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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Examining Mediators To Physical Activity As A Link To Interventional Efforts Aimed At Increasing Activity Levels And Improving Physical Functioning In Older Adults, Christopher Dondzila Aug 2013

Examining Mediators To Physical Activity As A Link To Interventional Efforts Aimed At Increasing Activity Levels And Improving Physical Functioning In Older Adults, Christopher Dondzila

Theses and Dissertations

The number of older adults living in the United States is growing at an increasingly rapid rate, and is host to a high prevalence of chronic diseases and physical impairments. Physical activity and exercise have been shown to be beneficial in impacting such conditions, yet the majority of older adults remain inactive. The purpose of this dissertation was to employ a sequence of studies to investigate mediators to physical activity, leading to an intervention to increase activity and promote health.

The purpose of Project VOICE was to examine whether awareness and utilization of community resources to promote physical activity and ...


Gait Variablility Is Altered In Older Adults When Listening To Auditory Stimuli With Differing Temporal Structures, Jeffrey P. Kaipust, Denise Mcgrath, Mukul Mukherjee, Nicholas Stergiou Aug 2013

Gait Variablility Is Altered In Older Adults When Listening To Auditory Stimuli With Differing Temporal Structures, Jeffrey P. Kaipust, Denise Mcgrath, Mukul Mukherjee, Nicholas Stergiou

Journal Articles

Gait variability in the context of a deterministic dynamical system may be quantified using nonlinear time series analyses that characterize the complexity of the system. Pathological gait exhibits altered gait variability. It can be either too periodic and predictable, or too random and disordered, as it is the case with aging. While gait therapies often focus on restoration of linear measures such as gait speed or stride length, we propose that the goal of gait therapy should be to restore optimal gait variability, which exhibits chaotic fluctuations and is the balance between predictability and complexity. In this context, our purpose ...


Measuring Activity Energy Expenditure: Accuracy Of The Gt3x+ And Actiheart Monitors, David Mcminn, Rijan Acharya, David A. Rowe, Stuart R. Gray, Julia L. Allan Jul 2013

Measuring Activity Energy Expenditure: Accuracy Of The Gt3x+ And Actiheart Monitors, David Mcminn, Rijan Acharya, David A. Rowe, Stuart R. Gray, Julia L. Allan

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 6(3) : 217-229, 2013. The purpose was to determine the accuracy of the GT3X+ and Actiheart monitors for estimating energy expenditure (EE) and steps. Additionally, to investigate agreement between waist- and wrist-mounted GT3X+ EE outputs. Nineteen participants (mean age=30) completed three treadmill walking trials at self-selected slow, medium, and fast speeds while wearing two GT3X+ (waist and wrist) and an Actiheart. Activity monitor EE was compared to indirect calorimetry criterion EE using Pearson correlations and ANOVAs. A Bland-Altman plot was used to investigate agreement between GT3X+ waist- and wrist-determined EE. GT3X+ determined steps were ...


Executive Function Orchestrates Regulation Of Task-Relevant Gait Fluctuations, Leslie M. Decker, Fabien Cignetti, Nicholas Stergiou Jul 2013

Executive Function Orchestrates Regulation Of Task-Relevant Gait Fluctuations, Leslie M. Decker, Fabien Cignetti, Nicholas Stergiou

Journal Articles

Humans apply a minimum intervention principle to regulate treadmill walking, rapidly correcting fluctuations in the task-relevant variable (step speed: SS) while ignoring fluctuations in the task-irrelevant variables (step time: ST; step length: SL). We examined whether the regulation of fluctuations in SS and not in ST and SL depends on high-level, executive function, processes. Young adults walked on a treadmill without a cognitive requirement and while performing the cognitive task of dichotic listening. SS fluctuations became less anti-persistent when performing dichotic listening, meaning that taxing executive function impaired the ability to rapidly correct speed deviations on subsequent steps. Conversely, performing ...


