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Kinesiology

Walking

Doctoral Dissertations

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Knoxville Moves: Log-In And Get Mobile, Courtney Marie Monroe Dec 2014

Knoxville Moves: Log-In And Get Mobile, Courtney Marie Monroe

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation evaluated 1) the efficacy of a course-based Internet-technology intervention rooted in social cognitive theory (SCT) for increasing step counts in university faculty and staff, and 2) the effect of online social support tools on step counts among adults using a randomized control trial.

Thirty-six sedentary/insufficiently active university faculty and staff participated in an eight-week, Internet-delivered walking intervention. They received an Omron HJ-720ITC pedometer, personal step goals, and access to a Blackboard LearnTM website comprised of SCTbased features. Outcomes included daily steps, social support, self-regulation, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations. Participants significantly increased their average daily steps (p < 0.001) between baseline and week 1 by 1800. A similar increase in daily steps was observed between baseline and all other intervention weeks (p < 0.001). Social support and self-regulation significantly improved (p < 0.001). These findings helped inform the design of the second study.

In ...


Can America’S Top Sedentary Activity Be Made More Active?: Physical Activity And Leisure-Time Study (Pals), Jeremy Adam Steeves May 2011

Can America’S Top Sedentary Activity Be Made More Active?: Physical Activity And Leisure-Time Study (Pals), Jeremy Adam Steeves

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation investigated 1) the energy expenditure of stepping in place during TV commercials (commercial stepping), 2) determined the best objective tool to measure commercial stepping, 3) and assessed the efficacy of commercial stepping to increase the activity levels of sedentary, overweight adults.
First, twenty-three adults (normal to obese) had their energy expenditure measured while at rest, sitting, standing, stepping in place and walking at 3.0 mph on the treadmill, followed by one hour each of sedentary TV viewing and commercial stepping in the laboratory. Stepping in place, walking at 3.0 mph, and commercial stepping, had a higher ...


Biomechanical Risk Factors For Knee Osteoarthritis In Young Adults: The Influence Of Obesity And Gait Instruction, Julia Ann Freedman Dec 2010

Biomechanical Risk Factors For Knee Osteoarthritis In Young Adults: The Influence Of Obesity And Gait Instruction, Julia Ann Freedman

Doctoral Dissertations

With increasing rates of obesity, research has begun to focus of co-morbidities of obesity such as osteoarthritis. The majority of existing research has focused on older adults as the group most likely to suffer from osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to determine if overweight and obese young adults exhibit biomechanical risk factors for knee osteoarthritis, and to determine if young adults with biomechanical risk factors of osteoarthritis can modify these with instruction. This purpose was divided into two separate studies.

Study 1: Thirty adults between 18-35 years old were recruited into three groups according to body mass index ...


A Comparison Of Commonly Used Accelerometer Based Activity Monitors In Controlled And Free-Living Environment, Yuri Feito Dec 2010

A Comparison Of Commonly Used Accelerometer Based Activity Monitors In Controlled And Free-Living Environment, Yuri Feito

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation was designed to determine the effects of body mass index (BMI) and walking speed on activity monitor outputs. A secondary purpose was to compare the activity monitors’ performance in a free-living environment. In the first experiment, 71 participants wore three waist-mounted activity monitors (Actical, ActiGraph, and NL-2000) and an ankle-mounted device (StepWatch 3) while walking on a treadmill (40, 67 and 94 m/min). The tilt angle of each device was measured. The Actical recorded 26% higher activity counts (P < 0.01) in obese persons with a tilt <10 degrees, compared to normal weight persons. The ActiGraph was unaffected by BMI or tilt angle. In the second experiment, the steps recorded by the devices were compared to actual steps. Speed had the greatest influence on the accuracy these devices. At 40 m/min, the ActiGraph was the least accurate device for normal weight (38%), overweight (46%) and obese (48%) individuals. The Actical, NL-2000 and StepWatch averaged 65%, 73% and 99% of steps taken, respectively. Lastly, several generations of the ActiGraph (7164, GT1M, and GT3X), and other research grade activity monitors (Actical; ActivPAL; and Digi-Walker) were compared to a criterion measure of steps. Fifty-six participants performed treadmill walking (40, 54, 67, 80 and 94 m/min) and wore the devices for 24-hours under free-living conditions. BMI did not affect step count accuracy during treadmill walking. The StepWatch, PAL, and the AG7164 were the most accurate across all speeds; the other devices were only accurate at the faster speeds. In the free-living environment, all devices recorded about 75% of StepWatch-determined steps, except the AG7164 (99%). Based on these findings, we conclude that BMI does not affect the output of these activity monitors. However, waist-borne activity monitors are highly susceptible to under-counting steps at walking speeds below 67 m/min, or stepping rates below 100 steps/min. An activity monitor worn on the ankle is less susceptible to these speed effects and provides the greatest accuracy for step counting.