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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effects Of Different Organic Pastures On Dairy Heifer Growth And Development, Jacob A. Hadfield Aug 2020

The Effects Of Different Organic Pastures On Dairy Heifer Growth And Development, Jacob A. Hadfield

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Raising dairy heifers in a certified organic setting can be difficult for producers. Conventionally, heifers are raised in a confined setting, and fed a total mixed ration (TMR) that is balanced daily to contain all the needed nutrients for developing heifers. Organic producers can use a TMR in their operations, but due to high organic feed costs, many choose to raise their heifers in pasture-based systems. While pasture-based systems may lower costs, heifers on pasture commonly have lower rates of gain, which can be financially burdensome to producers. Grass-legume pastures may help improve rates of gain in heifers on pasture-based ...


Coping With Drought In Beef Cattle Production: Innovation Through Optimal Warm-Season Forage Systems, Katelynn Elizabeth Zechiel Dec 2017

Coping With Drought In Beef Cattle Production: Innovation Through Optimal Warm-Season Forage Systems, Katelynn Elizabeth Zechiel

Masters Theses

Drought conditions have had detrimental effects on beef cattle production in the southeastern states where forages are the primary source of feed for livestock. Many southeastern states lie within the fescue-belt, where tall fescue is the predominant livestock forage. Tall fescue is a cool-season (CS) grass that thrives in the cooler temperatures of spring and fall, becoming semi-dormant during peak summer temperatures and again in winter. Conversely, warm-season (WS) forage species increase in production during the summer months and exhibit drought tolerant qualities, making them a viable summer forage option to complement tall fescue for beef cattle producers. The primary ...


Examining Vegetative Growth Of Cool-Season Forage Grasses For Dairy Cattle Grazing Preference, Eric D. Billman Jan 2015

Examining Vegetative Growth Of Cool-Season Forage Grasses For Dairy Cattle Grazing Preference, Eric D. Billman

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

The objective of this study was to determine dairy cattle preference amongst four species of cool-season forage grasses: eight orchardgrasses (Dactylis glomerata L.), five tall fescues [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.], five perennial ryegrasses (Lolium perenne L.), and six festuloliums [xFestulolium braunii (K. Richt.) A. Camus.]; 24 cultivars in total. Each grazing trial utilized four Holstein-Friesian heifers over six hours. Maturity differences were eliminated by having animals graze only vegetative material. After six grazing trials (three each in 2014 and 2015), consistent results in animal preference were not found; three of the six trials did show preference (P


Performance Of Beef Cattle Grazing Native Warm-Season Grasses In An Integrated Forage/Biofuels System In The Mid-South, William Matthew Backus Dec 2014

Performance Of Beef Cattle Grazing Native Warm-Season Grasses In An Integrated Forage/Biofuels System In The Mid-South, William Matthew Backus

Masters Theses

Early season (ES) and full season (FS) grazing strategies were used to evaluate performance of stocker steers grazing native warm-season grasses (NWSG) in 2010, 2011 and 2012 in two experiments. Experiment one was conducted at the Research and Education Center (REC) at Ames Plantation near Grand Junction and experiment two was conducted at Highland Rim REC near Springfield in which Angus and Angus cross steers (268±25kg) were used in completely randomized design with three forage treatments: 1) switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.); 2) a combination of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) and indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans); and 3) eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum ...


Assessing Rodent Species Counts And Diversity In The Not-Grazed Montana De Oro State Park And The Rotationally Grazed Pecho Ranch, Nancy Marie Lemos Jun 2014

Assessing Rodent Species Counts And Diversity In The Not-Grazed Montana De Oro State Park And The Rotationally Grazed Pecho Ranch, Nancy Marie Lemos

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The available data examining the influence of rotational grazing on rodent responses are limited. This study investigated how rotational livestock grazing practices influence small mammal rodent abundances and species diversity. We looked for evidence of variation in the occurrence and/or numbers of certain rodent species among three plant community types (grassland, shrubland, grass-shrub mix), managed with or without grazing. We used Sherman live traps over a total of eight trapping sessions. We totaled 486 trapnights for each of the six plant community and grazing management combinations. The three plant community types were identified by visual cover.

Out of the ...


