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Microsatellite Analysis Of Culex Tarsalis Populations In Montana, Kaitlin Stromberg Apr 2019

Microsatellite Analysis Of Culex Tarsalis Populations In Montana, Kaitlin Stromberg

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

West Nile Virus (WNV) has been present in Montana since 2002. The primary vector of WNV in Montana is Culex tarsalis. At Carroll College, the purpose of the WNV project is to survey for the presence of the virus across the state and create a risk model in real time. The goal of this particular study was to find a microsatellite protocol that consistently works in order to create a reliable landscape genetics model for C. tarsalis populations. Three reagent sets were used in order to test which reagent conditions best amplified the three loci, followed by gel electrophoresis to ...


Space Race, Siri And The Central Dogma: A Contemporary Nursing Analysis Of Antibiotics Resistance, Donovan Lucibello Apr 2019

Space Race, Siri And The Central Dogma: A Contemporary Nursing Analysis Of Antibiotics Resistance, Donovan Lucibello

Nursing Undergraduate Theses

In the age of information, antibiotic resistance is still a black-box problem in clinical practice; pathogens are often defined in terms of which pharmaceuticals are no longer effective, and treatment protocols are prescribed prophylactically; often at strengths that are in excess of what is known about the pathogen’s susceptibilities or even its identity. All antibiotic resistance mechanisms involve the expression of proteins that provide resistance capabilities. These modified proteins should be detectable by analyzing DNA (or RNA intermediates) that code for them in order to determine a pathogen’s threat profile. Next-Generation and nanopore DNA sequencing technologies are capable ...


Land Cover Association Of Culex Tarsalis In Western Montana, H. Keenan Mcnally Apr 2018

Land Cover Association Of Culex Tarsalis In Western Montana, H. Keenan Mcnally

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Culex tarsalis is the major vector of West Nile Virus (WNV) in Montana, so a higher concentration of Cx. tarsalis would most likely correspond to an area of high WNV incidence. Previous studies performed in the U.S. found that wetland land cover had a positive influence on Cx. tarsalis, while the studies on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) presented conflicting results. In this experiment I attempted to answer the question: Does land cover type and NDVI affect Culex tarsalis distribution in Western Montana? It was hypothesized that both land cover type and a high NDVI value would have a ...


Genetic Diversity Of Dermacentor Andersoni In Western Montana Via Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats, Nicholas Hensley Apr 2018

Genetic Diversity Of Dermacentor Andersoni In Western Montana Via Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats, Nicholas Hensley

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Demacentor andersoni (Ixodidae) is one of the most important disease vectors in Montana. Ticks transmit more animal disease agents than any other blood-sucking arthropods. Ticks are the second most important vector in public health and the most important in veterinary medicine. Dermacentor andersoni is the vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, tularemia, bovine anaplasmosis, and Powassan encephalitis. Population genetic studies of disease vectors can allow insight into the vectors contribution to the spread of disease and possible control strategies. This study used inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) to assess genetic variation within and among populations. An analysis of ...


Influence Of Avian Distributions On West Nile Virus Infection Rates, Kaitlin Mchugh Apr 2018

Influence Of Avian Distributions On West Nile Virus Infection Rates, Kaitlin Mchugh

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Evidence has shown that human infection rates for West Nile virus are largely dependent on viral amplification that occurs between competent avian host species and mosquito vectors. The threat of West Nile virus to humans is influenced by the diversity and competence of avian host species available to the mosquito vectors. This study used data collected through avian surveys in Montana to analyze the diversity and competence of avian species in those areas. These data were compared to existing GIS model predictions of avian diversity and avian viral competence in Montana to test the accuracy of the model. The GIS ...


