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Articles 211 - 240 of 9313

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Developing Standards For Dissolved Iron In Seawater, Kenneth Johnson, Virginia Elrod, Steve Fitzwater, Joshua Plant, Edward Boyle, Bridget Bergquist, Kristen N. Buck Sep 2019

Developing Standards For Dissolved Iron In Seawater, Kenneth Johnson, Virginia Elrod, Steve Fitzwater, Joshua Plant, Edward Boyle, Bridget Bergquist, Kristen N. Buck

Kristen N. Buck

In nearly a dozen open‐ocean fertilization experiments conducted by more than 100 researchers from nearly 20 countries, adding iron at the sea surface has led to distinct increases in photosynthesis rates and biomass. These experiments confirmed the hypothesis proposed by the late John Martin [Martin, 1990] that dissolved iron concentration is a key variable that controls phytoplankton processes in ocean surface waters However, the measurement of dissolved iron concentration in seawater remains a difficult task [Bruland and Rue, 2001] with significant interlaboratory differences apparent at times. The availability of a seawater reference solution with well‐known dissolved iron (Fe ...


Spatiotemporal Patterns Of Small For Gestational Age And Low Birth Weight Births And Associations With Land Use And Socioeconomic Status, Charlene Nielsen, Carl Amrhein, Prakesh S Shah, Khalid Aziz, Alvaro R Osornio-Vargas Sep 2019

Spatiotemporal Patterns Of Small For Gestational Age And Low Birth Weight Births And Associations With Land Use And Socioeconomic Status, Charlene Nielsen, Carl Amrhein, Prakesh S Shah, Khalid Aziz, Alvaro R Osornio-Vargas

Carl Amrhein

In addition to small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight at term (LBWT), critically ill cases of SGA/LBWT are significant events from outcomes and economic perspectives that require further understanding of risk factors. We aimed to assess the spatiotemporal distribution of locations where there were consistently higher numbers of critically ill SGA/LBWT (hot spots) in comparison with all SGA/LBWT and all births. We focused on Edmonton (2008-2010) and Calgary (2006-2010), Alberta, and used a geographical information system to apply emerging hot spot analysis, as a new approach for understanding SGA, LBWT, and the critically ill ...


Practical Considerations In Regenerative Medicine Research: Iacucs, Ethics, And The Use Of Animals In Stem Cell Studies, Susan Vandewoude, Bernard E. Rollin Sep 2019

Practical Considerations In Regenerative Medicine Research: Iacucs, Ethics, And The Use Of Animals In Stem Cell Studies, Susan Vandewoude, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

The intent of US federal laws mandating IACUC review of animal-related activities was to satisfy contemporary socioethical concerns by introducing deliberations about ethics and animal welfare into the research process when animals are used. These laws and the system they chartered have worked well for the most part in providing opportunities for consideration of animal welfare as a vital part of animal research. As a result, investigators today are far less naïve about the ethical issues raised by research on animals and typically more sympathetic about the need for such consideration. As evidence of this growing awareness, the literature on ...


Beyond Pain—Controlling Suffering In Laboratory Animals, Bernard E. Rollin Sep 2019

Beyond Pain—Controlling Suffering In Laboratory Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

No abstract provided.


Raising Consciousness About Chicken Consciousness, Bernard Rollin Sep 2019

Raising Consciousness About Chicken Consciousness, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

The topics explored by Marino are definitive, and should work well to lay to rest forever the widespread belief that chickens have no personality, are unintelligent, or in any other way lack a mental life.


Far More To Sheep Than Meets The Casual Eye, Bernard Rollin Sep 2019

Far More To Sheep Than Meets The Casual Eye, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Marino & Merskin’s survey of the cognitive and social capacities of sheep is an eye-opener about the individuality and emotionality of this most maligned of all farm animals. My own eyes had already been opened by an adopted orphaned lamb, so much more like a dog as a companion animal than the mindless robot I had been conditioned to expect. I am morally certain that Marino & Merskin’s survey will have a similar effect on readers open to changing their minds.


