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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Characteristics Of Activated Carbons Produced From Herbaceous Biomass Feedstock, Oluwatosin Jerry Oginni Jan 2018

Characteristics Of Activated Carbons Produced From Herbaceous Biomass Feedstock, Oluwatosin Jerry Oginni

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Energy security and environmental protection are at the forefront of research due to the forecasted depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the growing concern of its adverse environmental impacts. The use of renewable sources for energy applications has centered on the use of biomass feedstocks and this include from herbaceous, woody, agricultural waste, forest residues and municipal wastes. The thermochemical conversion (pyrolysis) of these biomass feedstocks has potential to produce liquid fuel, a solid residue (biochar) and non-condensable gas. The biochar is primarily composed of renewable porous carbon and other inorganic compounds. The biochar is used for soil amendment, adsorption ...


Managing Exoelectrogenic Microbial Community Development Through Bioprocess Control For Conversion Of Biomass-Derived Streams, Alex James Lewis Aug 2017

Managing Exoelectrogenic Microbial Community Development Through Bioprocess Control For Conversion Of Biomass-Derived Streams, Alex James Lewis

Doctoral Dissertations

Bioelectrochemical systems are an emerging technology capable of utilizing aqueous waste streams generated during biomass conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to produce valuable co-products and thus, have potential to be integrated into biorefineries. In a microbial electrolysis cell, organic compounds are converted to electrons, protons, and CO2 by fermentative and exoelectrogenic bacteria in the anode compartment. By having the ability to extract electrons from waste streams, these systems can treat water while also producing hydrogen, and thus can improve the efficiency of biomass to fuel production by minimizing external hydrogen requirement and enabling water recycle. The overall goal of this ...


Marine Biomass Analyzer, Kai Jay Staal, Brian Paris, Tyler Cottle Jun 2017

Marine Biomass Analyzer, Kai Jay Staal, Brian Paris, Tyler Cottle

Mechanical Engineering

This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing for a marine biomass analyzer. The goal of the project and constructed system was to determine the validity and efficacy of a process that could flatten benthic macrofauna to a consistent thickness such that a biomass for the collected sample could be accurately determined. The system that was built and tested consists of a drive train that turns a mill subassembly where the organisms are flattened, supply and collection spools that hold the white fabric and clear film used to capture the organisms, a collection zone where the sample is injected, and ...


Assessing The Limitations And Capabilities Of Lidar And Landsat 8 To Estimate The Aboveground Vegetation Biomass And Cover In A Rangeland Ecosystem Using A Machine Learning Algorithm, Shital Dhakal May 2016

Assessing The Limitations And Capabilities Of Lidar And Landsat 8 To Estimate The Aboveground Vegetation Biomass And Cover In A Rangeland Ecosystem Using A Machine Learning Algorithm, Shital Dhakal

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Remote sensing based quantification of semiarid rangeland vegetation provides the large scale observations required for monitoring native plant distribution, estimating fuel loads, modeling climate and hydrological dynamics, and measuring carbon storage. Fine scale 3-dimensional vertical structural information from airborne lidar and improved signal to noise ratio and radiometric resolution of recent satellite imagery provide opportunities for refined measurements of vegetation structure.

In this study, we leverage a large number of time series Landsat 8 vegetation indices and lidar point cloud - based vegetation metrics with ground validation for scaling aboveground shrub and herb biomass and cover from small scale plot to ...


Laboratory And Field-Scale Studies Of Corn Stover Degradation, And Implications For Feedstock Cost To Lignocellulosic Biorefineries, Rachel Anne Bearden Jan 2016

Laboratory And Field-Scale Studies Of Corn Stover Degradation, And Implications For Feedstock Cost To Lignocellulosic Biorefineries, Rachel Anne Bearden

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Industrial producers of biorenewable products require an economically stable biomass feedstock in order to compete with petroleum based processing. All components of the supply chain: harvest, transportation, and storage must each be implemented at the lowest cost. This research is focused on reducing the storage cost of baled corn stover. Field-edge storage of baled corn stover may be cheaper than aggregated satellite storage, because field-edge storage eliminates material cost to level, drain, and lay a rock base on undeveloped land. Furthermore, field-edge storage eliminates transportation to a satellite location, significantly reducing the total transportation cost. Offsetting these beneficial cost ...


Optimization And Cost Analysis Of Lignocellulosic Biomass Feedstocks Supply Chains For Biorefineries, Ambika Karkee Jan 2016

Optimization And Cost Analysis Of Lignocellulosic Biomass Feedstocks Supply Chains For Biorefineries, Ambika Karkee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study estimated the biomass harvest and transport cost considering single pass biomass harvest with bulk and bale collections of biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks costs were estimated using both corn stover and switchgrass as part of the feedstock supply chain. Harvest and transport cost for multi-pass biomass harvest operations using multiple feedstocks were analyzed and the optimal number of machines for all unit operations were estimated for each supply chain.

