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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effect Of Bmp Treatment On Periostin Gene Expression In Pre-Osteoblastic Mc3t3-E1 Mouse Cells, Vincent Lee Khang May 2018

Effect Of Bmp Treatment On Periostin Gene Expression In Pre-Osteoblastic Mc3t3-E1 Mouse Cells, Vincent Lee Khang

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Periostin is a secreted, extracellular matrix (ECM) protein widely expressed within collagen-rich fibrous connective tissues of the body including the periodontal ligament (PDL), bone, skin, heart, and cornea. Periostin has been shown to serve many important regulatory functions including cell adhesion, cell motility, wound healing and of particular importance to the dental field, differentiation of osteoblasts. The deletion of periostin compromises osteoblast attachment to bone matrix and induces a reduction in mineralization and expression of bone markers, including type I collagen, osteocalcin, osteopontin and alkaline phosphatase. Periostin has also been shown to play a significant role in collagen fibrillogenesis by ...


Transcriptional Silencing And Anti-Silencing Of Virulence Genes In The Bacterial Pathogen Shigella Flexneri: Virb, Dna Supercoiling, And The Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Protein, Michael Adam Picker May 2018

Transcriptional Silencing And Anti-Silencing Of Virulence Genes In The Bacterial Pathogen Shigella Flexneri: Virb, Dna Supercoiling, And The Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Protein, Michael Adam Picker

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Transcriptional silencing and anti-silencing affect many aspects of bacterial physiology, including virulence in bacterial pathogens. In Shigella species, a group of gram-negative pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery in humans, the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) transcriptionally silences virulence genes found on the large virulence plasmid while VirB anti-silences these genes. However, the mechanistic details of their interplay are not fully understood. To elucidate their regulatory mechanisms, I use the icsP virulence locus, which shares a long intergenic region with the divergently transcribed ospZ gene (1535 bp from TSS to TSS). Prior to this work, two discrete H-NS binding regions had ...


The Caspase Cascade During Hibernation In The Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrel, Spermophilus Lateralis, Michael David Treat May 2018

The Caspase Cascade During Hibernation In The Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrel, Spermophilus Lateralis, Michael David Treat

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In several human pathologies like heart attack, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmune disorders, widespread cell death, or apoptosis, is a major cause of organ dysfunction and death. Hibernating golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus lateralis, experience numerous conditions during the winter that are known to be pro-apoptotic in other mammal systems (e.g. extreme hypothermia, ischemia and reperfusion, acidosis, increased reactive oxygen species, bone and muscle disuse). However, studies suggest that hibernators may invoke a protective phenotype to limit widespread cell damage and loss during the hibernation season. Could regulating apoptosis provide protection against the harmful conditions experienced during the hibernation season ...


Complete Sequencing And Comparative Analysis Of The Genomes Of The First Magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria Isolated In Pure Culture: Strains Bw-2 And Ss-5, Corey Geurink Dec 2017

Complete Sequencing And Comparative Analysis Of The Genomes Of The First Magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria Isolated In Pure Culture: Strains Bw-2 And Ss-5, Corey Geurink

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The genomes of the first two discovered magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) belonging to the ammaproteobacteria, strains BW-2 and SS-51, were sequenced, sealed, annotated and compared to MTB of other phylogenetic groups. Cells of both strains are rod-shaped and biomineralize cuboctahedral and elongated octahedral crystals of magnetite, respectively, that are enveloped in a protein-embedded, lipid-bilayer membrane referred to as the magnetosome membrane or vesicle. The crystals and their associated membranes are known as magnetosomes. Magnetosome crystals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and, because of their specific mineral compositions, crystal morphologies and sizes, the biomineralization processes involved in magnetosome formation ...


A Potential Solution To A Poopy Problem: Bile Salt Analogs As Prophylactics Against Clostridium Difficile Infection, Jacqueline Renee Phan Dec 2017

A Potential Solution To A Poopy Problem: Bile Salt Analogs As Prophylactics Against Clostridium Difficile Infection, Jacqueline Renee Phan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In 2011, over 500,000 patients were diagnosed with CDI in the United States and over 29,000 people died of CDI-related complications. With an average of $35,000 to treat a single case of inpatient CDI, cost burden to the healthcare system can reach up to $3.2 billion annually. As both hospital- and community-acquired CDI incidences rise due to the emergence of hypervirulent strains and CDI reoccurrences of up to 25%, standard treatments are rendered less effective and new methods of prevention are critical.

