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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Native Deer Mice (Peromyscus Maniculatus) Use Of Invasive Grass Seed (Ehrharta Calycina) In Coastal California, Megan Wong Dec 2015

Native Deer Mice (Peromyscus Maniculatus) Use Of Invasive Grass Seed (Ehrharta Calycina) In Coastal California, Megan Wong

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Resource Partitioning Along Multiple Niche Axes Drives Functional Diversity In Parrotfishes On Caribbean Coral Reefs, Thomas C. Adam, Megan Kelley, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Deron E. Burkepile Dec 2015

Resource Partitioning Along Multiple Niche Axes Drives Functional Diversity In Parrotfishes On Caribbean Coral Reefs, Thomas C. Adam, Megan Kelley, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Deron E. Burkepile

Biological Sciences

The recent loss of key consumers to exploitation and habitat degradation has significantly altered community dynamics and ecosystem function across many ecosystems worldwide. Predicting the impacts of consumer losses requires knowing the level of functional diversity that exists within a consumer assemblage. In this study, we document functional diversity among nine species of parrotfishes on Caribbean coral reefs. Parrotfishes are key herbivores that facilitate the maintenance and recovery of coral-dominated reefs by controlling algae and provisioning space for the recruitment of corals. We observed large functional differences among two genera of parrotfishes that were driven by differences in diet. Fishes ...


Complete Mitochondrial Genome Of The Speckled Dace Rhinichthys Osculus, A Widely Distributed Cyprinid Minnow Of Western North America, Samantha J. Bock, Morgan M. Malley, Sean Lema Oct 2015

Complete Mitochondrial Genome Of The Speckled Dace Rhinichthys Osculus, A Widely Distributed Cyprinid Minnow Of Western North America, Samantha J. Bock, Morgan M. Malley, Sean Lema

Biological Sciences

The speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus (order Cypriniformes), also known as the carpita pinta, is a small cyprinid minnow native to western North America. Here, we report the sequencing of the full mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of R. osculus from a male fish collected from the Amargosa River Canyon in eastern California, USA. The assembled mitogenome is 16 658 base pair (bp) nucleotides, and encodes 13 protein-coding genes, and includes both a 12S and a 16S rRNA, 22 tRNAs, and a 985 bp D-loop control region. Mitogenome synteny reflects that of other Ostariophysian fishes with the majority of genes and RNAs encoded ...


Temperatures Experienced By Fresh-Cut Leafy Greens During Retail Storage And Display, W. Brown, E. Ryser, L. Gorman, Scott J. Steinmaus, Keith Vorst Sep 2015

Temperatures Experienced By Fresh-Cut Leafy Greens During Retail Storage And Display, W. Brown, E. Ryser, L. Gorman, Scott J. Steinmaus, Keith Vorst

Biological Sciences

There has been limited published work in the United States on temperature profiling of fresh-cut, bagged leafy greens during their transport, retail storage, and retail display. This study utilized temperature monitors placed in backrooms and display cases at nine supermarkets located in southern California: the Central Coast (Santa Barbara to Los Osos), Greater Los Angeles (Burbank area), and Greater Palm Desert. Sensors were installed midway along each 8-foot display case section containing fresh-cut leafy greens. Monitors were placed at the front and back of shelves and in the lower bin. In storage rooms, sensors were placed 4 feet from the ...


Introduction Next Contents Vol 63(4) Global Research On Ultramafic (Serpentine) Ecosystems (8th International Conference On Serpentine Ecology In Sabah, Malaysia), Antony Van Der Ent, Nishanta Rajakaruna, Robert Boyd, Guillaume Echevarria, Rimi Repin, Dick Williams Jun 2015

Introduction Next Contents Vol 63(4) Global Research On Ultramafic (Serpentine) Ecosystems (8th International Conference On Serpentine Ecology In Sabah, Malaysia), Antony Van Der Ent, Nishanta Rajakaruna, Robert Boyd, Guillaume Echevarria, Rimi Repin, Dick Williams

Biological Sciences

Since 1991, researchers from approximately 45 nations have participated in eight International Conferences on Serpentine Ecology (ICSE). The ICSE conferences are coordinated by the International Serpentine Ecology Society (ISES), a formal research society whose members study geological, pedological, biological and applied aspects of ultramafic ecosystems worldwide. These conferences have provided an international forum to discuss and synthesise multidisciplinary research, and have provided opportunities for scientists in distinct fields and from different regions of the world to conduct collaborative and interdisciplinary research. The 8th ICSE was hosted by Sabah Parks in Malaysia, on the island of Borneo, and attracted the largest ...