This dissertation calculated and compared the biomass harvest and transport cost for single pass biomass harvest with bulk and bale collections of biomass. The objective of the research was to ...


Production And Harvest Of Microalgae In Wastewater Raceways With Resource Recycling, Alexander Colin Roberts Dec 2015

Production And Harvest Of Microalgae In Wastewater Raceways With Resource Recycling, Alexander Colin Roberts

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Microalgae can be grown on municipal wastewater media to both treat the wastewater and produce feedstock for algae biofuel production. However the reliability of treatment must be demonstrated, as well as high areal algae productivity on recycled wastewater media and efficient sedimentation harvesting. This processes was studied at pilot scale in the present research.

A pilot facility was operated with nine CO2-supplemented raceway ponds, each with a 33-m2 surface area and a 0.3-m depth, continuously from March 6, 2013 through September 24, 2014. The ponds were operated as three sets of triplicates with two sets continuously ...


Understanding The Thermochemical Conversion Of Biomass To Overcome Biomass Recalcitrance, Kwang Ho Kim Jan 2015

Understanding The Thermochemical Conversion Of Biomass To Overcome Biomass Recalcitrance, Kwang Ho Kim

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Thermochemical conversion technologies are promising pathways for producing environmentally benign, sustainable biofuels and value-added chemicals from biomass. However, reaction pathways and chemistry behind these technologies such as pyrolysis and solvolysis of biomass are very complex. Contributing to the complexity are the many factors that could affect the reaction mechanisms. This research focuses on an external effect on thermal decomposition and internal reaction chemistry to provide an insight into the biomass decomposition for better performance.

First, the effect of low concentration of oxygen in sweep gas during biomass pyrolysis in fluidized bed was investigated for practical purpose. It was found that ...


Characterization Of Two Biochars Derived From Horse Muck And Their Ability To Reduce Pathogen Transport In Soil, David Griffith Jan 2015

Characterization Of Two Biochars Derived From Horse Muck And Their Ability To Reduce Pathogen Transport In Soil, David Griffith

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Biochars have been created and characterized from a variety livestock manure biomass including poultry, dairy, and swine. However, no research has been conducted on the physical and chemical makeup of biochar pyrolyzed from horse muck. Two horse muck derived biochars containing either straw (HS) or woodchip (HW) bedding were pyrolyzed at 700°C and characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Tests revealed both biochars had high alkalinity, moderate specific conductivity, and low surface area as compared to other biochars in the literature. HS contained more mineral structures than HW. Scanning electron microscopy presented differences in particle shape, size, and ...


Fungal Oil With Epa In Mucor Circinelloides Cultivated On Thin Stillage From Corn-To-Ethanol Production, Shashank Ravi Jan 2014

Fungal Oil With Epa In Mucor Circinelloides Cultivated On Thin Stillage From Corn-To-Ethanol Production, Shashank Ravi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study demonstrates the potential of the oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides for synthesizing oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids when cultivated in thin stillage (TS) and centrifuged thin stillage (CTS) from corn-to-ethanol production. Biomass yield, oil yield and its EPA content were studied at different cultivation periods and carbon to nitrogen ratios. The fungal biomass yield (g/L) and its oil content (g/L) were found to be twice as high in TS as in CTS when harvested after two to six days. EPA content doubled in TS and increased by 2.6 times in CTS when the cultivation period ...


Automated Logistic Processing And Downtime Analysis Of Commercial Level Multi-Pass Corn Stover Harvesting Systems, Jeff C. Askey Jan 2014

Automated Logistic Processing And Downtime Analysis Of Commercial Level Multi-Pass Corn Stover Harvesting Systems, Jeff C. Askey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As cellulosic ethanol production reaches commercial scale, it is important to maximize efficiencies throughout the supply chain in order to keep an economically feasible feedstock. One important sub-process is the harvesting of feedstock that will be converted into ethanol. The cost to harvest and transport corn stover is a large component of the total cost and is estimated at $82/std. ton; however, this can be reduced to $47/std. ton with improvements to the supply chain (Shah, 2013).

For a large scale facility, capable of producing 30 million gallons of ethanol, 375,000 tons of dry material per year ...


Utilization Of Durian Biomass For Biorenewable Applications, Ahmad Safuan Bin Bujang Jan 2014

Utilization Of Durian Biomass For Biorenewable Applications, Ahmad Safuan Bin Bujang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The utilization of tropical fruit biomass as feedstock for biorenewable resources is an attractive proposition due to its abundance and potential to reduce reliance on conventional sources as well as the overall economic gain to all stakeholders. This study aims to pave the way towards successful and viable utilization of this feedstock by exploring and examining key physical and chemical traits of durian biomass, a major tropical fruit crop in Malaysia.

