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Theses/Dissertations

Cell and Developmental Biology

2015

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Thinking Beyond The Fried Egg Model: How Accurately Do Students Perceive Cells In A Living Context?, Milissa Knox Dec 2015

Thinking Beyond The Fried Egg Model: How Accurately Do Students Perceive Cells In A Living Context?, Milissa Knox

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This exploratory study investigated three aspects of introductory undergraduate biology students’ understanding about cells. The study, which took place at the University of Maine with voluntary students in Basic Biology (“BIO100”) in the summer and fall of 2009, examined (1) students’ pre-course perceptions of cells as they exist in a living context and (2) gains in students’ perception and knowledge about cells after completing the one-semester course (BIO100). Results are based on lecture exam scores, pre-post surveys developed as a part of this thesis, and interviews with two groups of biology students. A total of 498 students participated in the ...


A Role For Ehd Family Endocytic Regulators In Endothelial Biology, Alexandra E. J. Moffitt Dec 2015

A Role For Ehd Family Endocytic Regulators In Endothelial Biology, Alexandra E. J. Moffitt

Theses & Dissertations

Endocytic trafficking is an essential process in eukaryotic cells, specifically for the transport of nutrients, membrane components, and receptors. Cargo destined for endocytic traffic is internalized at the cell surface via clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent pathways, and brought to the early or sorting endosomes. From there, cargo is further trafficked to lysosomes for degradation, trafficked to other compartments in the cell, or recycled back to the cell surface (either directly or via the endocytic recycling compartment).

Mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins, or EHD proteins (EHD1 to 4), are a family of highly conserved ATPases that function as key regulators of ...


Atypical Protein Kinase C Dependent Polarized Cell Division Is Required For Myocardial Trabeculation, Derek L. Passer Dec 2015

Atypical Protein Kinase C Dependent Polarized Cell Division Is Required For Myocardial Trabeculation, Derek L. Passer

Theses & Dissertations

A hallmark of cardiac development is the formation of myocardial trabeculations exclusively from the luminal surface of the primitive heart tube. Although a number of genetic defects in the endocardium (Grego-Bessa et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2010) and cardiac jelly (Camenisch et al., 2000) disrupt myocardial trabeculation, the role of cell polarity machinery in driving this process remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that atypical protein kinase C iota (Prkci) and its interacting partners of Par polarity complex are localized to the luminal side of luminal myocardial cells. Remarkably, a subset of these cells undergoes polarized cell division with the ...


The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Co-Chaperone Chip/Stub1 In Erbb2-Mediated Oncogenesis, Haitao Luan Dec 2015

The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Co-Chaperone Chip/Stub1 In Erbb2-Mediated Oncogenesis, Haitao Luan

Theses & Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family member ErbB2 (Her2) is overexpressed in 20 -30% of invasive breast cancers and this overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and shorter overall as well as disease-free survival. Aberrant expression of ErbB2 through gene amplification, transcriptional deregulation and/or altered endocytic trafficking results in overexpression of ErbB2 at the plasma membrane and biases ErbB2 from primarily ligand-driven hetero-dimerization under normal expression conditions to increased ligand-independent homo-dimer and hetero-dimer formation and consequent activation. C-terminus of HSC70-Inteeracting protein (CHIP)/STIP1-homologous U-Box containing protein 1 (STUB1) is an HSP90/HSC70 interacting negative co-chaperone known to promote ubiquitination ...


Acute Methamphetamine Exposure Affects Histone Modifying Enzymes And Cytokine Production In Macrophages, Ariel Burns Dec 2015

Acute Methamphetamine Exposure Affects Histone Modifying Enzymes And Cytokine Production In Macrophages, Ariel Burns

Theses & Dissertations

The effects of methamphetamine (Meth) in the periphery are not well studied and a comprehensive investigation on the effects and molecular mechanism will give insight into why Meth users are at an increased risk of infections. For this reason, we use macrophages as a model for the immune system dysregulation seen in Meth abusers and also because macrophages are a long-lived cell that HIV infects and persists in. We aimed to determine the effects of Meth on the cytokine production, histone modifying enzymes and the corresponding histone post-translational modifications, and the molecular mechanism in HIV-infected human macrophages treated with combination ...