Raising The Moral Consciousness Of Science, Bernard Rollin Sep 2019

Raising The Moral Consciousness Of Science, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Precaution on behalf of sentient animals should not be tempered by the questionable principle of the amorality of science.


Unity Of Consciousness In Animals, Bernard E. Rollin Sep 2019

Unity Of Consciousness In Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Both Descartes the rationalist and Hume the empiricist, polar opposites philosophically, denied the unity and continuity of animal mind. Kant pointed out that the presence of retrievable memories entails unity of consciousness. Rowlands now argues that animals too have unity of consciousness.


Human Superiority?, Bernard Rollin Sep 2019

Human Superiority?, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Like Charles Darwin and George Romanes, I am quite willing to use anecdotal information as a source of knowledge about animal behavior. There are many more people observing nonhuman animals than there are people conducting controlled experiments, and we can thereby learn that behaviors we think are unique to humans are shared by other animals. From a strictly biological point of view, it makes no sense to speak of “human superiority.” One species of animal can be superior to another only in terms of survival and niche occupation. As moral concern for animals increases across the world, claims of human ...


An Intercomparison Of Dissolved Iron Speciation At The Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (Bats) Site: Results From Geotraces Crossover Station A, Kristen N. Buck, Loes J. A. Gerringa, Micha J. A. Rijkenberg Sep 2019

An Intercomparison Of Dissolved Iron Speciation At The Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (Bats) Site: Results From Geotraces Crossover Station A, Kristen N. Buck, Loes J. A. Gerringa, Micha J. A. Rijkenberg

Kristen N. Buck

The organic complexation of dissolved iron (Fe) was determined in depth profile samples collected from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A, the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site, as part of the Dutch and U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic programs in June 2010 and November 2011, respectively. The two groups employed distinct competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-AdCSV) methods, and resulting ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants from each profile were compared. Excellent agreement was found between the total ligand concentrations determined in June 2010 and the strongest, L1-type, ligand concentrations determined in November 2011. Yet a primary distinction ...


A Compilation Of Iron Speciation Data For Open Oceanic Waters, Salvatore Caprara, Kristen N. Buck, Loes J. A. Gerringa, Micha J. A. Rijkenberg, Damiano Monticelli Sep 2019

A Compilation Of Iron Speciation Data For Open Oceanic Waters, Salvatore Caprara, Kristen N. Buck, Loes J. A. Gerringa, Micha J. A. Rijkenberg, Damiano Monticelli

Kristen N. Buck

No abstract provided.


Differential Activation Of Frontoparietal Attention Networks By Social And Symbolic Spatial Cues, Andrew D. Engell, Lauri Nummenmaa, Nikolaas N. Oosterhof, Richard N. Henson, James V. Haxby, Andrew J. Calder Sep 2019

Differential Activation Of Frontoparietal Attention Networks By Social And Symbolic Spatial Cues, Andrew D. Engell, Lauri Nummenmaa, Nikolaas N. Oosterhof, Richard N. Henson, James V. Haxby, Andrew J. Calder

Andrew D. Engell

Perception of both gaze-direction and symbolic directional cues (e.g. arrows) orient an observer’s attention toward the indicated location. It is unclear, however, whether these similar behavioral effects are examples of the same attentional phenomenon and, therefore, subserved by the same neural substrate. It has been proposed that gaze, given its evolutionary significance, constitutes a ‘special’ category of spatial cue. As such, it is predicted that the neural systems supporting spatial reorienting will be different for gaze than for non-biological symbols. We tested this prediction using functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the brain’s response during target localization ...