CDI is caused ...


The San1 Ubiquitin Ligase Functions Preferentially With Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Ubc1 During Protein Quality Control, Rebeca Lea Ibarra Aug 2016

The San1 Ubiquitin Ligase Functions Preferentially With Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Ubc1 During Protein Quality Control, Rebeca Lea Ibarra

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Protein quality control (PQC) is a critical process wherein misfolded or damaged proteins are cleared from the cell to maintain protein homeostasis. In eukaryotic cells, the removal of misfolded proteins is primarily accomplished by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In the UPS, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and ubiquitin ligases append poly-ubiquitin chains onto misfolded protein substrates signaling for their degradation. The kinetics of protein ubiquitylation are paramount since a balance must be achieved between the rapid removal of misfolded proteins versus providing sufficient time for protein chaperones to attempt refolding. To uncover the molecular basis for how PQC substrate ubiquitylation rates are controlled ...


Paenibacillus Larvae Spore Germination And American Foulbrood Disease Development In Honey Bee Larvae, Israel Alvarado Aug 2015

Paenibacillus Larvae Spore Germination And American Foulbrood Disease Development In Honey Bee Larvae, Israel Alvarado

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) pollination plays an important role in meeting our agricultural needs, yet we are incapable of completely preventing a decline in bee health, partially due to bacterial diseases. American Foulbrood (AFB), a bacterial disease of honey bee larvae, is particularly troublesome because the infectious agent is the bacterial spore of Paenibacillus larvae. Bacterial spores are resistant to extreme temperatures, unaffected by antibiotics, withstand exposure to disinfectants, and can remain dormant for years until they can revert back to vegetative cells.

Our research investigated P. larvae spore germination at the functional and pathogen-host level. We have found that ...


The Presence Of Clostridium Difficile On Environmental Surfaces In Healthcare Facilities Pre- And Post-Decontamination Of Patient Rooms, Theresa Trice Aug 2015

The Presence Of Clostridium Difficile On Environmental Surfaces In Healthcare Facilities Pre- And Post-Decontamination Of Patient Rooms, Theresa Trice

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are infections related to receiving medical care. HAIs are responsible for an excess of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Though most HAIs rates are on the decline, Clostridium difficile infection rates are at an all-time high, primarily due to the persistence of C. difficile spores in the environment. In the United States, Clostridium difficile-related mortality rates per million have increased from 5.7 in 1999 to 23.7 in 2004, with an estimated 26,642 deaths due to Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Clostridium difficile is transmitted via the fecal-oral route or aerosolized endospores, but it can ...


Beryllium Is A Potent And Unique Gsk-3Β Inhibitor With Potential To Differentially Regulate Glycogen Synthase And Β-Catenin, Ata Ur Rahman Mohammed Abdul May 2015

Beryllium Is A Potent And Unique Gsk-3Β Inhibitor With Potential To Differentially Regulate Glycogen Synthase And Β-Catenin, Ata Ur Rahman Mohammed Abdul

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is an important serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates/regulates diverse and metabolically important proteins. Some of the important substrates of GSK-3β are glycogen synthase, tau, β-catenin, cyclin D1, axin, c-jun, c-myc, Heat Shock Factor–1, BCL-3, CREB, Histone H1.5, mdm2, p21 (CIP1), pyruvate dehydrogenase and many more. De-regulation of GSK-3β has been implicated in diseases like cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar disorder and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Currently, GSK-3β is one of the most widely studied proteins and there is a great interest in developing potent and efficient GSK-3β-inhibitors for research as well as therapeutic ...