Global Research On Ultramafic (Serpentine) Ecosystems (8th International Conference On Serpentine Ecology In Sabah, Malaysia): A Summary And Synthesis, Antony Van Der Ent, Nishanta Rajakaruna, Robert Boyd, Guillaume Echevarria, Rimi Repin, Dick Williams May 2015

Global Research On Ultramafic (Serpentine) Ecosystems (8th International Conference On Serpentine Ecology In Sabah, Malaysia): A Summary And Synthesis, Antony Van Der Ent, Nishanta Rajakaruna, Robert Boyd, Guillaume Echevarria, Rimi Repin, Dick Williams

Biological Sciences

Since 1991, researchers from approximately 45 nations have participated in eight International Conferences on Serpentine Ecology (ICSE). The Conferences are coordinated by the International Serpentine Ecology Society (ISES), a formal research society whose members study geological, pedological, biological and applied aspects of ultramafic (serpentine) ecosystems worldwide. These conferences have provided an international forum to discuss and synthesise multidisciplinary research, and have provided opportunities for scientists in distinct fields and from different regions of the world to conduct collaborative and interdisciplinary research. The 8th ICSE was hosted by Sabah Parks in Malaysia, on the island of Borneo, and attracted the largest ...


Role Of Bacterial-Fungal Interactions On Heavy Metal Phytotoxicity In Serpentine Soil, Mihiri Seneviratne, Gamini Seneviratne, H. M. S. P. Madawala, M.C.M. Iqbal, Nishanta Rajakaruna, Tharanga Bandara, Meththika Vithanage Apr 2015

Role Of Bacterial-Fungal Interactions On Heavy Metal Phytotoxicity In Serpentine Soil, Mihiri Seneviratne, Gamini Seneviratne, H. M. S. P. Madawala, M.C.M. Iqbal, Nishanta Rajakaruna, Tharanga Bandara, Meththika Vithanage

Biological Sciences

This study was conducted to understand the role of bacterial–fungal interactions on heavy metal uptake by Zea mays plants. A pot experiment was conducted for 90 days with Z. mays in serpentine soil inoculated with a Gram-negative bacterium, fungus (Aspergilllus sp.) and both microbes to determine the effects of inoculation on nickel, manganese, chromium and cobalt concentrations in plant tissue and soil. Soil nutrients and soil enzyme activities were measured to determine the effect of inoculations on soil quality. Inoculation of microorganisms increased shoot and root biomass, and the maximum biomass was in the bacterial–fungal inoculation. This could ...


Transfer Of Heavy Metals Through Terrestrial Food Webs: A Review, Jillian E. Gall, Robert Boyd, Nishanta Rajakaruna Apr 2015

Transfer Of Heavy Metals Through Terrestrial Food Webs: A Review, Jillian E. Gall, Robert Boyd, Nishanta Rajakaruna

Biological Sciences

Heavy metals are released into the environment by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Highly reactive and often toxic at low concentrations, they may enter soils and groundwater, bioaccumulate in food webs, and adversely affect biota. Heavy metals also may remain in the environment for years, posing long-term risks to life well after point sources of heavy metal pollution have been removed. In this review, we compile studies of the community-level effects of heavy metal pollution, including heavy metal transfer from soils to plants, microbes, invertebrates, and to both small and large mammals (including humans). Many factors contribute to heavy metal ...


A Preliminary Survey Of The Diversity Of Soil Algae And Cyanoprokaryotes On Mafic And Ultramafic Substrates In South Africa, Arthurita Venter, Anatoliy Levanets, Stefan Siebert, Nishanta Rajakaruna Apr 2015

A Preliminary Survey Of The Diversity Of Soil Algae And Cyanoprokaryotes On Mafic And Ultramafic Substrates In South Africa, Arthurita Venter, Anatoliy Levanets, Stefan Siebert, Nishanta Rajakaruna

Biological Sciences

Despite a large body of work on the serpentine-substrate effect on vascular plants, little work has been undertaken to describe algal communities found on serpentine soils derived from peridotite and other ultramafic rocks. We report a preliminary study describing the occurrence of algae and cyanoprokaryotes on mafic and ultramafic substrates from South Africa. Results suggest that slope and aspect play a key role in species diversity and community composition and, although low pH, nutrients and metal content do not reduce species richness, these edaphic features also influence species composition. Further, typical soil genera such as Leptolyngbya, Microcoleus, Phormidium, Chlamydomonas, Chlorococcum ...