The Exocyst Subunit Sec6 Interacts With Assembled Exocytic Snare Complexes: A Dissertation, Michelle L. Dubuke Dec 2015

The Exocyst Subunit Sec6 Interacts With Assembled Exocytic Snare Complexes: A Dissertation, Michelle L. Dubuke

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In eukaryotic cells, membrane-bound vesicles carry cargo between intracellular compartments, to and from the cell surface, and to the extracellular environment. Many conserved families of proteins are required for properly localized vesicle fusion, including the multi-subunit tethering complexes and the SNARE complexes. These protein complexes work together to promote proper vesicle fusion in other trafficking pathways. Contrary to these other pathways, our lab previously suggested that the exocyst subunit Sec6, a component of the exocytosis-specific tethering complex, inhibited Sec9:Sso1 SNARE complex assembly due to interactions in vitro with the SNARE protein Sec9 (Sivaram et al., 2005).

My goal for ...


The Role Of Cxcr2 In Pancreatic Cancer Development And Progression, Abhilasha Purohit Dec 2015

The Role Of Cxcr2 In Pancreatic Cancer Development And Progression, Abhilasha Purohit

Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation examines the role of CXCR2, a seven transmembrane G- protein coupled receptor, in mediating autocrine as well as paracrine mechanisms during pancreatic cancer progression. Data presented in the initial section demonstrates the aberrant expression of the CXCR2 biological axis in human pancreatic cancer tissue specimens. A study performed within the first section of this dissertation investigates the contribution of CXCR2 signaling in pancreatic cancer initiation. These studies have identified a novel role of CXCR2 in mediating KRAS(G12D) -induced autocrine growth transformation of pancreatic cancer cells. The upregulation of the CXCR2 biological axis was found to be directly ...


Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In Dynamics Of Transcriptional Response To Stress In Yeast: A Dissertation, Hsiuyi V. Chen Dec 2015

Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In Dynamics Of Transcriptional Response To Stress In Yeast: A Dissertation, Hsiuyi V. Chen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The following work demonstrates that chromatin regulators play far more pronounced roles in dynamic gene expression than they do in steady-state. Histone modifications have been associated with transcription activity. However, previous analyses of gene expression in mutants affecting histone modifications show limited alteration. I systematically dissected the effects of 83 histone mutants and 119 gene deletion mutants on gene induction/repression in response to diamide stress in yeast. Importantly, I observed far more changes in gene induction/repression than changes in steady-state gene expression. The extensive dynamic gene expression profile of histone mutants and gene deletion mutants also allowed me ...


The Role Of Bone Sialoprotein In Periodontal Tissue Development And Bone Repair, Yohannes Soenjaya Dec 2015

The Role Of Bone Sialoprotein In Periodontal Tissue Development And Bone Repair, Yohannes Soenjaya

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bone development and repair involve complex processes that include interaction between cells and their surrounding matrix. In the body, bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression is up-regulated at the onset of mineralization. BSP is a multifunctional acidic phosphoprotein with collagen-binding, hydroxyapatite nucleating, and integrin recognition (RGD sequence, which is important for cell-attachment and signaling) regions. Mice lacking BSP expression (Bsp-/-), exhibit a bone phenotype with reductions in bone mineral density, bone length, osteoclast activation, and impaired bone healing. This thesis examined the role of BSP in tooth development and also its potential use as a therapeutic reagent for bone repair. MicroCT and ...


Investigation Of Cell-Penetrating Peptide Transformation In Two Regenerable Tissue Culture Systems, Atiyyah S. Ferouz Dec 2015

Investigation Of Cell-Penetrating Peptide Transformation In Two Regenerable Tissue Culture Systems, Atiyyah S. Ferouz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The genetic engineering of plants allows for the modification of plant genomes, subsequently improving plant traits. There are, however, plants recalcitrant to established transformation methods, requiring the implementation of novel techniques. This study investigates the viability of cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) transformation using Tat2, a CPP with demonstrated transformation efficiency in plant and animal systems, in two regenerable tissue culture systems, soybean somatic embryos and Arabidopsis protoplasts. Assessments of complex formation, Tat2 cellular translocation, complex uptake, and CPP-mediated transformation were carried out. The results show the formation of a Tat2-plasmid complex and the uptake of Tat2 ...


