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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Herbivory Changes Soil Microbial Communities And Greenhouse Gas Fluxes In High-Latitude Wetlands, Karen M. Foley May 2020

Herbivory Changes Soil Microbial Communities And Greenhouse Gas Fluxes In High-Latitude Wetlands, Karen M. Foley

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Herbivory by migratory animals in high-latitude ecosystems is known to impact greenhouse gas emissions from soils. However, few studies quantify the relationships between changes herbivores make to plant communities and soil conditions, and the biological interactions soil organisms have with their environment that result in changes to greenhouse gas emissions. These relationships are important to understand because they capture important carbon-climate feedbacks that may have implications for climate change policy and land management decisions, especially since high-latitude systems are experiencing unprecedented changes in climate.

In the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta in western Alaska, herbivory by migratory geese affects the magnitude of ...


Exploring The Physiology And Evolution Of Hornworts, Tanner A. Robison Dec 2019

Exploring The Physiology And Evolution Of Hornworts, Tanner A. Robison

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plants contain organelles called chloroplasts, which is where photosynthesis takes place. Chloroplasts also contain their own DNA, which is separate from the DNA in the nucleus. This DNA does not change much over evolutionary time, so it can be used to investigate relationships between organisms. Here we created a tool that makes it easier to analyze this chloroplast DNA as well making it easier to share complete chloroplast genomes on public databases. In addition, we also found a mobile element in the chloroplast DNA of a group of ferns, which appears to be driving structural changes in their genomes.


Quantifying The Predictability Of Evolution At The Genomic Level In Lycaeides Butterflies, Samridhi Chaturvedi Aug 2019

Quantifying The Predictability Of Evolution At The Genomic Level In Lycaeides Butterflies, Samridhi Chaturvedi

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stephen Jay Gould, a great scientist and evolutionary biologists, suggested that if we could replay the tape of life, we would not have observed similar course of events because evolution is stochastic and if affected by several events. Since then, the possibility that evolution is repeatable or predictable has been debated. Studies using large-scale evolution experiments, long-term data for individual populations, and controlled experiments in nature, have demonstrated phenotypic and genetic convergence in several taxa. These studies suggest that despite some randomness, predictable evolutionary patterns can emerge on a large temporal and spatial scale. However, a few cases also exist ...


Eared Grebe Nesting Ecology And Chronology Along The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Leah M. Delahoussaye Aug 2019

Eared Grebe Nesting Ecology And Chronology Along The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Leah M. Delahoussaye

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) are migratory birds that build their nests over water and in large groups called colonies. Their typical breeding range is in central southern Canada and northern United States; however, a previously uncertain number of Eared Grebes (grebes) also nest around the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, at the southern edge of their breeding range. Little is known about the habitat requirements for grebe nesting colonies at such low latitudes and if they are different from colonies found elsewhere. My objectives for this research were to determine the status of the grebe nesting population as well as ...


Effects Of Reproductive Maturity On Neuroplasticity In Male Bumble Bees (Bombus Impatiens), Karlee Eck May 2019

Effects Of Reproductive Maturity On Neuroplasticity In Male Bumble Bees (Bombus Impatiens), Karlee Eck

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Within the span of an insect's lifetime, new synaptic connections between neurons are made in response to age and experience. This neuroplasticity leads to anatomical changes within individual brain regions that represent investment in different brain functions. The neuroplasticity of female bumble bees has been well studied, but almost nothing is known about how the male bee brain responds to life experiences. Due to the complex sensory requirements of mate finding and copulation for males, neuroplasticity is likely to be an important component of reproduction. These sensory requirements include olfactory and optic inputs, which are processed in the calyces ...


Landscape Of Stress: Does Drought Prevail Over Anthropogenic Activity In Influencing Cortisol Levels And Fitness In The Pacific Fisher?, Jennifer R. Kordosky May 2019

Landscape Of Stress: Does Drought Prevail Over Anthropogenic Activity In Influencing Cortisol Levels And Fitness In The Pacific Fisher?, Jennifer R. Kordosky

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fishers (Pekania pennanti) are a species of concern in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone released to mobilize energy in response to stress and has been used as an indication of an individual’s physiological response to its environment. By collecting samples of fisher hair and measuring an individual’s cortisol, we examined the physiological stress response of the animals to human disturbances (housing density, road density, habitat type, and silvicultural treatements) and drought (tree mortality) in their home ranges. Using AICc model selection, we found that levels of tree mortality within a fisher’s ...