Biomechanical Comparison Of A Rounded Outsole Shoe And Traditional Outsole Shoe, Sarah Horsch May 2013

Biomechanical Comparison Of A Rounded Outsole Shoe And Traditional Outsole Shoe, Sarah Horsch

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of shoe outsole design on maximum vertical acceleration and select kinematic parameters during level and uphill walking across phases of stance. Twelve participants, 7 males (75.1±9.3 kg, 173.6±3.6 cm, 22.9±3.5 yrs) and 5 females (56.5±5.1 kg, 158.3±4.5 cm, 25.4±11.1 yrs) granted written consent and preferred walking speed was determined. An accelerometer (480 Hz) was attached to the distal leg to measure maximum leg acceleration (Aleg) and an electrogoniometer (480 Hz) was placed ...


Kinematic Effects Of Stride Length Perturbations On System Com Horizontal Velocity During Locomotion, Josh Bailey, Andrew Nordin, Janet Dufek, D. Lee Apr 2013

Kinematic Effects Of Stride Length Perturbations On System Com Horizontal Velocity During Locomotion, Josh Bailey, Andrew Nordin, Janet Dufek, D. Lee

Interdisciplinary Research Scholarship Day

PURPOSE: To investigate the kinematic effect on the systems’ center of mass horizontal velocity in response to stride length perturbations. METHODS: Twelve healthy adults (23.1±7.71 yrs; 1.69±0.1 m; 66.82±12.6 kg; leg length 894.7±66.1 mm) performed 5 trials of preferred speed walking (PW) and running (PR)followed by 5 stride length perturbations based on percentages of leg length (60%, 80%, 100%, 120% and 140%). 3D kinematic analysis was completed using a 12-camera infrared motion capture system (Vicon, 200hz). Dependent variables computer for each condition included: center of mass horizontal ...


Step Length Perturbations Alter Variations In Center Of Mass Horizontal Velocity, Josh Bailey, Andrew Nordin, D. Lee, Janet Dufek Apr 2013

Step Length Perturbations Alter Variations In Center Of Mass Horizontal Velocity, Josh Bailey, Andrew Nordin, D. Lee, Janet Dufek

Interdisciplinary Research Scholarship Day

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of SL perturbations on system COM forward velocity (vx) during walking gait. METHODS: Eight healthy adults (23.5±3.6 yrs; 1.72±0.18 m; 73.11±15.29 kg) performed 5 trials of preferred speed walking (PW) and running (PR) followed by 5 stride length perturbations based on percentages of leg length (LL: 60%, 80%, 100%, 120% and 140%). 3D kinematic analysis was completed using a 12-camera infrared motion capture system (Vicon MX T40-S, 200Hz). Data filtering and interpolation included a low pass, 4th order Butterworth filter ...


Effects Of Shoe Outsole Design And Incline On Walking Biomechanics, Sarah Horsch, Janet Dufek Apr 2013

Effects Of Shoe Outsole Design And Incline On Walking Biomechanics, Sarah Horsch, Janet Dufek

Interdisciplinary Research Scholarship Day

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of incline at foot contact of treadmill walking between rounded outsole (ROS) and traditional outsole (TOS) shoes. A rounded outsole shoe (ROS) is specifically designed with a fulcrum under the sole so that when the mass of the body is over it, the foot is forced to roll anteriorly. Traditional ROS studies have included analyses on bipedal stance single leg standing, muscle
activity during treadmill walking, kinetics during over ground walking, and kinematics after a 6-week accommodation period. Presently, there is no research comparing a ROS and a TOS at ...


Loading Of The Lower Extremity And Low Back When Using Wedge Orthotics During Walking And Stair Negotiation, Tami Janssen Jan 2013

Loading Of The Lower Extremity And Low Back When Using Wedge Orthotics During Walking And Stair Negotiation, Tami Janssen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Wedge orthotics are commonly prescribed for patients with hyperpronation and/or low back pain to improve lower limb alignment and to reduce pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinetic effects of medial and lateral wedge orthotics during walking and stair negotiation. Twenty-two healthy young adults participated in the study. Each participant wore no wedge (W0) as a baseline and lateral and medial wedge orthotics at 3 degrees and 7 degrees bilaterally (L3, L7, M3, M7) during walking, stair ascent, and stair descent. Ankle, knee, and hip joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamics during the ...