Trpm7 Function In Zebrafish Dopaminergic Neurons, Amanda R. Decker Dec 2015

Trpm7 Function In Zebrafish Dopaminergic Neurons, Amanda R. Decker

Theses and Dissertations

TRPM7 (Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-like 7) is an ion channel necessary for the proper development of many cell types. Insight into the precise role of the channel in different cells has been hampered by the lethality of knocking out the gene in model organisms such as the mouse. Here I examine a zebrafish that has a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding Trpm7. First, I show that trpm7 is important for the function of developing dopaminergic neurons in the zebrafish. Second, I examine the interaction between trpm7 and the related gene vmat2 in order to develop a cellular mechanism of ...


Hd2d Is A Regulator Of Abscisic Acid Responses In Arabidopsis, Joshua A. Farhi Dec 2015

Hd2d Is A Regulator Of Abscisic Acid Responses In Arabidopsis, Joshua A. Farhi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Histone deacetylases have important roles in development and stress response in plants. To further investigate their function, the HD2D gene, of the plant specific HD2 family, was studied. An hd2d-1 mutant and two HD2D overexpression lines were used in this study. Germination was delayed in hd2d-1 and HD2D overexpression seeds only in the presence of ABA. HD2D was found to positively regulate the expression of members of the ABA-response pathway (ABI1, ABI5, and RD29A) leading to increased resistance to drought and salinity treatments. Furthermore, HD2D expression delayed flowering by positively regulating FLC expression. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, the HD2D protein ...


Brown And Beige Adipocytes: Effects Of Inflammation And Nutritional Intervention, Jiyoung Bae Dec 2015

Brown And Beige Adipocytes: Effects Of Inflammation And Nutritional Intervention, Jiyoung Bae

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent findings of brown adipocytes and brown-like or beige adipocytes, capable of dissipating energy as heat, in adult humans have promised new hope for obesity treatment and prevention. Understanding of the regulation of brown and beige adipocytes will provide novel strategies to reach the goal. Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) are responsible for inflammation in adipose tissue, which leads to adipose dysfunction and obesity associated chronic diseases. It has been shown that PRR activation induces inflammation, leading to insulin resistance in white adipocytes and white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the roles of PRR activation in brown adipocytes and brown adipose tissue ...


Effects Of Global Dna Methylation Changes On Neurobehavior In Zebrafish, Matthew Christopher Pickens Dec 2015

Effects Of Global Dna Methylation Changes On Neurobehavior In Zebrafish, Matthew Christopher Pickens

Theses and Dissertations

A number of environmental neurotoxicants modulate DNA methylation, but its influence on neurobehavior remains unclear. The laboratory has established that low-level developmental methylmercury exposure induces neurobehavioral deficits; the current results demonstrate that it also induces global DNA hypomethylation. DNA methyltransferase 1-mutant zebrafish (exhibit ~70% reduction in enzymatic activity) were used to assess the role of DNA hypomethylation on behavior. Several neurobehavioral assays including the C-start escape, circadian rhythm, basic locomotion and visual-motor response (VMR) were also performed. There was a significant difference in VMR between the wild type and mutant animals. Other behavior assays revealed no significant difference, primarily due ...


Transcriptomics Of Chicken Primordial Germ Cells, Nhung Thi Nguyen Dec 2015

Transcriptomics Of Chicken Primordial Germ Cells, Nhung Thi Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) are derived from extraembryonic tissue of the embryo and first appear at stage X of development. They enter the bloodstream and migrate to the genital ridge, unite with somatic tissue to form a developing gonad, and then differentiate to sperm or ova (Fujimoto et al., 1976). Understanding molecular features of both male and female PGCs not only clarify the differentiation mechanism of such cells toward different germ lines, but will also help in selecting for highly productive types of commercial chicken. Most previous studies focused on the location of PGCs (Eyal-Giladi et al., 1981; Swift ...