Blue And Red Light Effects On Stomatal Oscillations, Trevor R. Ballard Dec 2018

Blue And Red Light Effects On Stomatal Oscillations, Trevor R. Ballard

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plants absorb CO2 through pores in their leaves called stomata, which are known to open and close in response to myriad environmental and physiological triggers. We demonstrate that blue light inhibits stomatal aperture oscillations in both the guard cells and surrounding tissue layers, whereas these oscillations continue under the influence of red light. This observation of blue light behavior agrees with recent research and suggests another physiological pathway for oscillations.


Comparative Pollination Efficacies Of Bees On Raspberry And The Management Of Osmia Lignaria For Late Blooming Crops, Corey J. Andrikopoulos Aug 2018

Comparative Pollination Efficacies Of Bees On Raspberry And The Management Of Osmia Lignaria For Late Blooming Crops, Corey J. Andrikopoulos

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Unlike other rosaceous fruit crops such as apple and cherry, commercial raspberry cultivars are largely self-fertile and can set fruit in the absence of pollinators. However, their floral morphology often prevents complete self-pollaintion. Incomplete pollination yields unmarketable small or crumbly fruits. Insect visitation is therefore essential to maximizing raspberry yield. Honey bees are typically used to pollinate commercial raspberry; however, escalating prices for hive rentals coupled with increasing acreage encourage evaluation of other manageable pollinators. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and several mason bees (Osmia spp.) are promising raspberry pollinators. Five bee species were evaluated and compared for their single-visit pollination ...


Enhancing Spider-Silk Protein Materials Through Continuous Electrospinning And Photo-Initiated Cross-Linking, Dan Gil Aug 2018

Enhancing Spider-Silk Protein Materials Through Continuous Electrospinning And Photo-Initiated Cross-Linking, Dan Gil

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Spider-silk is known as one of the stronger natural materials, unfortunately it is impossible to farm spiders due to their territorial and cannibalistic nature. To address this issue, researchers have studied spider-silk to discover how it is produced in nature. From their results, spider-silk is composed of large sized proteins produced in two different cell types. Using this knowledge, researchers created transgenic organisms capable of producing spider-silk proteins in large quantities. Using these proteins, several groups have created fibers, films, hydrogels, and adhesives with robust and versatile properties.

Wet-spinning is a technique commonly used to create fibers from spider-silk proteins ...


Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency And Early Childhood Health Outcomes Including Autism Development, Kelsey L. Girardelli May 2018

Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency And Early Childhood Health Outcomes Including Autism Development, Kelsey L. Girardelli

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Many studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with a variety of adverse maternal and pediatric outcomes. Disease outcomes that have been observed in pregnant women who are vitamin D deficient include increased risk of C-section, preeclampsia, bacterial vaginosis, and gestational diabetes. In children born to deficient mothers, increased rates of childhood asthma, type 1 diabetes, low birthweight, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been observed. Although there is much evidence to support these correlations, much is yet to be understood regarding the etiology of these outcomes. This paper specifically examines the relationships between risk factors ...


Evaluation Of Antiviral Agents In Two Mouse Models Of Rna Virus Infections, John Hyrum Mcclatchy May 2018

Evaluation Of Antiviral Agents In Two Mouse Models Of Rna Virus Infections, John Hyrum Mcclatchy

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

The first model we are evaluating is human influenza virus in mice. Influenza virus is a negative sense RNA virus, which the CDC estimates causes between 9.2 million and 35.6 million illnesses each year in the United States.[1] In the current influenza season, H3N2 viruses have been the predominant subclade of influenza A virus in circulation.[2] Development of a mouse model for influenza H3N2 virus infection has been difficult. In these studies, we endeavored to mouse-adapt influenza A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 H3N2 virus by serial passaging in AG129 mice. This virus strain was chosen as ...