Analysis Of Antimicrobial Peptide Efficacy Against Chytridiomycosis From Skin Secretions Of Columbia Spotted Frogs (Lithobates Luteiventris), Emma Esposito Apr 2018

Analysis Of Antimicrobial Peptide Efficacy Against Chytridiomycosis From Skin Secretions Of Columbia Spotted Frogs (Lithobates Luteiventris), Emma Esposito

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Amphibian populations have been declining in size in recent years. A major contributing factor to this decline is the fungal disease chytridiomycosis. Chytridiomycosis occurs when the zoospores of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) imbed into amphibian skin and disrupt the homeostatic functions the skin provides, leading to death in most amphibians. Amphibian skin can produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that inhibit Bd infection. The goal of this experiment was to determine whether or not the amount and type of AMPs a frog produces affect its ability to defend against chytridiomycosis. Columbia spotted frogs were chosen as a model organism because they ...


Modeling Culex Tarsalis Habitat Suitability In The Great Plains Of Montana, Teal Bullick Apr 2018

Modeling Culex Tarsalis Habitat Suitability In The Great Plains Of Montana, Teal Bullick

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

As the leading cause of arbovirus encephalitis in the United States, West Nile Virus (WNV) poses a public health risk in the state of Montana where infection rates in mosquitoes can be as high as 15%. Spatial modeling can serve as a tool for predicting outbreaks and directing prevention measures. Models for the entire state of Montana currently exist that predict WNV risk and habitat suitability of the predominant vector species Culex tarsalis. After collecting additional mosquito vector samples in the summer of 2017, I used niche modeling techniques with historic and new presence-only data to build a Cx. tarsalis ...


Arsenic And Tetracycline Resistant Microbial Diversity In High Arsenic Concentration Sediments, Kurt Parker May 2017

Arsenic And Tetracycline Resistant Microbial Diversity In High Arsenic Concentration Sediments, Kurt Parker

Health Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The Upper Tenmile Creek, which gives Helena most of its public water supply, is contaminated by historic mining activity. This mining adit drains into the creek creating elevated arsenic concentrations in the stream. These elevated arsenic levels can cause co-selection for arsenic and antibiotic resistance in microbial communities. The presence of these resistance genes was assessed through PCR near the Susie Lode and Lee Mountain mines in the Upper Tenmile Creek Superfund Site. Then isolated strains of bacteria were grown on selective media and their 16S genes were assessed to find the identity of each bacterial colony. There was detection ...


Climatic Factors Limiting The Distribution Of Dermacentor Andersoni In Montana’S Rocky Mountain Region, Kyle Griffith May 2017

Climatic Factors Limiting The Distribution Of Dermacentor Andersoni In Montana’S Rocky Mountain Region, Kyle Griffith

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The Rocky Mountain Wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, serves as the primary vector for the Colorado tick fever virus in Montana’s Rocky Mountain region. This disease presents symptoms such as fever, headaches, and myalgia; and generally lasts for approximately three weeks. Factors affecting the distribution of D. andersoni in Montana are not well known, limiting our ability to locate areas endemic to the CTF virus. To determine if various climatic factors influenced the distribution of D. andersoni Montana’s Rocky Mountain region, tick samples from Western Montana were collected and relative tick abundance was tested for association with six different ...


Amphibian Risk Assessment In Montana: An Evaluation Of Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs (Lithobates Luteiventris), Alex Kurtz May 2017

Amphibian Risk Assessment In Montana: An Evaluation Of Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs (Lithobates Luteiventris), Alex Kurtz

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been found to negatively impact amphibian populations around the world. This fungus can have multiple effects on frog physiology, including changes in osmotic regulation that may lead to death. B. dendrobatidis has been shown to be the driving force for many amphibian population crashes and extinctions around the world. The purpose of this project was to build a predictive model of B. dendrobatidis infection, one that would be used to assess population susceptibility in order to identify populations of amphibians at risk of infection. This was accomplished by statistical analyses of several components that contribute ...