Response Of Bacterial Cells To Fluctuating Environment, Sudip Nepal Dec 2015

Response Of Bacterial Cells To Fluctuating Environment, Sudip Nepal

Theses and Dissertations

We have studied morphological and genomic variations occurring in a mesophilic bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a wide range of continuous and fluctuating hydrostatic pressures. For all the studies here the temperature is maintained at 37◦C, the optimal growth tem- perature of E. coli at atmospheric pressure. Cell division is inhibited at high hydrostatic pressures resulting in an increase of cell length. The increase of cell-length depends on the extent and duration of the stress applied on bacterial cells. We have studied the effect of high pressure stress in three different conditions – (i) Wild-type cells (almost no genetic ...


Compounds Released From Biomass Deconstruction: Understanding Their Effect On Cellulose Enzyme Hydrolysis And Their Biological Activity, Angele Djioleu Dec 2015

Compounds Released From Biomass Deconstruction: Understanding Their Effect On Cellulose Enzyme Hydrolysis And Their Biological Activity, Angele Djioleu

Theses and Dissertations

The effect of compounds produced during biomass pretreatment on cellulolytic enzyme was investigated. Liquid prehydrolyzates were prepared by pretreating switchgrass using 24 combinations of temperature, time, and sulfuric acid concentration based on a full factorial design. Temperature was varied from 140°C to 180°C; time ranged from 10 to 40 min; and the sulfuric acid concentrations were 0.5% or 1% (v/v). Identified products in the prehydrolyzates included xylose, glucose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, acetic acid, formic acid, and phenolic compounds at concentration ranging from 0 to 21.4 g/L. Pretreatment conditions significantly affected the concentrations of compounds ...


The Role Of G-Protein Signaling In Pathogenesis In Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Brant Smith Dec 2015

The Role Of G-Protein Signaling In Pathogenesis In Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Brant Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Gray leaf spot, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of maize worldwide. C. zeae-maydis orients hyphal growth towards stomata (stomatal tropism) and forms infectious structures (appressoria) that are necessary for successful infection. Although some genes involved in pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis have been identified, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In fungi, heterotrimeric G-proteins consist of three subunits (α, β, and γ) and mediate responses to environmental stimuli. They regulate diverse functions, including nutrient detection, virulence, fungal development, conidiation, secondary metabolism, and pathogenesis in many plant pathogenic fungi. This research explored the role ...


Effects Of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 And Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide On Collagen Xi During Skeletal Development, Neda Shefa Dec 2015

Effects Of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 And Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide On Collagen Xi During Skeletal Development, Neda Shefa

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Long bones develop via endochondral ossification, a process in which cartilage precedes bone. During endochondral ossification prechondrogenic cells undergo proliferation and apoptose as cells of the periosteum differentiate into bone. The process of endochondral ossification is regulated by a group of endocrine as well as paracrine molecules that includes bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP). Collagens are extracellular matrix molecules that are present in a spatiotemporal manner during endochondral ossification. Collagen XI alpha 1 (Col11a1) is a minor fibrillar collagen that is alternatively spliced during development and can result in up to eight different spliceforms. During endochondral ...


Characterization Of Embryonic Stem Cell-Differentiated Cells As Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Rachael N. Kuehn Dec 2015

Characterization Of Embryonic Stem Cell-Differentiated Cells As Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Rachael N. Kuehn

Honors Theses

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), due to their ability to differentiate into different cell types while still maintaining a high proliferation capacity, have been considered as a potential cell source in regenerative medicine. However, current ESC differentiation methods are low yielding and create heterogeneous cell populations. If transplanted in the human body, differentiated ESCs could be rejected by the immune system, form tumors, or may not function normally within the human body. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a type of adult stem cell typically derived from bone marrow, have proved to be excellent candidates in clinical applications due ...