The Effect Of Gender And Socioeconomic Status On Concussion Reporting Behavior Among Ncaa Student-Athletes, Joshua Anthony Hansen May 2018

The Effect Of Gender And Socioeconomic Status On Concussion Reporting Behavior Among Ncaa Student-Athletes, Joshua Anthony Hansen

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Concussions are traumatic brain injuries that result from "brain shaking" that can occur during any situation that transmits force to the head. Concussions are defined as a clinical syndrome characterized by immediate and transient post-traumatic impairment of neural functions which lead to a complex grouping of both psychological and physiological symptoms (McCrory, et al., 2013). As knowledge of the long-term implications of these injuries grows, concussions are becoming more of a major health concern worldwide. One subset of concussion classifications, sports-related concussions, is receiving an increasing amount of attention from both scientists and health-care practitioners. It is estimated that more ...


Characterization Of Black Walnut Genotypes For Resistance To Thousand Cankers Disease, Frost Hardiness And Other Desirable Horticultural Traits, J. Elisa Lauritzen May 2018

Characterization Of Black Walnut Genotypes For Resistance To Thousand Cankers Disease, Frost Hardiness And Other Desirable Horticultural Traits, J. Elisa Lauritzen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The black walnut, Juglans nigra L., is native to the United States (USA) and is a valuable timber and nut tree. Just before the beginning of the 21st century, several western states observed a decline in the health and, later, death of black walnut trees. The pathogen-vector complex now known as thousand cankers disease (TCD) was shown to be the cause. The disease, caused by Geosmithia morbida Kolařik, is vectored by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman. Thousands of WTB will swarm and enter a tree vectoring the fungus at each entry point where cankers then develop, quickly ...


Phenology Of A Southern Population Of Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus Ponderosae), Anne Elise Mcmanis May 2018

Phenology Of A Southern Population Of Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus Ponderosae), Anne Elise Mcmanis

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, Hopkins) is a major disturbance agent in pine ecosystems of western North America. Adaptation to local climates has resulted in primarily univoltine (one generation per year) generation timing across a thermally diverse latitudinal gradient. We hypothesized that this pattern in total development time is shaped by selection for slower developmental rates, altered developmental thresholds, or oviposition rates in southern populations inhabiting warmer climates. To investigate traits responsible for latitudinal differences we measured lifestage-specific development of southern mountain pine beetle eggs, larvae and pupae across a range of temperatures. We also describe and model oviposition of ...


Breeding Season Ecology And Demography Of Lesser Scaup (Aythya Affinis) At Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Jeffrey M. Warren May 2018

Breeding Season Ecology And Demography Of Lesser Scaup (Aythya Affinis) At Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Jeffrey M. Warren

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

It is hypothesized that individuals make reproductive decisions based on current assessments of their physiological condition and environmental conditions. For female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), breeding occurs after an energetically costly spring migration. Increasing fat reserves (i.e., ‘body condition’) prior to breeding allows a female to produce a larger clutch of eggs, but time spent gaining body condition is costly in terms of time allowed to raise ducklings before freezing conditions in the fall. In Chapter 2 I explored rate of pre-breeding body condition gain in female lesser scaup, and how that rate influenced clutch size. Spring phenology, measured ...


Historical Biogeography And Natural History Of Nocturnal Wasps In The Southwestern Deserts With Special Emphasis On The Genus Chyphotes (Hymenoptera: Chyphotidae), Emily A. Sadler May 2018

Historical Biogeography And Natural History Of Nocturnal Wasps In The Southwestern Deserts With Special Emphasis On The Genus Chyphotes (Hymenoptera: Chyphotidae), Emily A. Sadler

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Deserts are interesting places due to the large number of plants and animals that live there. Nocturnal wasps are extremely abundant in deserts, but they are difficult to identify and their life cycles are not well known especially the families of Chyphotidae, Tiphiidae (Brachycistidinae), and Mutillidae (velvet ants). In this dissertation, I determine how to correctly identify a particularly difficult group of species that all have black heads from the family Chyphotidae. This is important because these species make up a large proportion of specimens collected. Also, I expanded our knowledge on the distribution of the species of these three ...


