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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Intramuscular Tenderness Variation Within Four Muscles Of The Beef Chuck, G.A. Searls, R.J. Maddock, D.M. Wulf Dec 2005

Intramuscular Tenderness Variation Within Four Muscles Of The Beef Chuck, G.A. Searls, R.J. Maddock, D.M. Wulf

Animal Science Faculty Publications

The i.m. tenderness variation was examined within four beef chuck muscles, the infraspinatus (IF), supraspinatus (SS), triceps brachii (TB), and serratus ventralis (SV). The IF, SS, TB, and SV muscles were cut into 2.5 cm thick steaks perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle. An identification tag was placed on each steak, consisting of a muscle identification number, steak number, and orientation of the steak. Steaks were vacuum-packaged and stored at −22°C until subsequent analysis. Steaks were thawed at 1°C and cooked on electric broilers to an internal temperature of 71°C. One core was ...


Proliferative Enteropathy: A Global Enteric Disease Of Pigs Caused By Lawsonia Intracellularis, Jeremy J. Kroll, Michael B. Roof, Lorraine J. Hoffman, James S. Dickson, D.L. Hank Harris Dec 2005

Proliferative Enteropathy: A Global Enteric Disease Of Pigs Caused By Lawsonia Intracellularis, Jeremy J. Kroll, Michael B. Roof, Lorraine J. Hoffman, James S. Dickson, D.L. Hank Harris

Animal Science Publications

Proliferative enteropathy (PE; ileitis) is a common intestinal disease affecting susceptible pigs raised under various management systems around the world. Major developments in the understanding of PE and its causative agent, Lawsonia intracellularis, have occurred that have led to advances in the detection of this disease and methods to control and prevent it. Diagnostic tools that have improved overall detection and early onset of PE in pigs include various serological and molecular-based assays. Histological tests such as immunohistochemistry continue to be the gold standard in confirming Lawsonia-specific lesions in pigs post mortem. Despite extreme difficulties in isolating L. intracellularis ...


Determining The Optimum Beef Longissimus Muscle Size For Retail Consumers, K.K. Sweeter, D.M. Wulf, R.J. Maddock Nov 2005

Determining The Optimum Beef Longissimus Muscle Size For Retail Consumers, K.K. Sweeter, D.M. Wulf, R.J. Maddock

Animal Science Faculty Publications

Research was conducted in two phases to determine the optimum beef LM size for retail consumers. In Phase I, 50 USDA Choice beef carcass sides were selected at a commercial packing plant and assigned to five different categories (10 sides per category) based on LM size: 61 to 68 cm2 (A), 70 to 78 cm2 (B), 80 to 90 cm2 (C), 92 to 103 cm2 (D), and 105 to 119 cm2 (E). Ribeye rolls were retrieved from all carcass sides. Steaks (2.5-cm thick; 14 per ribeye roll) were cut as needed and transported in groups of 35 steaks (seven ...


Evaluating Consumer Acceptability And Willingness To Pay For Various Beef Chuck Muscles, A.C. Kukowski, R.J. Maddock, D.M. Wulf, G.L. Taylor Nov 2005

Evaluating Consumer Acceptability And Willingness To Pay For Various Beef Chuck Muscles, A.C. Kukowski, R.J. Maddock, D.M. Wulf, G.L. Taylor

Animal Science Faculty Publications

In-home consumer steak evaluations, followed by centralized laboratory-setting auctions, were used to determine consumer (n = 74 consumers) acceptability and willingness to pay for various beef chuck muscles. The infraspinatus (IF), serratus ventralis (SV), supraspinatus (SS), and triceps brachii (TB) from the beef chuck were evaluated against LM steaks from the rib to determine price and trait differentials. Muscles from USDA Choice, boneless, boxed-beef subprimals were aged 14 d, frozen, and cut into 2.5-cmthick steaks. Consumers received two steaks from each muscle for in-home evaluations of uncooked steak appearance and cooked steak palatability. After in-home evaluation of steaks, consumers participated ...


