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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Linking Gait Dynamics To Mechanical Cost Of Legged Locomotion, David V. Lee, Sarah L. Harris Oct 2018

Linking Gait Dynamics To Mechanical Cost Of Legged Locomotion, David V. Lee, Sarah L. Harris

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

For millenia, legged locomotion has been of central importance to humans for hunting, agriculture, transportation, sport, and warfare. Today, the same principal considerations of locomotor performance and economy apply to legged systems designed to serve, assist, or be worn by humans in urban and natural environments. Energy comes at a premium not only for animals, wherein suitably fast and economical gaits are selected through organic evolution, but also for legged robots that must carry sufficient energy in their batteries. Although a robot's energy is spent at many levels, from control systems to actuators, we suggest that the mechanical cost ...


The Effects Of An Acute Bout Of Exercise On Hunger Hormones In Individuals At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes, Sydney Spoon May 2017

The Effects Of An Acute Bout Of Exercise On Hunger Hormones In Individuals At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes, Sydney Spoon

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Background: Hunger hormone levels are typically dysregulated in obese and diabetic

populations, however; postprandial exercise has been shown to influence hunger hormone levels. Purpose: To determine if hunger hormones including acylated ghrelin and GLP-1 levels are altered in response to an acute bout (15 minutes) of walking in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: Ten subjects at risk for prediabetes (fasting blood glucose 100–125mg/dL) participated in this randomized crossover design trial. Subjects arrived at the laboratory following an overnight fast and underwent one of two conditions: 1) Test meal with no walking (CON) or ...


A Comparative Evaluation Of Gait Between Children With Autism And Typically Developing Matched Controls, Janet S. Dufek, Jeffrey D. Eggleston, John R. Harry, Robbin Hickman Jan 2017

A Comparative Evaluation Of Gait Between Children With Autism And Typically Developing Matched Controls, Janet S. Dufek, Jeffrey D. Eggleston, John R. Harry, Robbin Hickman

Integrated Health Sciences Faculty Publications

Anecdotal reports suggest children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ambulate differently than peers with typical development (TD). Little empirical evidence supports these reports. Children with ASD exhibit delayed motor skills, and it is important to determine whether or not motor movement deficits exist during walking. The purpose of the study was to perform a comprehensive lower-extremity gait analysis between children (aged 5–12 years) with ASD and age- and gender-matched-samples with TD. Gait parameters were normalized to 101 data points and the gait cycle was divided into seven sub-phases. The Model Statistic procedure was used to test for statistical significance ...


Comparing Functional Motor Control And Gait Parameters In Children With Autism To Those Of Age-Matched Peers Who Are Typically Developing, Patricia Stevenson, Samantha Novotny, Jillian May, Christopher Ancell May 2015

Comparing Functional Motor Control And Gait Parameters In Children With Autism To Those Of Age-Matched Peers Who Are Typically Developing, Patricia Stevenson, Samantha Novotny, Jillian May, Christopher Ancell

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to compare motor performance of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to that of age-matched peers who are typically developing (TD) on motor control tasks plus symmetry and variability of gait parameters across four walking conditions. A sample of convenience of children with ASD (n=6) and peers who are TD (n=6) were recruited. Motor control was assessed using initiation and completion times on the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Gait parameters were collected using a computerized walkway under four trial conditions: 1) walking at self-selected velocity (SSV); 2) walking during a ...


A Comparative Evaluation Of The Effects Of Incline On Kinematics And Muscle Function During Backward Walking, Daniel Brent Jensen Aug 2014

A Comparative Evaluation Of The Effects Of Incline On Kinematics And Muscle Function During Backward Walking, Daniel Brent Jensen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to investigate lower extremity kinematics and muscle activation patterns in inclined backward walking (IBW) versus traditional backward walking (BW). This purpose was achieved by evaluating performance of individuals walking backward on a treadmill at inclines of 0%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12%. Eleven participants (24.9 ± 4.8 yrs, 71.9 ± 11.6 kg, 1.7 ± 0.09m) recruited from the UNLV student body went through a familiarization training program before any data were collected. The familiarization training, which took place across 3 different days, served to: 1) help the participants become comfortable and ...


Biomechanical Analysis Of Gait Kinetics Resulting From Use Of A Vacuum Socket On A Transtibial Prosthesis, Maria De Lourdes Ramos Gonzalez May 2014

Biomechanical Analysis Of Gait Kinetics Resulting From Use Of A Vacuum Socket On A Transtibial Prosthesis, Maria De Lourdes Ramos Gonzalez

Honors College Theses

The technology and design of lower limb prosthetics have evolved greatly since their introduction. The current study proposed to compare the effects of a conventional pin socket attachment and a vacuum socket attachment for a transtibial amputee. Whereas traditional measurements of gait utilize force plates and camera systems, this study made use of a small tri-axial load cell located at the base of the socket to measure the forces and moments exerted during a regular gait cycle. The hypothesis tested stated that a vacuum pump socket attachment, when compared to a non-vacuum (pin) socket, will have a significant effect on ...