Tlr9 Agonist Mgn1703 Enhances B Cell Differentiation And Function In Lymph Nodes, Mariane H. Schleimann, Maria-Louise Kobberø, Line K. Vibholm, Katherine Kjær, Leila B. Giron, Kathleen Busman-Sahay, Chi Ngai Chan, Michael Nekorchuk, Manuel Schmidt, Burghardt Wittig, Tine E. Damsgaard, Peter Ahlburg, Michel B. Hellfritzsch, Kaja Zuwala, Frederik H. Rothemejer, Rikke Olesen, Phillipp Schommers, Florian Klein, Harsh Dweep, Andrew Kossenkov, Jens R. Nyengaard, Jacob D. Estes, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Lars Østergaard, Ole S. Søgaard, Paul W. Denton Sep 2019

Tlr9 Agonist Mgn1703 Enhances B Cell Differentiation And Function In Lymph Nodes, Mariane H. Schleimann, Maria-Louise Kobberø, Line K. Vibholm, Katherine Kjær, Leila B. Giron, Kathleen Busman-Sahay, Chi Ngai Chan, Michael Nekorchuk, Manuel Schmidt, Burghardt Wittig, Tine E. Damsgaard, Peter Ahlburg, Michel B. Hellfritzsch, Kaja Zuwala, Frederik H. Rothemejer, Rikke Olesen, Phillipp Schommers, Florian Klein, Harsh Dweep, Andrew Kossenkov, Jens R. Nyengaard, Jacob D. Estes, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Lars Østergaard, Ole S. Søgaard, Paul W. Denton

Paul W. Denton

Background

TLR9 agonists are being developed as immunotherapy against malignancies and infections. TLR9 is primarily expressed in B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). TLR9 signalling may be critically important for B cell activity in lymph nodes but little is known about the in vivo impact of TLR9 agonism on human lymph node B cells. As a pre-defined sub-study within our clinical trial investigating TLR9 agonist MGN1703 (lefitolimod) treatment in the context of developing HIV cure strategies (NCT02443935), we assessed TLR9 agonist-mediated effects in lymph nodes.

Methods

Participants received MGN1703 for 24 weeks concurrent with antiretroviral therapy. Seven participants completed ...


Art Influences Hiv Persistence In The Female Reproductive Tract And Cervicovaginal Secretions, Rikke Olesen, Michael D. Swanson, Martina Kovarova, Tomonori Nochi, Morgan Chateau, Jenna B. Honeycutt, Julie M. Long, Paul W. Denton, Michael G. Hudgens, Amy Richardson, Martin Tolstrup, Lars Østergaard, Angela Wahl, J. Victor Garcia Sep 2019

Art Influences Hiv Persistence In The Female Reproductive Tract And Cervicovaginal Secretions, Rikke Olesen, Michael D. Swanson, Martina Kovarova, Tomonori Nochi, Morgan Chateau, Jenna B. Honeycutt, Julie M. Long, Paul W. Denton, Michael G. Hudgens, Amy Richardson, Martin Tolstrup, Lars Østergaard, Angela Wahl, J. Victor Garcia

Paul W. Denton

The recently completed HIV prevention trials network study 052 is a landmark collaboration demonstrating that HIV transmission in discordant couples can be dramatically reduced by treating the infected individual with antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the cellular and virological events that occur in the female reproductive tract (FRT) during ART that result in such a drastic decrease in transmission were not studied and remain unknown. Here, we implemented an in vivo model of ART in BM/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice in order to better understand the ability of ART to prevent secondary HIV transmission. We demonstrated that the entire FRT ...


Using Animal Models To Overcome Temporal, Spatial And Combinatorial Challenges In Hiv Persistence Research, Paul W. Denton, Ole S. Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup Sep 2019

Using Animal Models To Overcome Temporal, Spatial And Combinatorial Challenges In Hiv Persistence Research, Paul W. Denton, Ole S. Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup

Paul W. Denton

Research challenges associated with understanding HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy can be categorized as temporal, spatial and combinatorial. Temporal research challenges relate to the timing of events during establishment and maintenance of HIV persistence. Spatial research challenges regard the anatomical locations and cell subsets that harbor persistent HIV. Combinatorial research challenges pertain to the order of administration, timing of administration and specific combinations of compounds to be administered during HIV eradication therapy. Overcoming these challenges will improve our understanding of HIV persistence and move the field closer to achieving eradication of persistent HIV. Given that humanized mice and non-human primate ...