Calcium : Magnesium Ratio Affects Environmental Stress Sensitivity In The Serpentine-Endemic Alyssum Inflatum (Brassicaceae), Rasoul Ghasemi, Zohreh Zare Chavoshi, Robert S. Boyd, Nishanta Rajakaruna Apr 2015

Calcium : Magnesium Ratio Affects Environmental Stress Sensitivity In The Serpentine-Endemic Alyssum Inflatum (Brassicaceae), Rasoul Ghasemi, Zohreh Zare Chavoshi, Robert S. Boyd, Nishanta Rajakaruna

Biological Sciences

Plants endemic to serpentine soils are adapted to harsh environmental conditions typical of those soils, particularly, low (<1) calcium (Ca) : magnesium (Mg) ratios. We compared survival of two perennial Alyssum species native to Iran under experimental manipulations of Ca : Mg ratio, including when Ca : Mg ratio was varied under conditions of high ammonium concentration and heat stress. Alyssum inflatum is a serpentine endemic capable of nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulation, whereas A. lanceolatum is found on non-serpentine soils and is not known to hyperaccumulate Ni. We grew plants of both species under four Ca : Mg ratios (0.4, 2, 20, 40) and tested survival when plants were exposed to elevated ammonium levels (0, 1 ...


Growth And Nickel Uptake By Serpentine And Non-Serpentine Populations Of Fimbristylis Ovata (Cyperaceae) From Sri Lanka, P. K. D. Chathuranga, S. K. A. T. Dharmasena, Nishanta Rajakaruna, M.C.M. Iqbal Apr 2015

Growth And Nickel Uptake By Serpentine And Non-Serpentine Populations Of Fimbristylis Ovata (Cyperaceae) From Sri Lanka, P. K. D. Chathuranga, S. K. A. T. Dharmasena, Nishanta Rajakaruna, M.C.M. Iqbal

Biological Sciences

Compared with serpentine floras of Southeast Asia, the serpentine vegetation of Sri Lanka is impoverished in regard to serpentine endemics and nickel hyperaccumulators. All species so far documented from the serpentine outcrops of Sri Lanka also have non-serpentine populations; it is unclear whether the serpentine populations are physiologically distinct and deserve ecotypic recognition. We conducted a preliminary study to examine whether serpentine and non-serpentine populations of Fimbristylis ovata represent locally adapted ecotypes by investigating their growth and potential for nickel uptake and tolerance under greenhouse conditions. Although both populations of F. ovata showed a similar growth pattern in serpentine soil ...


Vegetation Dynamics And Mesophication In Response To Conifer Encroachment Within An Ultramafic System, J. Burgess, K. Szlavecz, N. Rajakaruna, S. Lev, C. Swan Apr 2015

Vegetation Dynamics And Mesophication In Response To Conifer Encroachment Within An Ultramafic System, J. Burgess, K. Szlavecz, N. Rajakaruna, S. Lev, C. Swan

Biological Sciences

The biological, ecological, and evolutionary significance of serpentine habitats has long been recognised. We used an integrated physiochemical dataset combining plot spatial data with temporal data from tree cores to evaluate changes in soils and vegetation. Data suggest that this unique habitat is undergoing a transition, endangering local biodiversity and endemic plant species. The objective of this work was to analyse the vegetation dynamics of a xeric serpentine savanna located in the Mid-Atlantic, USA. We employed vegetation surveys of 32 10 × 15 m quadrats to obtain woody species composition, density, basal area, and developed a spatial physiochemical dataset of substrate ...


A Preliminary Report On Escherichia Coli Strain Diversity In Cows, Alison T. Stivers Mar 2015

A Preliminary Report On Escherichia Coli Strain Diversity In Cows, Alison T. Stivers

Biological Sciences

Pyroprinting is a strain typing method that relies on the simultaneous pyrosequencing of the multi-copy rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer regions of E. coli (Black, et al., 2014). These pyroprints can be used to identify the source of E. coli in the environment. Currently, Cal Poly’s Center for Applications in Biotechnology (CAB) is augmenting the existing E. coli pyroprint library. By pyroprinting the intestinal E. coli of cows, we can quantify the strain diversity present, evaluate persistence, and determine the minimum sample size required for a complete overview of the cow intestinal E. coli population. These pyroprints can then be ...