In Vitro Studies Of Gold And Gold Silica Nanoparticle Radiosensitization With Kilovoltage X-Rays, Gregory Colarch May 2015

In Vitro Studies Of Gold And Gold Silica Nanoparticle Radiosensitization With Kilovoltage X-Rays, Gregory Colarch

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Technological advances in the ability to construct and manipulate nanoscale particles have opened up the possibility of using solid metallic nanoparticles and mixed metal nanoshells as a means to increase dose enhancement and treatment efficacy to tumors. In order for nanoparticles to be an effective form of treatment, they must be delivered to tumors in sufficient concentrations so that there is a dose enhancement factor due to ionizing radiation, as well as being essentially non-toxic to healthy cells. Gold nanoparticles and silica-gold nanoshells fit these requirements. Gold has a high atomic number (Z=79), which gives a larger cross section ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Novel Platinum(Ii) And Platinum(Iv) Complexes Containing 4,4′--Disubstituted--2,2′--Bipyridine Ligands For The Treatment Of Cancer, Van Vo Aug 2014

Synthesis And Characterization Of Novel Platinum(Ii) And Platinum(Iv) Complexes Containing 4,4′--Disubstituted--2,2′--Bipyridine Ligands For The Treatment Of Cancer, Van Vo

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Three series of platinum(II) and platinum(IV) complexes containing 4,4′-disubstituted-2,2′-bipyridine ligands have been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The MTS cell proliferation assay was used to examine the in vitro anti-proliferative activities of these complexes in various human breast, lung, and prostate cancer cells. The cell's response to the complexes varies between different cell lines; however, the low EC50 values determined from the MTS data indicate that several of the complexes are much more potent than cisplatin.

Flow cytometric analysis ...


Determining The Presence Of Carbapenem Antibiotic Resistance In Clinical Isolates, Fidelis Uzoma Enyinnaya May 2014

Determining The Presence Of Carbapenem Antibiotic Resistance In Clinical Isolates, Fidelis Uzoma Enyinnaya

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Carbapenems are β-lactam antibiotics reserved for the treatment of severe microbial infections, especially those targeting the Enterobacteriaceae. Introduced in the 1980s, carbapenems have been used successfully in hospitals, and in the 1990s resistance was discovered. Carbapenem resistance is conferred through the production of carbapenemases. In the U.S., the most common carbapenemase is Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). In 2012, the National Healthcare Safety Network reported a carbapenem resistance rate of 13.0% among Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, and indicated that the mortality rate associated with carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections ranged from 48.0-71.9%. According to the Food and Drug ...


Efficacy Of Gold Silica Nanoshells And Gold Nanorods For Photothermal Therapy Of Human Glioma Spheroids, Suyog Jung Chhetri Aug 2013

Efficacy Of Gold Silica Nanoshells And Gold Nanorods For Photothermal Therapy Of Human Glioma Spheroids, Suyog Jung Chhetri

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Gold-based nanoparticles including gold-silica nano-spheres and gold nano-rods have been investigated for a number of therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The ability of these nanoparticles to convert light into heat energy makes them particularly appealing for photothermal therapy in which cancer cells are destroyed via light-induced heat generation. The overall objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of gold-silica nano-spheres and gold nano-rods in an in vitro system consisting of human brain tumor (glioma) spheroids.

Delivery of the nanoparticles to the spheroids was accomplished using murine macrophages. Nanoparticles (spheres or rods) were incubated with macrophages for 24 hours. Thereafter ...


The Role Of Oswrky71 And Its Interacting Proteins In Seed Germination And Early Growth Of Cereal Grains, Margaret Ja Shin May 2013

The Role Of Oswrky71 And Its Interacting Proteins In Seed Germination And Early Growth Of Cereal Grains, Margaret Ja Shin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

During seed germination and early seedling growth, complex molecular and physiological events occur in rice (Oryza sativa) and other cereal grains. As the seed transitions to vegetative tissue, it responds to both favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions and is vulnerable to attack by predation and disease. Although seeds are relatively small and tender in size, extensive and sophisticated molecular networks enables the immobile seed to grow, survive and adapt in its environment. One of the networks I am interested in is in the crosstalk between the gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways. These pathways are interesting because they ...