Topographical And Climatic Factors Influencing The Distribtion Of D. Andersoni Across Western Montana, Tanner Gustavsen May 2017

Topographical And Climatic Factors Influencing The Distribtion Of D. Andersoni Across Western Montana, Tanner Gustavsen

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, has a high prevalence in the Western United States and is a known vector for Colorado Tick Fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other infectious diseases. Though prevalent, their distribution is still poorly understood. The goal of this study was to examine topographical and climatic factors influencing D. andersoni’s distribution over Western Montana. This study consists of data collected from 145 total sites from 2013 to 2016. At each site, ticks were captured using a drag sampling technique and were categorized in terms of abundance. Various climatic and topographical data were obtained ...


Ecological Effects On The Distribution Of Culex Tarsalis Mosquitos, Paige Plancich May 2017

Ecological Effects On The Distribution Of Culex Tarsalis Mosquitos, Paige Plancich

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

West Nile Virus (WNV) is an increasing problem worldwide due to vector competence and enzootic transmissibility between vector and host. The most prevalent vector of WNV in the state of Montana is the Culex tarsalis mosquito, which is found in varying ecological conditions such as shallow, standing water and at high temperatures (14°C – 34°C). These conditions are not well understood in Montana, thus limiting predictions concerning potential outbreaks. This study tested the ecological effects on C. tarsalis and found that land cover and May precipitation were significant factors that affect the ability of C. tarsalis to thrive in ...


Genetic Differentiation Among Culex Tarsalis Populations In Montana, Dan Lockman May 2017

Genetic Differentiation Among Culex Tarsalis Populations In Montana, Dan Lockman

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Undergraduate researchers at Carroll College have been working to detect West Nile virus in the mosquito Culex tarsalis, the primary vector for the disease in the state of Montana. The purpose of this research is to use West Nile positive detections along with ecological data to create a risk model for the state of Montana that could predict the likelihood of a West Nile outbreak. The research presented in this paper attempts to further the goal of the risk model by determining the degree of genetic differentiation among different mosquito populations in Montana. Determining the genetic relatedness of different populations ...


Does Drainage Affect Diversity Within The Simulium Arcticum Complex In The Clark Fork River?, Chance Stewart Apr 2016

Does Drainage Affect Diversity Within The Simulium Arcticum Complex In The Clark Fork River?, Chance Stewart

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Chromosomal rearrangements seem to play a role in the speciation process of Simulium arcticum. This is an exception to the current dogma of speciation in most animals. Two models have been proposed for dispersal of S. arcticum. One relies on females returning to their natal sites to lay eggs; the other states that females choose the best available environment to lay their eggs. Chromosomal diversity has been shown to remain the same at various sites each year. With this in mind, larvae were collected from Bearmouth along the Clark Fork River, analyzed in micromorphological detail, and compared with larval chromosomes ...


Genetic Diversity In Dermacentor Andersoni Populations In Western Montana, Ezekial Koslosky Apr 2016

Genetic Diversity In Dermacentor Andersoni Populations In Western Montana, Ezekial Koslosky

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Ticks have been made a top priority for analysis as disease vectors. Specifically the tick Dermacentor andersoni is a vector for Colorado Tick Fever, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Bovine Anaplasmosis, and Powassan Encephalitis. This study was designed to assist in the utilization of the current protocols for a West Nile Virus vector distribution map in Montana and apply these to develop a D. andersoni distribution map. Samples were collected from across western Montana, and the 16S mitochondrial DNA gene was amplified. Six tick populations were tested, and there were sixteen different haplotypes found. However, when comparing these haplotypes there was ...


Comparison Of Capture Methods And Infection Rates For The Tick, Dermacentor Andersoni, In Montana, Hanna Dotson Apr 2016

Comparison Of Capture Methods And Infection Rates For The Tick, Dermacentor Andersoni, In Montana, Hanna Dotson

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Montana is home to the tick Dermacentor andersoni which serves as a vector for Colorado tick fever. It is important to study ticks in the field to improve capture rates for the purpose of testing infection rates. To determine the most effective way to capture ticks, four separate capturing methods were assembled in two tick prevalent locations. These methods include AAAP pheromones, CO2, drag netting, and AAAP in combination with CO2. I hypothesized that the combination of AAAP and CO2 would yield the best capture results. I implemented a mark-recapture study using fluorescent powder and hypothesized that CO2 and pheromones ...