Interferon Priming Is Essential For Human Cd34+ Cell-Derived Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Maturation And Function, A. Lausten, R. O. Bak, C. Krapp, L. Kjær, J. H. Egedahl, C. C. Petersen, S. Pillai, H. Q. Tang, N. Uldbjerg, M. Porteus, N. R. Roan, M. Nyegaard, Paul W. Denton, M. R. Jakobsen Sep 2019

Interferon Priming Is Essential For Human Cd34+ Cell-Derived Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Maturation And Function, A. Lausten, R. O. Bak, C. Krapp, L. Kjær, J. H. Egedahl, C. C. Petersen, S. Pillai, H. Q. Tang, N. Uldbjerg, M. Porteus, N. R. Roan, M. Nyegaard, Paul W. Denton, M. R. Jakobsen

Paul W. Denton

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are essential for immune competence. Here we show that pDC precursor differentiated from human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) has low surface expression of pDC markers, and has limited induction of type I interferon (IFN) and IL-6 upon TLR7 and TLR9 agonists treatment; by contrast, cGAS or RIG-I agonists-mediated activation is not altered. Importantly, after priming with type I and II IFN, these precursor pDCs attain a phenotype and functional activity similar to that of peripheral blood-derived pDCs. Data from CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of HSPCs further show that HSPC-pDCs with genetic modifications can ...


Broad Activation Of Latent Hiv-1 In Vivo, Kirston Barton, Bonnie Hiener, Anni Winckelmann, Thomas Aagaard Rasmussen, Wei Shao, Karen Byth, Robert Lanfear, Ajantha Solomon, James Mcmahon, Sean Harrington, Maria Buzon, Mathias Lichterfeld, Paul W. Denton, Rikke Olesen, Lars Østergaard, Martin Tolstrup, Sharon R. Lewin, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard, Sarah Palmer Sep 2019

Broad Activation Of Latent Hiv-1 In Vivo, Kirston Barton, Bonnie Hiener, Anni Winckelmann, Thomas Aagaard Rasmussen, Wei Shao, Karen Byth, Robert Lanfear, Ajantha Solomon, James Mcmahon, Sean Harrington, Maria Buzon, Mathias Lichterfeld, Paul W. Denton, Rikke Olesen, Lars Østergaard, Martin Tolstrup, Sharon R. Lewin, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard, Sarah Palmer

Paul W. Denton

The ‘shock and kill’ approach to cure human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) includes transcriptional induction of latent HIV-1 proviruses using latency-reversing agents (LRAs) with targeted immunotherapy to purge infected cells. The administration of LRAs (panobinostat or vorinostat) to HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy induces a significant increase in cell-associated unspliced (CA-US) HIV-1 RNA from CD4+ T cells. However, it is important to discern whether the increases in CA-US HIV-1 RNA are due to limited or broad activation of HIV-1 proviruses. Here we use single-genome sequencing to find that the RNA transcripts observed following LRA administration are genetically diverse, indicating activation of ...