What Can Biochemistry Students Learn About Protein Translation? Using Variation Theory To Explore The Space Of Learning Created By Some Common External Representations, Thomas J. Bussey May 2013

What Can Biochemistry Students Learn About Protein Translation? Using Variation Theory To Explore The Space Of Learning Created By Some Common External Representations, Thomas J. Bussey

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Biochemistry education relies heavily on students' ability to visualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. As such, biochemistry educators often turn to external representations to provide tangible, working models from which students' internal representations (mental models) can be constructed, evaluated, and revised. However, prior research has shown that, while potentially beneficial, external representations can also lead to alternative student conceptions.

Considering the breadth of biochemical phenomena, protein translation has been identified as an essential biochemical process and can subsequently be considered a fundamental concept for biochemistry students to learn. External representations of translation range from static diagrams to ...


A Genetic, Transgenic, And Transcriptomic Analysis Of Larval Salivary Gland Physiology In Drosophila Melanogaster, Elana A. Paladino Dec 2012

A Genetic, Transgenic, And Transcriptomic Analysis Of Larval Salivary Gland Physiology In Drosophila Melanogaster, Elana A. Paladino

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Cholesterol is the precursor to a unique class of lipophilic signaling molecules called steroid hormones that initiate the development of sexual characteristics, reactions to stress, and maintenance of metabolism, among many other functions. Although much progress has been made in understanding the function of these signaling hormones, we do not fully understand how a single steroid can cause many distinct, tissue-specific responses. Drosophila melanogaster is an effective model for understanding steroid hormone action because of its simplicity. The steroid molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (hereafter, 20E) is the primary active steroid in Drosophila and mediates not only larval molts and the emergence ...


Characterization Of Beryllium As A Novel Agent To Study Cell Cycle Arrest And Cellular Senescence, Priyatham Gorjala Dec 2012

Characterization Of Beryllium As A Novel Agent To Study Cell Cycle Arrest And Cellular Senescence, Priyatham Gorjala

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Cancer cells evade senescence, apoptosis, and other constraints on proliferation, often via mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene (TP53). Normal human lung fibroblasts have been shown to enter premature senescence upon exposure to beryllium. In these cells, BeSO4 stabilizes p53 protein, increases p21 gene expression, induces senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and causes cell proliferation arrest. In the present study, we have investigated whether BeSO4 is able to induce similar effects in cancer cells that have wildtype p53. We have demonstrated that beryllium salt at low concentration can induce molecular changes in the p53 signaling pathway leading to cell ...


Anti-Germinants As A New Strategy To Prevent Clostridium Difficile Infections, Amber Janece Howerton Dec 2012

Anti-Germinants As A New Strategy To Prevent Clostridium Difficile Infections, Amber Janece Howerton

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Clostridium difficileinfections (CDI) have emerged as a leading cause of hospital-associated complications. CDI is the major cause of antibiotic-related cases of diarrhea and nearly all cases of pseudomembranous colitis. The infective form of C. difficileis the spore, a dormant and hardy structure that forms under stress. Germination of C. difficile spores into toxin producing bacteria in the GI tract of susceptible patients is the first step in CDI establishment. Patient susceptibility occurs with a disruption of the natural gut microbiota by broad-spectrum antibiotics. Antibiotic treatments usually resolve CDI but refractory cases are on the rise. Of great concern is the ...


A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method For The Detection Of Selenomonas Noxia, Arthuro Mehretu Dec 2011

A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method For The Detection Of Selenomonas Noxia, Arthuro Mehretu

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In recent studies, periodontal health has been linked to being overweight and/or obese. Among common oral bacteria, Selenomonas noxia has been implicated in converting periodontal health to disease. Selenomonas spp. have also been found in gastric ulcers, and were misdiagnosed as Helicobacter -like organisms, but no further studies were conducted. The increasing clinical and epidemiological importance of S. noxia necessitates the development of a rapid detection method. In this study, a TaqMan 16S rRNA based real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method was developed, optimized and evaluated for the rapid and specific detection of S. noxia . The 16S PCR assay ...


Global And Specific Controls Of Protein Synthesis In Hibernators, Peipei Pan Dec 2011

Global And Specific Controls Of Protein Synthesis In Hibernators, Peipei Pan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Mammalian hibernation is a highly dynamic physiological process that is composed of a series of torpor bouts, wherein hibernators oscillate between periods of torpor and interbout arousal. Although normally vital to homeostasis, many energetically consumptive processes such as translation or protein synthesis are virtually ceased during hibernation. Earlier studies indicated that protein synthesis had fallen to almost negligible levels. Cap-dependent initiation of translation is well regulated by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its binding partner eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) when hibernators cycle in and out the torpor state. Herein, I investigated well-characterized regulatory mechanisms of global and specific ...