The study was divided into three main parts: identification of durian biomass moisture test method, characterization of physical and chemical properties of durian biomass for thermochemical conversion, and composting ...


The Effect Of Process Variables On Pyrolysis In A Freefall Reactor, Preston Gable Jan 2014

The Effect Of Process Variables On Pyrolysis In A Freefall Reactor, Preston Gable

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this work is to test variables of fast pyrolysis conditions in a free fall reactor in order to better understand their impact on pyrolysis products, specifically optimization of bio-oil yields. In the first study, a design of experiments was performed and products were analyzed to evaluate the effects of temperature, sweep gas flow rates, and particle heating time, on bio-oil yields. This study proved particle heating time to be a very important variable effecting bio-oil yields, and that a heating time of greater than the traditionally assumed two seconds must be achieved in order to optimize yields ...


Effect Of Plant Hormones On The Production Of Biomass And Lipid In Microalgae, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf Aug 2013

Effect Of Plant Hormones On The Production Of Biomass And Lipid In Microalgae, Malihe Mehdizadeh Allaf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Limited fossil fuel reserves, increasing demand for energy in all parts of the world are some driving forces to look for new sources of transportation fuels. Among different options available, microalgae are currently attracting wide interests as an alternative and renewable fuel source.

Microalgae are single cell photosynthetic organisms that are known for rapid growth and high energy content and as a part of photosynthesis; they produce oil that can be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Some algae strains could contain lipid up to 80% of the dry biomass. The amount of lipid production is in direct relation ...


Using Gis And Intelligent Transportation Tools For Biomass Supply Chain Modeling And Cost Assessment, Slobodan Gutesa Jan 2013

Using Gis And Intelligent Transportation Tools For Biomass Supply Chain Modeling And Cost Assessment, Slobodan Gutesa

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stable, functional, and efficient bioethanol production systems on the national level must emphasize solutions of feedstock availability and transportation problems. Transportation logistics are a critical factor in the optimization of biomass supply chains. A single 25 million gallon per year cellulosic ethanol biorefinery will require delivery of 18,500 semi loads of bales to the plant. For a typical corn-stover biomass supply chain, baled corn stover must be transported in two phases, first from the field to a storage site and then from the storage site to the biorefinery. All activities between these two points are interconnected and together they ...


Development Of A Corn Stover Yield Monitor, Byron Manternach Jan 2013

Development Of A Corn Stover Yield Monitor, Byron Manternach

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research developed a sensor to measure the mass flow of corn stover through a combine and determine what harvest parameters affected the response of the sensor. A sensor was developed by installing a curved plate behind the rotor discharge beater of the combine to intersect the flow path of the stover leaving the rotor discharge beater. The plate was instrumented with load cells to measure the impact force of the corn stover on the impact plate. Instrumentation methods for the impact plate were evaluated to determine the most effective method to instrument the impact plate to measure the impact ...


Design And Use Of An Adjustable Clearance Flailing Knife Biomass Shredder To Mechanically Increase Particle Surface Area, Shawn Gregory Ehlers Jan 2013

Design And Use Of An Adjustable Clearance Flailing Knife Biomass Shredder To Mechanically Increase Particle Surface Area, Shawn Gregory Ehlers

Open Access Theses

A flailing knife shredder was designed and tested as an alternative to a hammermill for processing biomass. The machine was comprised of two cylinders with four rungs, each with five free-swinging blades. Each of the two cylinders had adjustable clearance hoods and variable speed drives. Energy usage, output characteristics and device capacities were compared with corn stover processed at moisture contents (MC) of 10%, 35% and 50% wet basis (WB). The hammermill produced a more uniform particle size distribution in comparison to the shredder. Accessibility, indicated by conductivity index, to plant constituents, revealed that the method of treatment was not-significant ...


Economic Modeling & Optimization Of A Region Specific Multi-Feedstock Biorefinery Supply Chain, William H. Faulkner Jan 2012

Economic Modeling & Optimization Of A Region Specific Multi-Feedstock Biorefinery Supply Chain, William H. Faulkner

Theses and Dissertations--Manufacturing Systems Engineering

The objective of this thesis is to include strategic and tactical level decisions into the biorefinery supply chain design for a specific region while comparing multiple conversion technologies and biomass feedstocks. The allocation of biomass feedstocks, products, and the respective supply chain configuration locations are determined while ensuring the regions monthly biomass availability and product market demand constraints are met. This research considers all actions required to bring the bio-based products to market from harvesting, storing, and processing the biomass to market distribution. Two different conversion technologies are chosen for comparison: one advanced conversion technology and one conventional technology. Potential ...