Using Glycosylated Hemoglobin And Heat Shock Protein 70 As Thermal Biomarkers In North American Pikas (Ochotona Princeps), Steven Edmonds Apr 2016

Using Glycosylated Hemoglobin And Heat Shock Protein 70 As Thermal Biomarkers In North American Pikas (Ochotona Princeps), Steven Edmonds

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Pikas (Ochotona princeps), high altitude lagomorphs, are potentially one of the first mammals to be directly affected by global warming. Population decline has been observed in pika populations in Nevada and California. The cause of their decline is unknown but several studies suggest that heat stress, especially at lower altitudes, is a contributing factor. In Montana, populations are potentially stressed in the same way. One hypothesis is that direct thermal stress is causing population decline. This study looks at heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in high and low altitude pika populations as biomarkers for thermal stress ...


An Evaluation Of Population Differentiation In Culex Tarsalis In Montana Using Coi Sequences, Jake Fiocchi Apr 2016

An Evaluation Of Population Differentiation In Culex Tarsalis In Montana Using Coi Sequences, Jake Fiocchi

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The Infectious Disease Ecology project at Carroll College has established protocols to successfully detect West Nile virus in Culex tarsalis, a species of mosquito that acts as a vector for this disease. The detection data combined with ecological factors have been used to produce a risk model capable of predicting where West Nile positive specimens will be detected annually. This specific project aimed to determine the relatedness of C. tarsalis from various regions across the state of Montana as this knowledge could aid in determining how West Nile virus infections may spread across the state. Cytochrome c oxidase I (COI ...


Population Genetics Of The Tick, Dermacentor Andersoni, In Montana, Based On The Mitochondrial 16s Gene, Seth Dotson Apr 2015

Population Genetics Of The Tick, Dermacentor Andersoni, In Montana, Based On The Mitochondrial 16s Gene, Seth Dotson

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The tick Dermacentor andersoni is a vector for Colorado tick fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Powassan encephalitis, and bovine anaplasmosis. Under the Infectious Disease Ecology Research Program at Carroll College, the protocols for developing a West Nile Virus, carried primarily by the mosquito vector Culex tarsalis, distribution map are being applied to D. andersoni. A portion of the 16s ribosomal mtDNA was PCR amplified using the D16S5 and 16S+1 primers for 105 D. andersoni spread across five sites in western Montana. There were nine different haplotypes found in this study. This is lower than the 14 reported haplotypes found ...


The Associations Between Large Mammal Abundance, Elevation, And Tick Capture Rate In The Big Belt Mountains, Sean Condon Apr 2015

The Associations Between Large Mammal Abundance, Elevation, And Tick Capture Rate In The Big Belt Mountains, Sean Condon

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is the primary tick vector of human pathogens like Colorado tick fever and Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the Rocky Mountain Region. Drag sampling was conducted to investigate the association between large mammal abundance, elevation, and tick capture rate in the Big Belt Mountains near Helena, Montana during suspected peak tick activity in May and June. Soil temperature and type, climate, humidity, aspect, slope, and the availability of hosts have been shown to be factors that determine tick distribution. Multiple factor regression, using elevation as a covariate, found that even after accounting for ...