Ecotypic Differentiation Of Mid-Atlantic Quercus Species In Response To Ultramafic Soils, Jerry Burgess, Katalin Szlavecz, Nishanta Rajakaruna, Christopher Swan Mar 2015

Ecotypic Differentiation Of Mid-Atlantic Quercus Species In Response To Ultramafic Soils, Jerry Burgess, Katalin Szlavecz, Nishanta Rajakaruna, Christopher Swan

Biological Sciences

Spatial heterogeneity of soil conditions combined with intraspecific variation confer site-specific edaphic tolerance, resulting in local adaptation and speciation. To understand the geoecological processes controlling community assembly of woodland tree species on serpentine and mafic soils, we investigated resource gradients and provenance (geographic area of propagule collection) as variables affecting typical representative upland oak (Quercus) species distribution. Accordingly, we conducted a year-long reciprocal transplant experiment in the greenhouse with serpentine and mafic soils, using seedlings of five oak species (Quercus marilandica, Q. stellata, Q. montana, Q. michauxii and Q. alba). All seedlings, regardless of provenance or soil depth, displayed more ...


Herbivory And The Resilience Of Caribbean Coral Reefs: Knowledge Gaps And Implications For Management, Thomas C. Adam, Deron E. Burkepile, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Michelle J. Paddack Feb 2015

Herbivory And The Resilience Of Caribbean Coral Reefs: Knowledge Gaps And Implications For Management, Thomas C. Adam, Deron E. Burkepile, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Michelle J. Paddack

Biological Sciences

Herbivory is a key process on coral reefs that can facilitate reef-building corals by excluding algae that otherwise negatively impact coral settlement, growth, and survivorship. Over the last several decades, coral cover on Caribbean reefs has declined precipitously. On many reefs, large structurally complex corals have been replaced by algae and other non-reef-building organisms, resulting in the collapse of physical structure and the loss of critical ecosystem services. The drivers of coral decline on Caribbean reefs are complex and vary among locations. On many reefs, populations of key herbivores have been greatly reduced by disease and overfishing, and this has ...


Immobilization And Phytotoxicity Reduction Of Heavy Metals In Serpentine Soil Using Biochar, I. Herath, P. Kumarathilaka, A. Navarantne, N. Rajakaruna, M. Vithanage Jan 2015

Immobilization And Phytotoxicity Reduction Of Heavy Metals In Serpentine Soil Using Biochar, I. Herath, P. Kumarathilaka, A. Navarantne, N. Rajakaruna, M. Vithanage

Biological Sciences

Purpose

Serpentine soils derived from ultramafic rocks release elevated concentrations of toxic heavy metals into the environment. Hence, crop plants cultivated in or adjacent to serpentine soil may experience reduced growth due to phytotoxicity as well as accumulate toxic heavy metals in edible tissues. We investigated the potential of biochar (BC), a waste byproduct of bioenergy industry in Sri Lanka, as a soil amendment to immobilize Ni, Cr, and Mn in serpentine soil and minimize their phytotoxicity.

Materials and methods

The BC used in this study was a waste byproduct obtained from a Dendro bioenergy industry in Sri Lanka. This ...


Protemic Identification Of Germline Proteins In Caenorhabditis Elegans, B Elizabeth Turner, Sophia M. Basecke, Grace E. Bazan, Eric S. Dodge, Cassy M. Haire, Dylan J. Heussman, Chelsey L. Johnson, Chelsea K. Mukai, Adrianna M. Naccarati, Sunny-June Norton, Jennifer R. Sato, Chihara O. Talavera, Michael V. Wade, Kenneth J. Hillers Jan 2015

Protemic Identification Of Germline Proteins In Caenorhabditis Elegans, B Elizabeth Turner, Sophia M. Basecke, Grace E. Bazan, Eric S. Dodge, Cassy M. Haire, Dylan J. Heussman, Chelsey L. Johnson, Chelsea K. Mukai, Adrianna M. Naccarati, Sunny-June Norton, Jennifer R. Sato, Chihara O. Talavera, Michael V. Wade, Kenneth J. Hillers

Biological Sciences

Sexual reproduction involves fusion of 2 haploid gametes to form diploid offspring with genetic contributions from both parents. Gamete formation represents a unique developmental program involving the action of numerous germline-specific proteins. In an attempt to identify novel proteins involved in reproduction and embryonic development, we have carried out a proteomic characterization of the process in Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify candidate proteins, we used 2D gel electrophoresis (2DGE) to compare protein abundance in nucleus-enriched extracts from wild-type C. elegans, and in extracts from mutant worms with greatly reduced gonads (glp-4(bn2) worms reared at 25°C); 84 proteins whose abundance ...