Treatment Of Hiv-Infected Individuals With The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Panobinostat Results In Increased Numbers Of Regulatory T Cells And Limits Ex Vivo Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses, Christel Rothe Brinkmann, Jesper Falkesgaard Højen, Thomas Aagaard Rasmussen, Anne Sofie Kjær, Rikke Olesen, Paul W. Denton, Lars Østergaard, Zhengyu Ouyang, Mathias Lichterfeld, Xu Yu, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard, Charles Dinarello, Martin Tolstrup Sep 2019

Treatment Of Hiv-Infected Individuals With The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Panobinostat Results In Increased Numbers Of Regulatory T Cells And Limits Ex Vivo Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses, Christel Rothe Brinkmann, Jesper Falkesgaard Højen, Thomas Aagaard Rasmussen, Anne Sofie Kjær, Rikke Olesen, Paul W. Denton, Lars Østergaard, Zhengyu Ouyang, Mathias Lichterfeld, Xu Yu, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard, Charles Dinarello, Martin Tolstrup

Paul W. Denton

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) modulate the transcriptional activity of all cells, including innate and adaptive immune cells. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate immunological effects of treatment with the HDACi panobinostat in HIV-infected patients during a clinical phase IIa latency reversal trial. Using flow cytometry, we investigated changes in T cell activation (CD69, CD38, HLA-DR) and the expression of CD39 and CTLA4 on regulatory T cells (Tregs). Whole-blood stimulations were performed and cytokine responses measured using Luminex. Gene expression in purified peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was evaluated using an Affymetrix HTA 2.0 gene chip. We found that proportions of ...


Predicting Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Efficacy For Women Using A Preclinical Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic In Vivo Model, Angela Wahl, Phong T. Ho, Paul W. Denton, Katy L. Garrett, Michael G. Hudgens, Glenn Swartz, Cynthia O'Neill, Fulvia Veronese, Angela D. Kashuba, J. Victor Garcia Sep 2019

Predicting Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Efficacy For Women Using A Preclinical Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic In Vivo Model, Angela Wahl, Phong T. Ho, Paul W. Denton, Katy L. Garrett, Michael G. Hudgens, Glenn Swartz, Cynthia O'Neill, Fulvia Veronese, Angela D. Kashuba, J. Victor Garcia

Paul W. Denton

The efficacy of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) relies on adherence and may also depend on the route of HIV acquisition. Clinical studies of systemic tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) PrEP revealed reduced efficacy in women compared to men with similar degrees of adherence. To select the most effective PrEP strategies, preclinical studies are critically needed to establish correlations between drug concentrations (pharmacokinetics [PK]) and protective efficacy (pharmacodynamics [PD]). We utilized an in vivo preclinical model to perform a PK-PD analysis of systemic TDF PrEP for vaginal HIV acquisition. TDF PrEP prevented vaginal HIV acquisition in a dose-dependent manner. PK-PD modeling of ...


Impacts Of Hiv Cure Interventions On Viral Reservoirs In Tissues, Paul W. Denton, Ole S. Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup Sep 2019

Impacts Of Hiv Cure Interventions On Viral Reservoirs In Tissues, Paul W. Denton, Ole S. Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup

Paul W. Denton

HIV reservoirs persist in infected individuals despite combination antiretroviral therapy and can be identified in secondary lymphoid tissues, in intestinal tissues, in the central nervous system as well as in blood. Clinical trials have begun to explore effects of small molecule interventions to perturb the latent viral infection, but only limited information is available regarding the impacts of HIV cure-related clinical interventions on viral reservoirs found in tissues. Of the 14 HIV cure-related clinical trials since 2012 that have evaluated the effects of small molecule interventions in vivo, four trials have examined the impacts of the interventions in peripheral blood ...


Global Observational Needs And Resources For Marine Biodiversity, Enrique Montes-Herrera, Frank Muller-Karger Sep 2019

Global Observational Needs And Resources For Marine Biodiversity, Enrique Montes-Herrera, Frank Muller-Karger

Frank E. Muller-Karger

No abstract provided.


Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, Frank Muller-Karger, Chuanmin M. Hu, Enrique Montes-Herrera, Mengqiu Wang Sep 2019

Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, Frank Muller-Karger, Chuanmin M. Hu, Enrique Montes-Herrera, Mengqiu Wang

Frank E. Muller-Karger

No abstract provided.