Ecology Of Greater Sage-Grouse Inhabiting The Southern Portion Of The Rich-Morgan-Summit Sage-Grouse Management Area, M. Brandon Flack Dec 2017

Ecology Of Greater Sage-Grouse Inhabiting The Southern Portion Of The Rich-Morgan-Summit Sage-Grouse Management Area, M. Brandon Flack

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) are sagebrush obligates and are therefore considered to be key indicators of sagebrush ecosystem health. Sage-grouse populations have declined range-wide over the last century due to loss and fragmentation of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats. Sage-grouse populations found in large intact sagebrush landscapes are considered to be more resilient, however, some small isolated populations persist and thrive in fragmented landscapes. Because of Utah’s unique topography and geography, sage-grouse habitat is discontinuous and populations are naturally dispersed throughout the state in suitable intact blocks or in disconnected islands of sagebrush habitat. Thus, Utah populations provide the ...


Genetic Differentiation Of Two Species Of Buckwheat (Eriogonum), Jenessa Blotter Lemon Dec 2017

Genetic Differentiation Of Two Species Of Buckwheat (Eriogonum), Jenessa Blotter Lemon

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Limestone mining in the San Franicso Mountain Range of west central Utah threatens the survival of a rare endemic species of buckwheat (Eriogonum soredium). This species is an edaphic endemic, only found growing on the outcrops of the Ordovician limestone mines in the area. Eriogonum soredium is a candidate for governmental protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). However, a common, widespread buckwheat (Eriogonum shockleyi) appears to be closely related to the narrow endemic. The genetic relatedness of the rare and and common species will greatly influence the decision of United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFW)of whether or ...


Seasonal Distribution Of Sage-Grouse In Hamlin Valley, Utah And The Effect Of Fences On Grouse And Avian Predators, Heather Hedden Mcpherron Dec 2017

Seasonal Distribution Of Sage-Grouse In Hamlin Valley, Utah And The Effect Of Fences On Grouse And Avian Predators, Heather Hedden Mcpherron

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse) numbers have declined throughout the western US and are considered a species of concern in most of the eleven states that are within their range. Sage-grouse habitats have been reduced by approximately 44% since European settlement of the Western United States began (Miller et al. 2011). Loss of habitat has contributed to an average decline of sage-grouse populations by 33% across the range (Connelly and Braun 1997). To expand our knowledge of this species, I monitored 16 radio-collared sage-grouse captured from four leks in Hamlin Valley, Utah, USA in 2011 and 2012 to determine ...


Understanding The Biology Of Clover Root Curculio And Improving Their Management Using Biofumigation In Alfalfa, Steven J. Price Aug 2017

Understanding The Biology Of Clover Root Curculio And Improving Their Management Using Biofumigation In Alfalfa, Steven J. Price

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Clover root curculio (CRC) is a pest of alfalfa where larvae feed belowground damaging alfalfa roots. Regional knowledge of CRC activity and biology is limited making the development of pest management strategies difficult. One potential management technique for soil-dwelling pests is the use of biofumigant containing cover crops. Biofumigation can affect the survival and behavior of pest insects. However, biofumigant crops have not been evaluated against CRC or as a rotational crop compatible with alfalfa. The goals of this research were to determine 1) phenology, population sizes, and root damage severity of CRC occurring in the Intermountain region and 2 ...


Bridging Post-Wildfire Communication Gaps Between Managers, Researchers, And Local Communities, Including A Biological Soil Crust Case Study, Hilary Louise Whitcomb Aug 2017

Bridging Post-Wildfire Communication Gaps Between Managers, Researchers, And Local Communities, Including A Biological Soil Crust Case Study, Hilary Louise Whitcomb

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Following a wildfire, land management agencies act quickly to protect ecosystem services. We don't currently understand how post-wildfire managers make trade-off decisions in these tight timelines, or if these decisions reflect current science. Using Brunson’s (2014) social-ecological systems multi-scalar model, surveys assessed manager opinions about post-wildfire projects, perceptions of stakeholder opinions, and ability or willingness to consider new science results. Public surveys asked local citizens their opinions about post-wildfire projects. Manager perceptions were measured through semi-structured phone interviews (n = 8) and a structured online survey (n = 256). Public surveys were mailed to 1,000 (971 deliverable, n = 152 ...