Environmental Prevalence And Persistence Of Salmonella Spp. In Outdoor Swine Wallows, Anna K. Johnson, T. R. Callaway, J. L. Morrow, J. W. Dailey, F. M. Wallace, E. A. Wagstrom, J. J. Mcglone, A. R. Lewis, S. E. Dowd, T. L. Poole, T. S. Edrington, R. C. Anderson, K. J. Genovese, J. A. Byrd, R. . Harvey, D. J. Nisbet Sep 2005

Environmental Prevalence And Persistence Of Salmonella Spp. In Outdoor Swine Wallows, Anna K. Johnson, T. R. Callaway, J. L. Morrow, J. W. Dailey, F. M. Wallace, E. A. Wagstrom, J. J. Mcglone, A. R. Lewis, S. E. Dowd, T. L. Poole, T. S. Edrington, R. C. Anderson, K. J. Genovese, J. A. Byrd, R. . Harvey, D. J. Nisbet

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Swine can harbor Salmonella in their gastrointestinal tracts. It has been estimated that up to 48% of the U.S. swine herd may carry Salmonella. Housing sows in farrowing stalls has become controversial due to animal welfare-based criticisms. An alternative production system is to keep sows outdoors on pasture with access to individual farrowing huts. This study was designed to determine the effects of two production systems on indicator bacteria and Salmonella of sows housed indoors in farrowing stalls (n = 52) compared to sows housed outdoors (n = 52) in English style huts. Each farrowing radial contained one wallow, from which ...


Effect Of Water Sprinkling On Incidence Of Zoonotic Pathogens In Feedlot Cattle, Anna K. Johnson, J. L. Morrow, F. M. Mitloehner, M. L. Galyean, J. W. Dailey, T. S. Edrington, R. C. Anderson, K. J. Genovese, T. L. Poole, S. E. Duke, T. R. Callaway Aug 2005

Effect Of Water Sprinkling On Incidence Of Zoonotic Pathogens In Feedlot Cattle, Anna K. Johnson, J. L. Morrow, F. M. Mitloehner, M. L. Galyean, J. W. Dailey, T. S. Edrington, R. C. Anderson, K. J. Genovese, T. L. Poole, S. E. Duke, T. R. Callaway

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Heat stress and dusty conditions are common challenges for cattle during the summer, and a typical method of alleviating these problems involves sprinkling cattle and pens with water. The effect of sprinkling water on the incidence of zoonotic pathogens has not been previously studied. Four pens of heifers (n = 41) were cooled using sprinklers, and four pens (n = 43) served as controls. Heifers were crossbred Charolais, with white and red hair coats. Sprinkling was initiated when cattle were on full concentrate feed (July). Fecal samples, hide swipes, and BW were collected on d 0, 28, 63, 95, and 98. Average ...


Hoop Barn Swine Production, Mark S. Honeyman Jun 2005

Hoop Barn Swine Production, Mark S. Honeyman

Leopold Center Publications and Papers

This fact sheet explains research results from the Hoop Group regarding an alternative method of swine production.


Effect Of Ph And Ionic Strength On Μ- And M-Calpain Inhibition By Calpastatin, K. R. Maddock, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, L. J. Rowe, Steven M. Lonergan Jun 2005

Effect Of Ph And Ionic Strength On Μ- And M-Calpain Inhibition By Calpastatin, K. R. Maddock, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, L. J. Rowe, Steven M. Lonergan

Animal Science Publications

The objectives of this study were to determine the extent to which pH and ionic strength influence μ- and m-calpain activity and the inhibition of calpains by calpastatin. Calpastatin, μ-calpain, and m-calpain were purified from at-death porcine semimembranosus. μ-Calpain or m-calpain (0.45 U) were incubated with the calpain substrate Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-7-amino-4-methyl coumarin in the presence of calpastatin (0, 0.15, or 0.30 U of calpain inhibitory activity) under the following pH and ionic strength conditions: pH 7.5 and 165 mM NaCl or 295 mM NaCl; pH 6.5 and 165 mM NaCl or 295 m ...