Synthesis Of A Chemical Probe For Identification Of Ger Receptor Proteins Of Bacillus Anthracis, Hyelee Lee Aug 2011

Synthesis Of A Chemical Probe For Identification Of Ger Receptor Proteins Of Bacillus Anthracis, Hyelee Lee

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Bacillus anthracis,a gram positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, is the causative agent of anthrax. A key step in the pathogenic cycle is the spore germination, where the dormant spore transforms into a metabolically active cell. This allows B. anthracis to proliferate and secrete toxins. It is believed that spore germination is triggered when small molecules, known as germinants, are recognized by germination (Ger) receptor proteins located in the inner membrane of spores. Most Ger proteins are encoded by tricistronic operons, resulting in three distinct products, the A-, B-, C-subunits. Genomic sequencing showed that B. anthracis has seven ger receptor ...


Molecular Evolution And Historical Biogeography Of New World Birds, Brian T. Smith May 2011

Molecular Evolution And Historical Biogeography Of New World Birds, Brian T. Smith

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Deciphering the patterns of how biodiversity has evolved across time and space has remained a fundamental objective for biologists for the last 200 years. Researchers are faced with the challenge of interpreting the complexity of evolutionary patterns that have been generated over the deep history of the Earth. The advancement of DNA sequencing technology has yielded a new and powerful genetic toolkit that has allowed biologists to address novel evolutionary questions. For my dissertation research, I used molecular genetics and a statistical framework to study the evolution and historical biogeography of birds distributed in North and South America. My dissertation ...


Production, Purification And Crystallization Of Membrane Integrated Multimeric Bax, Adelbert Mark Villoso Dec 2010

Production, Purification And Crystallization Of Membrane Integrated Multimeric Bax, Adelbert Mark Villoso

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a vital process intimately involved in the embryonic development and homeostatic maintenance of all multicellular organisms. The committing step to apoptosis is regulated by a key protein, Bax, and its ability to integrate and form a pore structure at the outer mitochondrial membrane.


Unfortunately, the molecular details of apoptosis remain largely unclear due to the lack of structural data of integral membrane (IM) Bax. Experimental limitations of membrane protein production have slowed the pursuit of an IM-Bax structure simply because standard protocols for producing recombinant IM-Bax are inefficient in producing adequate quantities of IM-Bax ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Shigella Virulence Plasmid-Encoded Genes By Virb And Crp, Christopher Thomas Hensley Dec 2010

Transcriptional Regulation Of Shigella Virulence Plasmid-Encoded Genes By Virb And Crp, Christopher Thomas Hensley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative intracellular pathogens that causes bacillary dysentery in humans. Shigella relies on the precise transcriptional regulation of virulence genes, encoded by a large virulence plasmid, for invasion and infection of human colonic epithelial cells. The transcription of most identified virulence genes are regulated through a cascade controlled by the primary regulator of virulence genes, VirF, and the global transcriptional regulator, VirB. Currently, few studies have addressed how individual Shigella virulence genes are precisely regulated for optimal expression during specific stages of pathogenesis and within the constraints of the regulatory cascade. This work addresses how ...


Development Of Novel Biomarkers In Cancer: Detection Of Circulating Mir-141 As A Potential Prognostic Marker For Prostate Cancer, Jason Cadaoas Gonzales Dec 2010

Development Of Novel Biomarkers In Cancer: Detection Of Circulating Mir-141 As A Potential Prognostic Marker For Prostate Cancer, Jason Cadaoas Gonzales

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Prostate cancer (CAP) is the most common epithelial malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men. The identification of predictive and prognostic biomarkers in CAP patients is critical for improving clinical outcomes. Although the measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and radiographic studies are clinically approved to predict response to therapy, these tests can oftentimes prove to be inadequate in certain patients. Thus, it is important to discover new biomarkers to improve chances of survivability. We and others have shown that longitudinal measurements of circulating tumor cells (CTC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) may aid in predicting response ...