Comparison Of West Nile Virus Infection Rates In Culex Tarsalis And Exposure Rate Of Horses In Montana Using Rt-Pcr And Elisa, Sarah Fitzpatrick Apr 2015

Comparison Of West Nile Virus Infection Rates In Culex Tarsalis And Exposure Rate Of Horses In Montana Using Rt-Pcr And Elisa, Sarah Fitzpatrick

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Horses are more susceptible to West Nile virus (WNV) than human beings. In addition, for many ranchers in Montana, horses are their livelihood. In Montana, the only risk assessment tool for WNV is mosquito surveying. Testing horses across the state for WNV may contribute to a better estimate of high-risk areas. Also, since the numbers of human and horse cases are similar on a yearly basis, testing horses may predict the human risk. In this study, Culex tarsalis infection rates were compared with horse exposure rates in Montana. Mosquitos were collected from 46 sites on a weekly or biweekly basis ...


The Carrier Rate Of Colorado Tick Fever In The Rocky Mountain Wood Tick, Dermacentor Andersoni, Blake Jordan Apr 2015

The Carrier Rate Of Colorado Tick Fever In The Rocky Mountain Wood Tick, Dermacentor Andersoni, Blake Jordan

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The adult Rocky Mountain Wood Tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is capable of transmitting several diseases to humans, including Colorado Tick Fever (CTF). The abundance and distribution of the virus that causes this disease is largely unknown. Ticks were collected at multiple sites in Western Montana using drag sampling methods in order to test my hypothesis that the carrier rate of CTF was within the range of previous studies. Ticks were tested for CTF by extracting their viral RNA, converting this RNA to DNA and amplifying it using Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). The RT-PCR product was then run on an agarose gel ...


Kidney Stones And The Zip10 Transporter: An Analysis Of Calcium Oxalate Stone Formation Using Frog And Fruit Fly Models, Paige Williams Apr 2014

Kidney Stones And The Zip10 Transporter: An Analysis Of Calcium Oxalate Stone Formation Using Frog And Fruit Fly Models, Paige Williams

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Kidney stones are a health ailment (~1% population occurrence), yet the mechanism and initiation of stone formation remains incompletely explained. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones seem to initially form on sites called Randall’s Plaques that are high in zinc content. A suggested correlation between stone disease and the Zip10 transporter in a GWAS (genome wide association study) on Miniature Schnauzers allowed me to investigate the role of zinc and Zip10 on CaOx stone formation. Our results from radioactive 63Zn uptakes in injected frog (Xenopus laevis) oocytes indicate that (human, canine and Drosophila) Zip10 transport Zn2+. The Zip10 clones had highest ...


Relative Utility Of Different Lengths Of The Mitochondrial 16s Rdna Gene In Population Genetics Of The Tick Species, Dermacentor Andersoni., Kaya Garringer Apr 2014

Relative Utility Of Different Lengths Of The Mitochondrial 16s Rdna Gene In Population Genetics Of The Tick Species, Dermacentor Andersoni., Kaya Garringer

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The hard tick species, Dermacentor andersoni, is an important vector of zoonotic disease in the state of Montana. The purpose of this study was to compare different fragments of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene to determine which provides the most useful information for the genetic analysis of D. andersoni ticks in Montana. Two primer sets were used to PCR amplify a portion of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene from DNA obtained from 40 D. andersoni ticks from a single population near Helena, Montana. Resulting sequences from PCR products were then analyzed for quality, amount of genetic variability and suitability for ...


Testing The Cytotype Concept In Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), Jessica Brisson Apr 2014

Testing The Cytotype Concept In Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), Jessica Brisson

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Paracentric inversions have been linked to maleness in 17 taxa of the Simulium arcticum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae). Linkage to maleness not only defines taxa but also suggests that the sex determining gene or genes lie within the inversion or close to it. Determination of whether an inversion is sex-linked or alternatively is autosomal essentially depends on the analysis of many individuals. This research may thus determine whether linkage is absolute or nearly so. Previous research on nearly 15,000 larvae from 234 sites indicated that inversion linkage to maleness was nearly complete for specific inversions. These include the inversions IIL-3 ...