Carbon Cycling In The North American Coastal Ocean: A Synthesis, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Lisa Robbins Sep 2019

Carbon Cycling In The North American Coastal Ocean: A Synthesis, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Lisa Robbins

Frank E. Muller-Karger

A quantification of carbon fluxes in the coastal ocean and across its boundaries with the atmosphere, land, and the open ocean is important for assessing the current state and projecting future trends in ocean carbon uptake and coastal ocean acidification, but this is currently a missing component of global carbon budgeting. This synthesis reviews recent progress in characterizing these carbon fluxes for the North American coastal ocean. Several observing networks and high-resolution regional models are now available. Recent efforts have focused primarily on quantifying the net air–sea exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2). Some studies have estimated other key ...


Sumoylation, Oliver Kerscher Sep 2019

Sumoylation, Oliver Kerscher

Oliver Kerscher

Eukaryotic cells utilise the dynamic addition and removal of SUMO, a small ubiquitin‐like modifier (UBL), to modulate protein functions, interactions and localisation. Protein SUMOylation involves a cascade of dedicated enzymes that facilitate the covalent modification of specific lysine residues on target proteins with monomers or polymers of SUMO. The cellular homeostasis of SUMOylated proteins is also regulated by SUMO proteases and SUMO‐targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbLs). SUMO proteases cleave SUMO from modified proteins. In contrast, STUbLs ubiquitinate proteins modified with SUMO chains. Recent data suggests that ubiquitination via STUbLs effects the turnover of SUMOylated proteins as well as the ...


Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (Stubl) Slx5 Regulates Proteolysis Of Centromeric Histone H3 Variant Cse4 And Prevents Its Mislocalization To Euchromatin, Kentaro Ohkuni, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Alyona Fulp, Oliver Kerscher Sep 2019

Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (Stubl) Slx5 Regulates Proteolysis Of Centromeric Histone H3 Variant Cse4 And Prevents Its Mislocalization To Euchromatin, Kentaro Ohkuni, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Alyona Fulp, Oliver Kerscher

Oliver Kerscher

Centromeric histone H3, CENP-ACse4, is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Stringent regulation of cellular levels of CENP-ACse4 restricts its localization to centromeres. Mislocalization of CENP-ACse4 is associated with aneuploidy in yeast and flies and tumorigenesis in human cells; thus defining pathways that regulate CENP-A levels is critical for understanding how mislocalization of CENP-A contributes to aneuploidy in human cancers. Previous work in budding yeast shows that ubiquitination of overexpressed Cse4 by Psh1, an E3 ligase, partially contributes to proteolysis of Cse4. Here we provide the first evidence that Cse4 is sumoylated by E3 ligases Siz1 and Siz2 in vivo and ...


Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases (Stubls) Reduce The Toxicity And Abnormal Transcriptional Activity Associated With A Mutant, Aggregation-Prone Fragment Of Huntingtin, Kentaro Ohkuni, Nagesh Pasupala, Jennifer Peek, Oliver Kerscher Sep 2019

Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases (Stubls) Reduce The Toxicity And Abnormal Transcriptional Activity Associated With A Mutant, Aggregation-Prone Fragment Of Huntingtin, Kentaro Ohkuni, Nagesh Pasupala, Jennifer Peek, Oliver Kerscher

Oliver Kerscher

Cell viability and gene expression profiles are altered in cellular models of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington’s Disease (HD). Using the yeast model system, we show that the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) Slx5 reduces the toxicity and abnormal transcriptional activity associated with a mutant, aggregation-prone fragment of huntingtin (Htt), the causative agent of HD. We demonstrate that expression of an aggregation-prone Htt construct with 103 glutamine residues (103Q), but not the non-expanded form (25Q), results in severe growth defects in slx5Δ and slx8Δ cells. Since Slx5 is a nuclear protein and because Htt expression affects gene transcription ...