Biomechanical Comparison Of A Rounded Outsole Shoe And Traditional Outsole Shoe, Sarah Horsch May 2013

Biomechanical Comparison Of A Rounded Outsole Shoe And Traditional Outsole Shoe, Sarah Horsch

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of shoe outsole design on maximum vertical acceleration and select kinematic parameters during level and uphill walking across phases of stance. Twelve participants, 7 males (75.1±9.3 kg, 173.6±3.6 cm, 22.9±3.5 yrs) and 5 females (56.5±5.1 kg, 158.3±4.5 cm, 25.4±11.1 yrs) granted written consent and preferred walking speed was determined. An accelerometer (480 Hz) was attached to the distal leg to measure maximum leg acceleration (Aleg) and an electrogoniometer (480 Hz) was placed ...


Kinematic Effects Of Stride Length Perturbations On System Com Horizontal Velocity During Locomotion, Josh Bailey, Andrew Nordin, Janet Dufek, D. Lee Apr 2013

Kinematic Effects Of Stride Length Perturbations On System Com Horizontal Velocity During Locomotion, Josh Bailey, Andrew Nordin, Janet Dufek, D. Lee

Interdisciplinary Research Scholarship Day

PURPOSE: To investigate the kinematic effect on the systems’ center of mass horizontal velocity in response to stride length perturbations. METHODS: Twelve healthy adults (23.1±7.71 yrs; 1.69±0.1 m; 66.82±12.6 kg; leg length 894.7±66.1 mm) performed 5 trials of preferred speed walking (PW) and running (PR)followed by 5 stride length perturbations based on percentages of leg length (60%, 80%, 100%, 120% and 140%). 3D kinematic analysis was completed using a 12-camera infrared motion capture system (Vicon, 200hz). Dependent variables computer for each condition included: center of mass horizontal ...


Step Length Perturbations Alter Variations In Center Of Mass Horizontal Velocity, Josh Bailey, Andrew Nordin, D. Lee, Janet Dufek Apr 2013

Step Length Perturbations Alter Variations In Center Of Mass Horizontal Velocity, Josh Bailey, Andrew Nordin, D. Lee, Janet Dufek

Interdisciplinary Research Scholarship Day

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of SL perturbations on system COM forward velocity (vx) during walking gait. METHODS: Eight healthy adults (23.5±3.6 yrs; 1.72±0.18 m; 73.11±15.29 kg) performed 5 trials of preferred speed walking (PW) and running (PR) followed by 5 stride length perturbations based on percentages of leg length (LL: 60%, 80%, 100%, 120% and 140%). 3D kinematic analysis was completed using a 12-camera infrared motion capture system (Vicon MX T40-S, 200Hz). Data filtering and interpolation included a low pass, 4th order Butterworth filter ...


Effects Of Shoe Outsole Design And Incline On Walking Biomechanics, Sarah Horsch, Janet Dufek Apr 2013

Effects Of Shoe Outsole Design And Incline On Walking Biomechanics, Sarah Horsch, Janet Dufek

Interdisciplinary Research Scholarship Day

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of incline at foot contact of treadmill walking between rounded outsole (ROS) and traditional outsole (TOS) shoes. A rounded outsole shoe (ROS) is specifically designed with a fulcrum under the sole so that when the mass of the body is over it, the foot is forced to roll anteriorly. Traditional ROS studies have included analyses on bipedal stance single leg standing, muscle
activity during treadmill walking, kinetics during over ground walking, and kinematics after a 6-week accommodation period. Presently, there is no research comparing a ROS and a TOS at ...


School Program Planning To Increase Active Transport To School, Brenda Aguilar Jan 2012

School Program Planning To Increase Active Transport To School, Brenda Aguilar

McNair Poster Presentations

Studies have shown that active transport is known to increase physical activity of children, decrease traffic congestion and the production of greenhouse gasses. This study examines active transport to school (ATS) [walking, biking, or other self-powered wheels to school] among elementary students. Through the Nevada Moves Day program an increase proportion of elementary students who use ATS was expected.

This study was done at two elementary schools, one being the intervention school that participated in the Nevada Moves Day, and a control school, which did not participate. Data was collected over a three week period. Students using active transport and ...


Public Posting As A Strategy To Increase Walking: A Worksite Intervention, Rayleen Earney, Timothy J. Bungum Jan 2004

Public Posting As A Strategy To Increase Walking: A Worksite Intervention, Rayleen Earney, Timothy J. Bungum

Environmental & Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Because most American adults do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines, the need for new and innovative strategies is apparent. The current study employed public posting in an attempt to increase walking behavior in a worksite setting. Pedometer generated data was publicly posted in a prominent location in the worksite. In our study that utilized a pre-experimental design, we found that walking steps were statistically higher during the intervention and in a post intervention period as compared to the baseline data. We conclude that the public posting of physical activity data has the potential to increase walking behavior.