Biochemical Markers For Thermal Stress In North American Pikas (Ochotona Princeps), Austin Nearpass Apr 2014

Biochemical Markers For Thermal Stress In North American Pikas (Ochotona Princeps), Austin Nearpass

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

North American pikas (Ochotona princeps) are a high altitude keystone species that are indicative of that ecosystem’s condition. Over the last twenty years, numerous populations of pikas have declined or disappeared. Because pikas are exceptionally sensitive to high ambient temperatures, it has been suggested that these declines are due to thermal stress imposed by climate change. Thermal stress has been shown to cause oxidative stress through an increased cellular concentration of oxygen radicals. Therefore, levels of oxidative stress markers are strong indicators of thermal stress. In order to quantify the degree of thermal stress placed on pika populations, fecal ...


Topographical Variables Influencing Dermacentor Andersoni Distribution In Montana, Tyler Jacobsen Apr 2014

Topographical Variables Influencing Dermacentor Andersoni Distribution In Montana, Tyler Jacobsen

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a known arthropod vector for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado Tick Fever, and Tularemia. This tick is prevalent in the western part of the United States. The adult ticks ingest blood meals from large mammals and can easily spread disease to humans. Using an infectious disease ecology approach, we developed a drag sampling protocol to capture ticks in order to quantify and survey their population distribution. We sampled 77 tick sites on the upper Missouri drainage in west-central and southwestern Montana. The variables of interest were slope aspect and elevation. We found ...


Assessing Vegetational And Climatic Influences On The Distribution Of Dermacentor Andersoni In Western Montana, Carlo Pierini Apr 2014

Assessing Vegetational And Climatic Influences On The Distribution Of Dermacentor Andersoni In Western Montana, Carlo Pierini

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Both on the micro and macro levels human risk to the host-seeking adult stage of Dermacentor andersoni is poorly understood (Eisen et al. 2007). Due to the difficulties associated with identifying, quantifying, and evaluating the many ecological variables that determine an organism’s ideal niche, there is some contradiction among the primary literature, as to a reliable, conclusive point regarding seasonality and distribution of a given species of tick (Schaalje & Wilkinson, 1985). D. andersoni is the most important North American tick in regards to disease transmission (Mail, 1942). In brief, D. andersoni is the principle vector of Rocky Mountain Spotted ...


The Effects Of Chytridiomycosis On Myocardial Oxygenation In Columbian Spotted Frogs (Rana Luteiventris), Kaitlyn Holyfield Apr 2013

The Effects Of Chytridiomycosis On Myocardial Oxygenation In Columbian Spotted Frogs (Rana Luteiventris), Kaitlyn Holyfield

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Chytridiomycosis is an infection in amphibians caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis that has been linked to world-wide amphibian decline. However, there is currently no clear explanation of how this infection is killing amphibians. I hypothesize that the fungus is preventing effective cutaneous gas exchange, causing hypoxia in the heart which could lead to myocardial ischemia. The objectives of this study are to find an organism that is susceptible to Chytridiomycosis which can be used as a model for detecting myocardial ischemia in frogs and to establish a protocol for ischemia detection. Rana luteiventris (Columbian Spotted Frogs) were collected and ...


The Effect Of Chytridiomycosis And Bioaugmentation On The Metabolic Rate Of Redbacked Salamanders, Plethodon Cinereus, Jonathan Lenz Apr 2013

The Effect Of Chytridiomycosis And Bioaugmentation On The Metabolic Rate Of Redbacked Salamanders, Plethodon Cinereus, Jonathan Lenz

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The infectious disease chytridiomycosis caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachocytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, contributes to worldwide amphibian decline, but definitive pathogenesis of lethality for the disease is not well understood. Because amphibians respire through their skin (in addition to respiration using lungs), it is speculated that amphibians with chytridiomycosis may show a decrease in metabolic rate, but amphibians bioaugmented with probiotic bacteria may alleviate possible metabolic stress. A species of lungless salamander (Plethodon cinereus) was used in this study to analyze the cutaneous effects of Bd on metabolic rate in vivo. Net weight change, infection load (using a Taqman real time ...