lighting is increasing in popularity because of its energy efficiency, customizability, and environmental friendliness. LED lights can be customized to emit specific proportions of light wavelengths, but many herb producers do not know how these “light recipes” affect their crops, specifically their crops’ aroma. This research utilized consumer sensory difference panels and flash gas chromatograph-electronic nose (GC-EN) analysis to evaluate the aroma of fresh basil ...


Photostability Studies Of Retinyl Palmitate Entrapped In Policosanol Oleogel Matrices, Yixing Tian Jan 2017

Photostability Studies Of Retinyl Palmitate Entrapped In Policosanol Oleogel Matrices, Yixing Tian

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Retinyl palmitate (RP) can easily lose its biological activity when exposed to ultraviolet radiation due to the UV-mediated degradation. There is a demand to explore new approaches to protect RP in an easy, economical and efficient way. Oleogels show a great potential to improve photostability of RP. The objective of this research was to determine the kinetics of RP photodegradation in policosanol oleogels (PCO) upon UVA exposure and the photoprotective mechanism of RP taking place in PCOs. Photostability of RP (0.04%, 0.1% and 1%, w/w) was studied in PCO matrices (7%, 10%, and 12%, w/w, policosanol ...


Studies To Evaluate Methodologies Used For Determining Heavy Metal Content In Polyethylene Terephthalate Food Packaging, Bradley Goodlaxson Jan 2017

Studies To Evaluate Methodologies Used For Determining Heavy Metal Content In Polyethylene Terephthalate Food Packaging, Bradley Goodlaxson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Increased consumer awareness of contamination in food-contact packaging has raised global concerns due to the potential of environmental contamination from packaging upon disposal after the service lifetime. Contamination in virgin and recycled polymers used for food-contact packaging has necessitated the development of analytical methods that identify and quantify heavy metals. Heavy metal contaminants in food-contact plastics have the potential to cause health issues if leaching were to occur. Sample preparation and analytical methods were evaluated to quantify heavy metal content in polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Since PET is one of the most widely used polymers for food-contact applications, accurate quantification of ...


Determination Of Gelation Mechanism And Prevention Methods Of Frozen-Thawed Hen Egg Yolk, Monica Primacella Jan 2017

Determination Of Gelation Mechanism And Prevention Methods Of Frozen-Thawed Hen Egg Yolk, Monica Primacella

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Gelation of egg yolk during freezing and thawing has been a hurdle to food processors for decades, because of the reduced yolk functionality. Many studies have been performed in the past to understand the mechanism of gelation. However, this concept has not been fully elucidated. Currently, industry practices the addition of 10% salt or sugar to inhibit gelation. Although gelation is inhibited, this practice causes a significant change in flavor, which then limits the yolk application. It is therefore our objective to further study the gelation mechanism and identify the component(s) responsible for gelation through analyzing fractional mass distribution ...


Influence Of Long-Term Survival On Resistance Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To Physical Or Chemical Food Processes, Fei Wang Jan 2017

Influence Of Long-Term Survival On Resistance Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To Physical Or Chemical Food Processes, Fei Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Under adverse conditions in the natural environment or in food processing facilities bacteria may enter a long-term-survival (LTS) phase and maintain a stable concentration of viable cells for months or years. In this LTS phase, pathogens may become resistant to antimicrobial processes that would typically inactivate them in the exponential- or stationary phase of their life cycle. In this regard, the resistance of LTS phase Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella PT 30 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, desiccation or cinnamaldehyde in model systems and in food products was investigated. Exponential-, stationary, and LTS phase cells were ...


Fats, Oils, And Oleogels: Their Significance In And Impacts On Comminuted Meat Products, Taylor Wolfer Jan 2017

Fats, Oils, And Oleogels: Their Significance In And Impacts On Comminuted Meat Products, Taylor Wolfer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Animal fat is an essential ingredient in processed meats as it provides unique organoleptic properties which are characteristic of these products. That being said, further-processed meat products could become more beneficial to consumer health if highly-saturated animal fat is replaced with unsaturated vegetable oils. Oleogels, gels with oil as the liquid phase, have the potential to produce comminuted meat products similar in organoleptic properties to conventional products, but with an alternative set of health benefits as a result of increased unsaturated fatty acids. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the impact that rice bran wax/soybean oil oleogel ...


Starch Structures And Properties Affected By Genetics And By Environment, Hanyu Yangcheng Jan 2016

Starch Structures And Properties Affected By Genetics And By Environment, Hanyu Yangcheng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Functionalities of starch for food and non-food applications are dependent on the starch structures and properties, which are affected by both the genetics and the growing conditions of the crop. Objectives of this dissertation research were to 1) Understand the unique properties of Tibetan hull-less barley starches, their structures, and the impacts of growing conditions; and 2) Understand dosage effects of waxy gene on the contents and structures of amylose and amylopectin and properties of corn starch; and 3) Understand the starch physicochemical properties of Apios mother and child tuber and the mechanism of starch development.

Tibetan hull-less barley varieties ...