Regulation Of The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor By The Novel Ras Effector Nore1a., Thibaut François Barnoud Dec 2015

Regulation Of The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor By The Novel Ras Effector Nore1a., Thibaut François Barnoud

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers. It acts as a critical branch point in signal transduction, regulating numerous downstream effectors involved in cell growth and differentiation. While Ras can activate many growth promoting pathways, it can paradoxically regulate growth inhibitory pathways leading to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. One of the ways Ras can inhibit the growth of cells is via a family of effectors called the RASSF proteins. RASSF5 (NORE1A) is a tumor suppressor that is frequently inactivated in human tumors by epigenetic mechanisms. NORE1A binds directly to Ras and promotes Ras-induced senescence. We have ...


Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) From Porphyridium Cruentum: Increasing Growth And Productivity Of The Microalgae For Pharmaceutical Products, Maryam Asgharpour Dec 2015

Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) From Porphyridium Cruentum: Increasing Growth And Productivity Of The Microalgae For Pharmaceutical Products, Maryam Asgharpour

Theses and Dissertations

One of the major nutritional requirements in our diet is an adequate intake of omega-3 specially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In the present study, the effects of two temperatures (16°C & 20˚C) and light intensities (140 & 180µE/M2.S) and four nitrate levels (0.075, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7g/L) on the cell growth and lipid productivity of Porphyridium cruentum, one of the most promising oil-rich species of microalgae, were investigated. A growth comparison was carried out using pure CO2 and 5% CO2/air. Additionally, the ratio of the fatty acids with omega-3 and omega-6 groups at ...


The Ras Effector Nore1a Forms A Tumor Suppressor Complex With Brca1., Nicholas C Nelson Dec 2015

The Ras Effector Nore1a Forms A Tumor Suppressor Complex With Brca1., Nicholas C Nelson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ras proteins function as molecular signaling switches that can stimulate multiple mitogenic pathways in response to extracellular signaling. Oncogenic activation of Ras by structural mutation is a highly transforming event in ~1/3 of human cancers. However, aberrant Ras activation can also promote oncogene-induced senescence. This Ras-induced irreversible growth arrest is a physiological process that acts as a barrier to malignancy. The mechanisms by which Ras drives senescence and how this process is bypassed during Ras-driven transformation remains poorly understood.

Although mutations in the RAS gene are extremely rare in human breast cancer, the Ras signaling pathway is constitutively activated ...


Identifying Protein Kinase Tbk1 As A Novel Inhibitor Of Intestinal Tumorigenesis, Amber L. Mathews Dec 2015

Identifying Protein Kinase Tbk1 As A Novel Inhibitor Of Intestinal Tumorigenesis, Amber L. Mathews

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosed in women and men, causing almost 600,000 annual deaths worldwide. There is a clear need to understand how CRC forms and progresses in order to improve the strategies of CRC prevention and therapy. A major factor that drives the development of CRC is genetic mutations that lead to activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). In addition, the initiation and progression of CRC involve environmental and immunological factors. In particular, chronic inflammatory conditions are known as an important risk factor for CRC ...


Role Of Stat3 In Human Nk Cell Functions, Prasad V. Phatarpekar Dec 2015

Role Of Stat3 In Human Nk Cell Functions, Prasad V. Phatarpekar

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Natural Killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes, which play a critical role in the immune response against malignant cells and microbial infections. NK cells are equipped with activating receptors, which upon detecting ligands expressed on stressed cells induce cytolytic activity of NK cells. Stimulation of NK cell proliferation and priming of NK cytolytic capability are accomplished by cytokines, which mediate their signals mainly through JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Previously, we found that K562 cells genetically modified to express membrane bound IL-21 (mbIL-21), which predominantly activates STAT3, induce robust expansion and activation of human NK cells. Further investigations revealed role of STAT3 ...