A Business Model For The Small-Scale, Start-Up, Organic Jersey Dairy, Jim Moreda Mar 2013

A Business Model For The Small-Scale, Start-Up, Organic Jersey Dairy, Jim Moreda

Dairy Science

To determine the financial feasibility and stability of starting a small-scale organic jersey dairy in Northern California, given the changes and restrictions that must take place in all aspects of production while operating organically. Using a unique combination of ownership and borrowing, I have created a business model made to appropriately fit the organic dairy system, addressing every area of the operation whether it be business or animal related. Through experience, reviews, and research of organic techniques allowable to apply, I was able to reveal and identify specific areas of husbandry and financing in which I would need to excel ...


Stocking System Effects On Cattle Performance, Forage, And Soil Properties Of Cool-Season Pastures, Margaret Warter Dunn Jan 2013

Stocking System Effects On Cattle Performance, Forage, And Soil Properties Of Cool-Season Pastures, Margaret Warter Dunn

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Increasing stocking density and rotation frequency of grazing cattle may improve forage yield and quality and soil carbon content, but may reduce livestock performance and forage persistence and compact soil. Sixty mature August-calving Angus cows (Bos taurus L.; mean body weight (BW), 585 ± 9.9 kg) were allotted to six 4.05-ha cool-season pastures to graze by rotational (RS), strip (SS), or mob (MS) stocking from May through September for two years (2010-2011). Stocking density averaged 16 000, 80 000, and 350 000 kg BW * ha-1 * d-1 in RS, SS, and MS pastures, respectively. Daily live forage allowance was equal ...


Effects Of Grazing Vs. Resting On Soil Chemistry And Plant Community Dynamics For The Central Coast Of California In 2012, Jessica Combs Dec 2012

Effects Of Grazing Vs. Resting On Soil Chemistry And Plant Community Dynamics For The Central Coast Of California In 2012, Jessica Combs

Animal Science

No abstract provided.


Maternal Environment And Fescue Cultivar Effects On Growth, Development, And Fertility Of Beef Heifers, Jennifer Denyse Patterson Aug 2012

Maternal Environment And Fescue Cultivar Effects On Growth, Development, And Fertility Of Beef Heifers, Jennifer Denyse Patterson

Theses and Dissertations

Eighty Brahman-influenced cows (5.6 BCS) were assigned to graze common bermudagrass (CB) or toxic tall fescue (E+) during a 60-d breeding season. Body condition (BC) was assessed at d 0, 30, and 60 of breeding season. Cows were managed to achieve marginal (4.2 BCS) or good (6.3 BCS) BC during last trimester. Heifer birth and weaning (WW; 7 to 8 mo) weights were recorded. The Angus sired heifers were weighed and randomly assigned to E+ or non-toxic (Novel) tall fescue at 9 to 10 mo of age for 190d. Heifer weight, growth data, and antral follicle count ...


Avian Habitat Response To Grazing, Haying, And Biofuels Production In Native Warm-Season Forages In The Mid-South, Jessie Lee Birckhead Aug 2012

Avian Habitat Response To Grazing, Haying, And Biofuels Production In Native Warm-Season Forages In The Mid-South, Jessie Lee Birckhead

Masters Theses

Declines in grassland birds have been attributed to loss of habitat, habitat degradation, and changes in land management. In the Mid-South, pasture and hayfield management has focused on maintaining dense stands of non-native forages that do not provide suitable vegetative structure for grassland birds or northern bobwhite. Native warm-season grasses have been promoted for livestock forage and biofuels feedstock. However, little information exists on how these practices affect habitat for grassland songbirds or northern bobwhite in the Mid-South. We conducted a study of two cattle grazing treatments, two hay harvest treatments and a biofuels harvest treatment on vegetative structure for ...


Effects Of Management Strategies And Molecular Breeding Values On Cattle Performance And Carcass Traits, Benjamin Collins Williamson May 2012

Effects Of Management Strategies And Molecular Breeding Values On Cattle Performance And Carcass Traits, Benjamin Collins Williamson

Theses and Dissertations

Forty-eight Gelbvieh x Angus steers (265 ¡À 40 kg) were utilized to determine the relationships among molecular breeding values (MBV), steer performance, and carcass traits. Body weight (BW), hip height (HH), hip width (HW), exit velocity (EV; rate at which steers exited the squeeze chute and traversed 1.8 m) and body ultrasound measurements of steers were recorded at d 0, 93 and 154 of grazing mixed stockpiled endophyte-infected and -free tall fescue. Tissue samples were collected for genomic profiling (Igenity, Merial Limited, Duluth, GA). Steers were transported to the Oklahoma State U fed for 159 d, harvested and carcass ...