Seasonal Development Of The Biological Control Agent Of Dalmatian Toadflax, Mecinus Janthiniformis (Curculionidae: Coleoptera), In Utah: Phenology, Overwintering Success, And Mortality, Samantha A. Willden Aug 2017

Seasonal Development Of The Biological Control Agent Of Dalmatian Toadflax, Mecinus Janthiniformis (Curculionidae: Coleoptera), In Utah: Phenology, Overwintering Success, And Mortality, Samantha A. Willden

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Invasive weeds are threatening ecosystem function and productivity all over the world by outcompeting desirable vegetation and reducing species diversity. One option for long-term control of such weeds is biological control using natural insect enemies. Such a program has been developed for management of Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica (L.) Miller (Plantaginaceae)) in North America using a stem-mining weevil, Mecinus janthiniformis Toševski and Caldara (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Although widely effective in northern regions, such as in British Columbia and in the American northwest, this insect has been slow to suppress Dalmatian toadflax in southern most regions of their current range, including areas ...


Cache Valley Resident Exposure To Pm2.5, Kristina Krepinski Jul 2017

Cache Valley Resident Exposure To Pm2.5, Kristina Krepinski

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Air pollution poses one of the largest environmental risks to human health, and greatly contributes to increased mortality within populations. Of the different types of pollutants, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has the most adverse health effects. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 is known to have serious health outcomes; however, evidence has indicated that even short-term exposure to moderate concentrations of PM2.5 is detrimental to human health. While PM2.5 does contribute to various respiratory conditions by affecting lung function, it also significantly affects the cardiovascular system. Elevated PM2.5 exposure increases risk for ...


Dietary Supplementation With Tart Cherries For Prevention Of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Cancer In Mice, Ashlie Hunter May 2017

Dietary Supplementation With Tart Cherries For Prevention Of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Cancer In Mice, Ashlie Hunter

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

The cherry fruit is a nutrient-dense food with comparatively low caloric content and significant amounts of key nutrients and bioactive food chemicals. Much of the health benefit of cherries is attributed to their high amounts of anthocyanins, which have anti-oxidant and anticancer properties that contribute to changes in cell signaling pathways involved in inflammation, carcinogenesis and angiogenesis. In this project, we aimed to determine whether dietary supplementation with tart cherries prevents colon tumor development in mice consuming a Western diet compared to a prudent diet. Previously, our research team developed the Total Western Diet (TWD) for mice to emulate typical ...


Molecular And Physiological Mechanisms Of Toxin Resistance In Toad-Eating Snakes, Shabnam Mohammadi May 2017

Molecular And Physiological Mechanisms Of Toxin Resistance In Toad-Eating Snakes, Shabnam Mohammadi

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many plants and animals are defended by toxic compounds, and circumvention of those defenses often has involved the evolution of elaborate mechanisms for tolerance or resistance of the toxins. Toads synthesize potent cardiotonic steroids known as bufadienolides (BDs) from cholesterol and store those toxins in high concentrations in their cutaneous glands. Those toxins protect toads from the majority of predators, including most snakes that readily consume other species of frogs. BDs exert their effect by inhibiting ion transport by the Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA). This ubiquitous transmembrane enzyme consists of a catalytic alpha-subunit, which carries out the enzyme's functions ...