Comparative Effects Of The Sorghum Bmr-6 And Bmr-12 Genes: Ii. Grain Yield, Stover Yield, And Stover Quality In Grain Sorghum, A. L. Oliver, J. F. Jenkins, R. J. Grant, T. J. Klopfenstein, H. D. Jose Jan 2005

Comparative Effects Of The Sorghum Bmr-6 And Bmr-12 Genes: Ii. Grain Yield, Stover Yield, And Stover Quality In Grain Sorghum, A. L. Oliver, J. F. Jenkins, R. J. Grant, T. J. Klopfenstein, H. D. Jose

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Nearly 3 million hectares of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L). Moench] are harvested in the USA each year. It may be possible to add value to crop and animal systems by enhancing the digestibility of the stover residue by the use of brown midrib (bmr) genes if grain can be maintained. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of bmr-6 and bmr-12 genes on grain yield of sorghum and to evaluate the effect of the bmr genes on stover yield and quality in these genetic backgrounds: ‘Wheatland’, ‘Redlan’, RTx430, Tx623, Tx630, Tx631, and the hybrid ...


Unexpected Estimates Of Variance Components With A True Model Containing Genetic Competition Effects, L. D. Van Vleck, J. P. Morota Jan 2005

Unexpected Estimates Of Variance Components With A True Model Containing Genetic Competition Effects, L. D. Van Vleck, J. P. Morota

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Simulation of a model containing genetic competition effects was initiated to determine how well REML could untangle variances due to direct and competition genetic effects and pen effects. A two-generation data set was generated with six unrelated males that were each mated to five unrelated females to produce 300 progeny, from which 30 females (one per mating in previous generation) were mated to six unrelated males to produce 300 more progeny. Progeny were randomly assigned, six per pen, to 50 pens per generation. Parameters were Vg, Vc, Cgc, Vp, and Ve, representing direct and competition ...


Prediction Of The Tenderness Of Cooked Poultry Pectoralis Major Muscles By Near-Infrared Reflectance Analysis Of Raw Meat, Bradley R. Cheatham Jan 2005

Prediction Of The Tenderness Of Cooked Poultry Pectoralis Major Muscles By Near-Infrared Reflectance Analysis Of Raw Meat, Bradley R. Cheatham

Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal

Tenderness in boneless poultry breast meat is of utmost importance to consumers. However, there is currently no nondestructive method to predict poultry breast meat tenderness. Textural properties of poultry breast meat were predicted by near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy. Spectra were collected on 390 poultry Pectoralis major muscles from broiler carcasses to examine the correlation between NIR spectroscopy and the Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear (MORS) test. Two instrumental parameters (maximum shear force and total shear energy) were used as estimates of meat tenderness. Calibration (R2 cal) and validation (r2 val) coefficients of determination were used for predicting instrumental measurements using the reflectance ...


Irradiation Processing Of Ready-To-Eat Meats, Wigberto Núñez Maisonet Jan 2005

Irradiation Processing Of Ready-To-Eat Meats, Wigberto Núñez Maisonet

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Commercially available ham and pork frankfurters were irradiated at 1.6 kGy and evaluated for color, lipid oxidation, odor, flavor and the production of volatiles over 8 weeks of storage. Corned beef, roast beef, beef frankfurters, chicken roll, chicken frankfurters, turkey roll, cured turkey roll and turkey frankfurters were manufactured at the Iowa State Meat Laboratory and irradiated at 1.6 kGy. These products were evaluated for color, odor, flavor, and volatile compounds. Hams were manufactured at the Iowa State Meat Laboratory to achieve three different pHs in the finished products. The hams were treated with 0.0 kGy, 1 ...


Genetic Improvement Of Meat Quality And Fertility Using The National Nucleus, M. Todd See, Ron Bates, Alan Schinckel, Tom Baas, Ken Stalder, Rick Pfortmiller Jan 2005

Genetic Improvement Of Meat Quality And Fertility Using The National Nucleus, M. Todd See, Ron Bates, Alan Schinckel, Tom Baas, Ken Stalder, Rick Pfortmiller

Animal Science Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Knowledge is power and the National Swine Registry (NSR) is the only source of complete, publicly available, genetic records on nucleus populations. NSR has offered STAGES"', a BLUP genetic improvement program with bio-economic indexes for over 17 years. NSR members submit information on 3 sow productivity traits and 3 postweaning performance traits and in return receive across-herd Expected Progeny Deviations (EPDs) for these traits along with indexes for Sow Productivity, Maternal Line (sow productivity and postweaning performance) and Terminal (postweaning traits only) to be used in genetic selection. Not only is this genetic information available to members but genetic values ...