Mobilization Of Adipose Stromal Cells In Obesity And Cancer By Sparc And Its Proteolytic Isoforms, Chieh Tseng Dec 2015

Mobilization Of Adipose Stromal Cells In Obesity And Cancer By Sparc And Its Proteolytic Isoforms, Chieh Tseng

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Obesity increases cancer risk and progression as shown by epidemiologic studies. However, the underlying pathophysiology remained unclear. Adipose stromal cells (ASC) are adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal progenitors, abundant in white adipose tissue (WAT). In this study, we show that the ASC pool is expanded in obesity and is associated with promoted tumor growth. Next, by using a chimeric GFP-RFP bone marrow transplant model, we observed higher tumor infiltrating cells with ASC phenotype in obese mice compared to lean. Consistently, systemic circulating ASC frequency is six fold higher in tumor-bearing obese mice compared to lean. The tumor infiltrating cells with ASC phenotype ...


Preventing Thymus Involution In K5.Cyclin D1 Transgenic Mice Sustains The Naïve T Cell Compartment With Age, Michelle L. Bolner Dec 2015

Preventing Thymus Involution In K5.Cyclin D1 Transgenic Mice Sustains The Naïve T Cell Compartment With Age, Michelle L. Bolner

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The thymus maintains T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity through perpetual release of self-MHC restricted naive T cells. However, thymus involution during the aging process reduces naïve T cell output, leading to defective immune responsiveness to newly encountered antigens. We have found that early thymus involution precipitates the age-associated shift favoring memory T cell dominancy in young control mice. Furthermore, we have shown that age-related thymus involution is prevented in mice expressing a keratin 5 promoter-driven Cyclin D1 (K5.D1) transgene in thymic epithelial cells (TECs). Thymopoiesis occurs normally in K5.D1 transgenic thymi and sustains T cell output to ...


Defining The Molecular Networks Necessary For Thymus Fate And Organogenesis, Kaitlin A. Reeh Dec 2015

Defining The Molecular Networks Necessary For Thymus Fate And Organogenesis, Kaitlin A. Reeh

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The thymus and parathyroid (PT) glands originate from endodermal progenitors in the bilateral third pharyngeal pouches (3rd pps). By E11.5 during mouse development, cells committed to the thymus lineage express Foxn1 whereas PT-fated cells express Gcm2. While these transcription factors are required for organ-specific differentiation, the exact molecular mechanisms that specify endodermal progenitors to either the thymus or parathyroid lineage are not well defined. Tbx1 is initially expressed throughout the 3rd pp endoderm, as it is required for segmentation of the pharyngeal apparatus, but is downregulated in the thymus-fated domain by E10.5. Despite the widely held ...


The Tumor Suppressor Notch Inhibits Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Hnscc) Tumor Growth And Progression By Modulating Proto-Oncogenes Axl And Ctnnal1 (Α-Catulin), Shhyam Moorthy, Shhyam Moorthy Dec 2015

The Tumor Suppressor Notch Inhibits Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Hnscc) Tumor Growth And Progression By Modulating Proto-Oncogenes Axl And Ctnnal1 (Α-Catulin), Shhyam Moorthy, Shhyam Moorthy

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Background: Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, with roughly 300,000 cancer related deaths occurring globally each year. The survival of patients with HNSCC has not changed significantly over the past decade, leading investigators to search for promising molecular targets. To identify new treatment targets and biomarkers that could better guide therapy, we previously characterized the genomic alterations from primary HNSCC patient samples. We were among the first to discover that NOTCH1 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in this cancer type. The spectrum of inactivating NOTCH1 mutations in HNSCC ...


Molecular Regulation Of Vascular Calcification In Murine Models Of Atherosclerosis, Shanshan Gao Dec 2015

Molecular Regulation Of Vascular Calcification In Murine Models Of Atherosclerosis, Shanshan Gao

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Background: Calcification occurs often in the atherosclerotic lesions of patients with coronary heart disease and animals with hypercholesterolemia, such as apolipoprotein-E deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the development of calcification in atherosclerosis remains unclear. ApoE acts as a lipid transporter, but also has been recognized as a potential regulator of osteogenesis. Little information is available as to whether ApoE has any direct impact on osteogenesis and calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Several signal transduction pathways play a role in regulation of calcification, including the Wnt/β-catenin system and potentially GTAP, an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme responsible for ...