The Influence Of Wind Energy Development On Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus Phasianellus Columbianus) Breeding Season Ecology In Eastern Idaho, Matthew C. Proett May 2017

The Influence Of Wind Energy Development On Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus Phasianellus Columbianus) Breeding Season Ecology In Eastern Idaho, Matthew C. Proett

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus; CSTG) has experienced range-wide population declines, primarily as a result of habitat loss or degradation, and currently occupies <10% of its historic range. Expansion of wind energy developments across the remaining occupied CSTG range has been identified as a potential threat to the species. To assess the potential influence of wind energy development on CSTG breeding season ecology, I captured and radio-marked 135 female CSTG during 2014-2015 at leks located between 0.1-13.8 km from wind turbines in restored grassland habitats. I subsequently monitored 147 nests and 68 broods and used an information-theoretic model selection approach to assess the potential influence of wind energy distance and density variables, multi-scale habitat features, temporal factors, and precipitation on CSTG nest site selection, daily nest survival, brood success, and chick survival. The best nest site selection model suggested a positive functional response to the amount of restored grassland habitat with >30% forb cover at the nesting core use (60 ha) scale. Daily nest survival was positively associated with visual obstruction readings at the nest and the amount of restored grassland habitat containing >30% forb cover at the core use (60 ha) scale. Nest site selection and daily nest survival were not influenced by proximity to turbines or turbine density at the core use or breeding season home range (1385 ha) scales. Early (14-day) brood success ...


Interactions Between Plant Water-Stress And Neonicotinoid Insecticides On Spider Mite Infestations In Corn, Alice Ruckert May 2017

Interactions Between Plant Water-Stress And Neonicotinoid Insecticides On Spider Mite Infestations In Corn, Alice Ruckert

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) are an important agricultural pest of many crops and landscape plants. They can reproduce rapidly and quickly develop resistance to many pesticides, making them difficult to manage. Plant water-stress and high temperatures promote spider mite infestations, while spider mite outbreaks can also result from neonicotinoid insecticide applications. Drought is predicted to increase in the Intermountain West due to increases in temperature and reduced frequency of precipitation events in the region, and neonicotinoids are currently one of the most widely used classes of insecticides in field crops. I studied the interactive effect of these two simultaneously occurring ...


The Role Of The Fatty Acid Signaling Pathway In Dietary-Induced Obesity, Melissa N. Nelson May 2017

The Role Of The Fatty Acid Signaling Pathway In Dietary-Induced Obesity, Melissa N. Nelson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, dietary fat has been shown to be capable of activing taste receptor cells in the tongue. Fatty acids (FAs), which act as the chemical cue and are found in dietary fat, activate a cellular signaling pathway that results in a unique signal being sent to the brain that is then interpreted as the taste of fat. One important element in this pathway is the ion channel TrpM5. It is responsible for depolarizing the taste cells that are activated by fatty acids; depolarization is an essential step in cellular response, making TrpM5 essential in the functioning of the ...


An Allometric Approach To Evaluate Physiological And Production Efficiencies In Tree Size For Tart Cherry And Apple Orchard Systems, Zachary T. Brym May 2016

An Allometric Approach To Evaluate Physiological And Production Efficiencies In Tree Size For Tart Cherry And Apple Orchard Systems, Zachary T. Brym

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Improving production efficiency is a major challenge for modern orchard systems. The primary response in horticulture is to develop high-density orchard systems that use dwarfing rootstocks and intense management strategies to maintain small tree size. As development and evaluation of novel orchard systems may help improve understanding of plant physiology for the development of high-density systems. The effect of tree size and architecture on physiological and production efficiency was evaluated for tart cherry (Prunus cerasus, P. mahaleb) and apple (Malus spp.) orchard systems using a physiologically driven modeling approach, called allometry. Branch dimensions, canopy dimensions and biomass were measured for ...


The Role Of Gpr84 In Medium-Chain Saturated Fatty Acid Taste Transduction, Yan Liu May 2016

The Role Of Gpr84 In Medium-Chain Saturated Fatty Acid Taste Transduction, Yan Liu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has shown the gustatory recognition of the long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, I showed for the first time that medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFAs) are effective taste stimuli at both the cellular and behavioral levels. The mechanisms of gustatory recognition of MCFAs in mice were also partially elucidated using pharmaceutical approaches. The inward currents induced by capric acid in mouse taste cells were significantly inhibited by the antagonists of G-protein signaling, protein kinase A (PKA), and protein kinase C (PKC), but they were not affected by the phospholipase C (PLC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, which suggested ...