The Larval Salivary Gland Of Drosophila Melangogaster: A Model System For Temporal And Spatial Steroid Hormone Regulation, Benjamin Constantino Aug 2010

The Larval Salivary Gland Of Drosophila Melangogaster: A Model System For Temporal And Spatial Steroid Hormone Regulation, Benjamin Constantino

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Drosophila melanogaster provides an ideal model organism to test genetic and molecular biological mechanisms within the context of a living animal. For over one hundred years Drosophila continues to produce a boundless extent of informative and important scientific data providing crucial insight into development, disease progression and genetic interactions. A century as a model organism allowed for the development of an abundance of unique genetic and molecular tools allowing researchers to tease apart cellular mechanisms with very little limitation. From the whole adult body to tissue function to molecular networks, if a biological question arises it most likely can be ...


Bacillus Cereus And Bacillus Anthracis Germination Kinetics: A Michaelis-Menten Approach, Helen Luu May 2010

Bacillus Cereus And Bacillus Anthracis Germination Kinetics: A Michaelis-Menten Approach, Helen Luu

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Bacillus species are rod-shaped, gram-positive bacteria that are capable of producing endospores. In this dormant stage, the endospores can persist in hostile physical and chemical environments. Once conditions become favorable, the spores germinate into actively dividing cells, vegetative cells. Germination is a crucial step for the pathogenicity of the Bacilli in affecting a host organism.

Our study applies mathematical approaches to spore germination to determine whether the binding of one germinant will affect the binding of another germinant. We pursued this approach with two different species, B. cereus and B. anthracis, both pathogenic organisms. B. cereus is a widely known ...


Antimicrobial Activity Of D-Lenolate®, Andy Phui May 2010

Antimicrobial Activity Of D-Lenolate®, Andy Phui

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Olive trees are one of the most important fruit trees in the Mediterranean. Although not validated by research, olive leaves are traditionally believed to fight off fever and infections. It has been shown that olive leaf extracts possess antimicrobial activity. Olive leaf extracts contain polyphenols. One of the major phenolic compounds is oleuropein. Oleuropein and other polyphenols have been shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity. East Park Research (EPR) developed an extraction process that they claim does not alter the chemical composition of the olive leaves. The extract is known by the commercial name d-lenolate®. Studies have provided evidence that d-lenolate ...


From The Valleys To The Mountains: The Biographic History Of Antelope Squirrels, Bats, And Chipmunks In Western North America, Stacy James Mantooth Apr 2010

From The Valleys To The Mountains: The Biographic History Of Antelope Squirrels, Bats, And Chipmunks In Western North America, Stacy James Mantooth

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Genetic differentiation within and between species often coincides with significant geological or climatic changes that have shaped the sizes and locations of their geographic ranges and altered the connectivity between populations over time. Across western North America, many endemic taxa experienced high levels of initial divergence associated with geological transformations of the Neogene, with subsequent diversification and geographic structuring of populations associated with climatic changes during the Quaternary. As such, we can use a combination of molecular markers and genetic analyses to effectively examine the evolutionary and biogeographic histories of populations, species, and regional biotas whose signatures of differentiation are ...


Identifying Biomarkers For Resistance To Novel Cisplatin Analogues In Human Lung, Breast And Prostate Cancers, Becky Michelle Hess May 2009

Identifying Biomarkers For Resistance To Novel Cisplatin Analogues In Human Lung, Breast And Prostate Cancers, Becky Michelle Hess

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Cisplatin is a common therapeutic agent used in cancer treatment. Unfortunately, resistance to cisplatin in addition to severe side effects limits its use in cancer treatment. Two novel cisplatin analogues, 4DB and 4TB were shown to have varying cytotoxicity in lung, breast and prostate cancer cells. The hypothesis for this study states that the differences in 4DB and 4TB cytotoxicity among different tissue types is due to the type and efficiency of DNA repair mechanisms involved in response to these drugs.

To test the hypothesis, proteins involved in the rate limiting step of nucleotide excision repair (NER) and mismatch repair ...