Sumo Targeting Of A Stress-Tolerant Ulp1 Sumo Protease, Jennifer Peek, Catherine Harvey, Dreux Gray, Oliver Kerscher Sep 2019

Sumo Targeting Of A Stress-Tolerant Ulp1 Sumo Protease, Jennifer Peek, Catherine Harvey, Dreux Gray, Oliver Kerscher

Oliver Kerscher

SUMO proteases of the SENP/Ulp family are master regulators of both sumoylation and desumoylation and regulate SUMO homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. SUMO conjugates rapidly increase in response to cellular stress, including nutrient starvation, hypoxia, osmotic stress, DNA damage, heat shock, and other proteotoxic stressors. Nevertheless, little is known about the regulation and targeting of SUMO proteases during stress. To this end we have undertaken a detailed comparison of the SUMO-binding activity of the budding yeast protein Ulp1 (ScUlp1) and its ortholog in the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, KmUlp1. We find that the catalytic UD domains of both ScUlp1 and ...


Thinking Chickens: A Review Of Cognition, Emotion, And Behavior In The Domestic Chicken, Lori Marino Sep 2019

Thinking Chickens: A Review Of Cognition, Emotion, And Behavior In The Domestic Chicken, Lori Marino

Lori Marino, PhD

Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. At least some birds are now known to be on par with many mammals in terms of their level of intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet, views of chickens have largely remained unrevised by this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the peer-reviewed scientific data on the leading edge of cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities in ...


Using Gene Expression Databases For Classical Trait Qtl Candidate Gene Discovery In The Bxd Recombinant Inbred Genetic Reference Population: Mouse Forebrain Weight, Lu Lu, Lai Wei, Jeremy L. Peirce, Xusheng Wang, Jianhua Zhou, Ramin Homayouni, Robert W. Williams, David C. Airey Sep 2019

Using Gene Expression Databases For Classical Trait Qtl Candidate Gene Discovery In The Bxd Recombinant Inbred Genetic Reference Population: Mouse Forebrain Weight, Lu Lu, Lai Wei, Jeremy L. Peirce, Xusheng Wang, Jianhua Zhou, Ramin Homayouni, Robert W. Williams, David C. Airey

Lu Lu

BACKGROUND: Successful strategies for QTL gene identification benefit from combined experimental and bioinformatic approaches. Unique design aspects of the BXD recombinant inbred line mapping panel allow use of archived gene microarray expression data to filter likely from unlikely candidates. This prompted us to propose a simple five-filter protocol for candidate nomination. To filter more likely from less likely candidates, we required candidate genes near to the QTL to have mRNA abundance that correlated with the phenotype among the BXD lines as well as differed between the parental lines C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We also required verification of mRNA abundance ...


The Genetic Basis Of Baculum Size And Shape Variation In Mice, Nicholas G. Schultz, Jesse Ingels, Andrew Hillhouse, Keegan Wardwell, Peter L. Chang, James M. Cheverud, Cathleen Lutz, Lu Lu, Robert W. Williams, Matthew D. Dean Sep 2019

The Genetic Basis Of Baculum Size And Shape Variation In Mice, Nicholas G. Schultz, Jesse Ingels, Andrew Hillhouse, Keegan Wardwell, Peter L. Chang, James M. Cheverud, Cathleen Lutz, Lu Lu, Robert W. Williams, Matthew D. Dean

Lu Lu

The rapid divergence of male genitalia is a preeminent evolutionary pattern. This rapid divergence is especially striking in the baculum, a bone that occurs in the penis of many mammalian species. Closely related species often display diverse baculum morphology where no other morphological differences can be discerned. While this fundamental pattern of evolution has been appreciated at the level of gross morphology, nearly nothing is known about the genetic basis of size and shape divergence. Quantifying the genetic basis of baculum size and shape variation has been difficult because these structures generally lack obvious landmarks, so comparing them in three ...