Pasture Management Effects On Nonpoint Source Pollution Of Midwestern Watersheds, Douglas Allen Bear Jan 2011

Pasture Management Effects On Nonpoint Source Pollution Of Midwestern Watersheds, Douglas Allen Bear

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Because congregation of cattle near surface waters may result in sediment, nutrient, and pathogen loading of water resources, management practices to alter distribution or limit grazing may enhance water quality of a stream within a grazed pasture. Objectives of this study were to relate pasture physical characteristics, shade distribution, and tall fescue prevalence in cool-season grass pastures to the temporal and spatial distribution of grazing cattle; and to quantify stocking rate effects on forage sward height, proportions of bare and manure-covered ground, and bank erosion adjacent to streams. During a 3-year period, an on-farm research study was conducted in the ...


Rangeland Condition Assessment Of A Portion Of The Cal Poly Sheep Unit, Colin S. Mckim Dec 2010

Rangeland Condition Assessment Of A Portion Of The Cal Poly Sheep Unit, Colin S. Mckim

Animal Science

This rangeland condition assessment was conducted as part of the Cal Poly Rangeland Condition Assessment Project. Five pastures comprising 31.7 acres at the Cal Poly sheep unit were assessed to collect baseline ecological information. Methods used were Line-point Intercept, Belt Transect, Residual Dry Matter, and the rangeland health indicators recommended by Pyke et al., 2002. Additionally, a preliminary species list was collected. The rangeland health assessment method found all pastures to have no to slight departure from the local reference area when evaluated for soil and site stability, hydrologic function, and biotic integrity.


Assessment Of The Risks Of Nonpoint Source Pollution Of Pasture Streams Related To Grazing Management, Kirk Albert Schwarte Jan 2010

Assessment Of The Risks Of Nonpoint Source Pollution Of Pasture Streams Related To Grazing Management, Kirk Albert Schwarte

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sediment, phosphorus (P), and fecal pathogens lost from grazed pastures contribute to the non-point source pollution of surface waters. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to observe the effect of different grazing management techniques on the amount of time cattle spend in or near pasture streams and on the amount of sediment, P, and fecal pathogen loading of into the streams. During the 2008 and 2009 grazing season, a study was conducted at the Iowa State University Rhodes Research and Demonstration Farm utilizing six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures that were bisected by a 141-m reach of stream. The pastures ...


Forage Selection And Nutrition Of Sheep And Goats Grazing In The Tunisian Pre-Sahara, Rudolfo Ricardo Griego May 1976

Forage Selection And Nutrition Of Sheep And Goats Grazing In The Tunisian Pre-Sahara, Rudolfo Ricardo Griego

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nomadic pastoralism has been the traditional method of utilizing grazing resources in arid and semi-arid regions of Africa. However, increased sedentarization accompanied by growing human and animal populations during the past two decades is thought to be accelerating the desertification process, or desert expansion. The specific interactions of the grazing animal with this process has been speculated upon but not studied in detail. A comparative study was initiated during the spring grazing season of 1974 to determine sheep and goat nutritional and production responses, as well as patterns of vegetative selection and utilization under the pastoral system currently employed in ...


The Relations Hip Of Climatic Factors To Grazing Activities Of Cows On Winter And Spring Ranges, Benton M. Smith May 1973

The Relations Hip Of Climatic Factors To Grazing Activities Of Cows On Winter And Spring Ranges, Benton M. Smith

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of climatic variations upon the daily activities of grazing cattle. The activities of individual cows on a partially seeded salt desert shrub range were observed and recorded during three grazing periods. Two of the periods were during consecutive winters and the other during the spring. Climatic variations during the second winter period were quantified and compared to changes in the daily activity patterns of the cattle.

Distinctly different daily routines of cattle activities were evident for the winter and spring seasons. In the spring, the cattle grazed, traveled, and drank ...


Studies In Breaking The Rest Period Of Grass Plants By Treatments With Potassium Thiocyante And In Stimulating Growth With Artificial Light, Harold R. Shepherd May 1938

Studies In Breaking The Rest Period Of Grass Plants By Treatments With Potassium Thiocyante And In Stimulating Growth With Artificial Light, Harold R. Shepherd

Master's Theses

There has developed a need for a practical means of artificially breaking the rest period and of stimulating the growth of grasses so that sods can be procured early in the fall before freezing weather, brought into the greenhouse, and forced early to make an abundant vegetative growth. This need suggested the study of which this paper is the report, namely to discover whether or not the rest period of native grasses can be broken by treatment with potassium thiocyanate and their growth stimulated by artificial light supplemental to winter daylight.